Editorial Reviews. Review. ''Intuitive Eating has been painlessly reshaping the eating habits of First published in , Intuitive Eating has become the go-to book on rebuilding a healthy body image and making peace with food. We've all . support an Intuitive Eating approach in favor of restrictive eating . Hunger% 20Satiety%caite.info . Dallas,Texas: Bendella Books,. 3. Tribole E and Resch E. Intuitive Eating, 2nd ed. (, ), NY:NY. Throw out the diet books and magazine articles that offer you false hope of losing weight .
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Intuitive Eating is about becoming more attuned to your body's natural hunger and selling book, The 7 Habits of Highly Effective. People, is “a model or frame . Intuitive Eating, 3rd Edition - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read First published in , Intuitive Eating has become the go-to book on. Note: If you purchased this book without a cover, you should be aware that this It's hard for us to believe that it has been eight years since Intuitive Eating was.
At one extreme, the Careful Eater may anguish over each morsel of food allowed into the body. How can you honor fullness if you are not completely sure it's okay to eat a particular food, or if you fear it won't be there tomorrow? Or because women are usually the target of health messages and food ads consider the number of women's magazines. It's like zoning out with food. Each had tried either formal or informal dieting and had felt failure and despair.
And there always seems to be a dieting offer you cant refuse. Theres a good reason for this perception. A study published in in Eating DisordersThe Journal of Treatment and Prevention found that between and , commercials for dieting aids diet food, reducing aids, and diet program foods increased nearly linearly. The researchers also noted that there is a parallel trend in the occurrence of eating disorders. They speculate that the media pressure to diet via commercials is a major influence in the eating disorder trend.
The pressure to diet is fueled beyond television commercials. Magazine articles and movies contribute to the pressure to be slim. Even subtle cigarette billboards aim for the female Achilles heelweightwith names such as Ultra Slim , Virginia Slims, and so on.
A Kent cigarette, Slim Lights, especially characterizes this tug on womens body issues. Their ad reads more like a commercial for a weight loss center than for a cigarette, by highlighting slender descriptions: Of course the models in cigarette ads are especially slender. It is no surprise that the. Total number of diet product commercials and total number of diet food commercials as a percent of total commercials, Reprinted with permission from: Wiseman, Claire et al.
Increasing pressure to be thin: Eating Disorders: Center for Disease Control CDC attributed an increase in smoking by women to their desire to be thinner. Sadly, we have heard women contemplate in our offices that they too have considered taking up smoking again as a weight loss aid. But weight loss is not just a womens issue although clearly theres added pressure on women. The proliferation of light-beer commercials has planted the seed of body consciousness in mens minds, as wella lean belly is better than a beer belly.
Its no coincidence weve seen the launch of magazines aimed at men, such as Mens Fitness and Mens Health. While the pursuit of leanness has crossed over the gender barrier, sadly,.
A disturbing new dieting trend is affecting the health of U. Shocking studies have demonstrated that school-age children are obsessing about their weighta reflection of a nation obsessed with diet and weight.
Around the country, children as young as six years old are shedding pounds, afraid of being fat, and are increasingly being treated for eating disorders that threaten their health and growth. Societal pressure to be thin has backfired on children. Dieting not only does not work, it is at the root of many problems. While many may diet as an attempt to lose weight or for health reasons, the paradox is that it may cause more harm.
Heres what our nation has to show for dieting: Obesity is higher than ever in adults and children. Eating disorders are on the rise. Childhood obesity has doubled over the last decade. Even though there are more fat-free and diet foods than ever before, nearly two-thirds of adults are overweight or obese. Over twelve hundred tons of fat have been liposuctioned from to A recent study showed that only one year after having a liposuction procedure the fat returned, but to a different part of the body.
Dieting increases your chance of gaining even more weight than you lost! Dieting is a form of short-term starvation. Consequently, when you are given the first opportunity to really eat, eating is often experienced at such intensity that it feels uncontrollable, a desperate act.
In the moment of biological hunger, all intentions to diet and the desire to be thin are fleeting and paradoxically irrelevant. In those moments, we become like the insatiable man-eating plant in the movie Little Shop of Horrors, demanding to eat Feed me, feed me.
While intense eating may feel out of control, and unnatural, it is a normal response to starving and dieting. Yet so often, post-diet eating is viewed as. But when you interpret postdiet eating as such, it slowly erodes trust in yourself with food, diet after diet. Every diet violation, every eating situation that feels out of control lays the foundation for the diet mentality, brick by brick and diet by diet.
The seemingly brave solutiontry harder next timebecomes as bewildering as the Chinese finger puzzle. You cant fight biology. When the body is starving, it needs to be nourished. Yet so often a dieter laments, If only I had the willpower. Clearly, this is not an issue of willpower. Although glowing testimonials from weight loss clinics foster this misplaced blame on willpower. When underfed, you will obsess about foodwhether from a self-imposed diet or starvation.
Maybe you dont diet but eat vigilantly in the name of health and fitness. This seems to be the politically correct term for dieting in the nineties. But for many, its the same food issuewith the same symptoms. Avoiding fat or carbohydrates, at all costs, and subsisting virtually on fat-free or carbohydrate-free foods is essentially dieting, and often results in being underfed.
There are many forms of dieting and many types of dieters. We will explore your dieting personality and meet the Intuitive Eater in the next chapter.
If dieting programs had to stand up to the same scrutiny as medications, they would never be allowed for public consumption. Imagine, for example, taking an asthma medication, which improves your breathing for a few weeks, but in the long run, causes your lungs and breathing to worsen.
Would you really embark on a diet even a so- called sensible diet , if you knew that it could cause you to gain more weight? Here are some sobering studies indicating that dieting promotes weight gain: A team of UCLA researchers reviewed thirty- one long-term studies on dieting and concluded that dieting is a consistent predictor of weight gainup to two-thirds of the people regained more weight than they lost Mann, et al, Research on nearly seventeen thousand kids ages nine to fourteen years old concluded,.
Teenage dieters had twice the risk of becoming overweight, compared to non- dieting teens, according to a ve-year study Neumark- Sztainer et al.
Notably, at baseline, the dieters did not weigh more than their non- dieting peers. This is an important detail, because if the dieters weighed more it would be a confounding factor which would implicate other factors, rather than dieting, such as genetics.
A novel study on over 2, sets of twins from Finland, aged 16 to 25 years old showed that dieting itself, independent of genetics, is signicantly associated with accelerated weight gain and increased risk of becoming overweight Pietilaineet et al. Dieting twins, who embarked on just one intentional weight loss episode, were nearly two to three times more likely to become overweight, compared to their non- dieting twin counterpart.
Furthermore, the risk of becoming overweight increased in a dose- dependent manner, with each dieting episode. Studies asidewhat have your own dieting experiences shown you? Many of our patients and workshop participants say their rst diet was easythe pounds just melted off.
But that rst dieting experience is the seduction trap, which launches the futile pursuit of weight loss via dieting. We say futile because our bodies are very smart and wired for survival. Biologically, your body experiences the dieting process as a form of starvation.
Your cells dont know you are voluntarily restricting your food intake. Your body shifts into primal survival modemetabolism slows down and food cravings escalate. And with each diet, the body learns and adapts, resulting in rebound weight gain. Consequently, many of our patients feel like they are a failurebut it is dieting that has failed them. First published in , Intuitive Eating has become the go-to book on rebuilding a healthy body image and making peace with food.
Written by two prominent nutritionists, Intuitive Eating will teach you: This revised edition includes updates and expansions throughout, as well as two brand new chapters that will help readers integrate intuitive eating even more fully into their daily lives. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Intuitive Eating in the Treatment of Disordered Eating. Jump to Page. Search inside document. In the writing of this book, we have changed the names and occupations of all of our personal clients so that their true identities will not, in any way, be revealed, in order to maintain their anonymity.
Byu Wsr. Simon and Schuster. Raghu Kishore. Sonja Nikolovska. Ali Dryja. Crown Publishing Group. Ifalase Fagbenro. Molly Gum. Francisco Burgos. Popular in Eating Behaviors. Sneha Sawant. Marisa Miranda. Adhwa' Afiqah. Fahad Hussain. Julio Alvarez S. Jacob Acton. We have also received thanks from those who have used the book as a springboard for their own personal healing and have easily succeeded in the process on their own.
We have been asked to refer people to nutrition therapists in other locales who are familiar with Intuitive Eating. We have given talks at professional meetings, as well as to students and to the lay public, and have made television appearances and been broadcast on the radio.
We have been quoted in articles in newspapers, magazines, and on the Internet. In addition, professional colleagues have asked our permission to use Intuitive Eating as the basis of college lectures and workshops and seminars of their own. The impact of all of these experiences has been deeply meaningful for us. It has given us the opportunity to broaden the work that we had previously done in our offices, working with individuals, one on one.
We xiv Foreword have been able to extend the philosophy of Intuitive Eating to those whom we would have never been able to reach, if not for the book. It has touched our souls to be able to hear how Intuitive Eating has changed the lives of so many. One of the most frequent comments that we have heard from people concerned the despair that was felt after years and years of failed dieting experiences and the new hope that blossomed after finding and reading Intuitive Eating.
We have heard how some have cleared their minds of punitive and obsessive thoughts about their eating and body perception. This clearing has made room for positive thinking and determination to make serious life changes. Selfesteem has catapulted, as people have reported the empowerment they have felt by working with a process that honors the validity of one's inner voice.
Through Intuitive Eating, they have learned to trust the wisdom that has always been within, but had been blunted by years of selfdoubt. Doubting their innate eating signals had extended to doubting their beliefs about many other aspects of their lives.
We have heard stories about people who have left abusive relationships, made peace with estranged loved ones, and have made significant career changes once their struggle with food and body has been resolved. We have also heard about new romances that, for some, could not have been possible while they were occupied with body concerns and focused on the latest doomed diet attempt.
Intuitive Eating has freed all of these people to go on with their lives, while leaving behind selfdoubt and despair. Intuitive Eating has also changed the lives of many of our professional colleagues. At every conference we attend, we hear comments about how grateful nutrition therapists and psychotherapists are to have this book to give to their patients. They tell us how it makes their lives easier, having it for use as a guidebook in their private practices, for classes they teach, and for seminars they give.
We have also found, in our own professional lives, that having a book available that we have written allows our patients to take something home with them to use as a reference. We've been told that it helps some people feel that they can carry a part of us with them for support when they need it!
In this second edition, there are some new additions that we hope Foreword xv will reach a broader base of readers and will offer a new tool for everyone. Firstly, we have added a chapter that examines the impact of dieting on the development of an eating disorder. It also explores how Intuitive Eating can be used as a model for eating at certain stages in the treatment of the eating disorder. As is said several times in this chapter, some of the principles of Intuitive Eating may not be accessible in the early stages of treatment.
Often there is such a degree of malnourishment or history of chaotic eating that some people are either cognitively or physically unable to recognize hunger or fullness. Others aren't ready to accept that pleasure and satisfaction can be a healthy part of normal eating.
Some people are terrified to give up an eating disorder that has served to help them cope with their feelings when they've known no other way. For them, Intuitive Eating seems an impossible dream. They are encouraged to hold this dream while working to understand their emotions with their psychotherapists.
Others might need to add medication prescribed by a psychiatrist in order to promote their readiness for the process of Intuitive Eating. In all of these cases, however, patients report that they either never really knew what normal eating was or that it has been so long since they experienced normal eating that they need to be retaught.
Intuitive Eating then becomes the foundation for developing a new and safe relationship with food and, ultimately, with body.
We have also expanded the second edition to include an appendix, entitled "Step-by-Step Guidelines. If it's your first time around with the book, you can choose to read the book in its entirety and then use the outline to remind you of the whole process.
Or, you might decide to read about one principle at a time and then use the part of the outline that refers to that principle to fortify your focus on each step. Readers already familiar with the Intuitive Eating process can use this section as a way to review the entire concept and as a handy shorthand method of checking to see if they're on track.
Whatever you choose, we hope that "Step-by-Step Guidelines" will provide a helpful tool for you in your Intuitive Eating work. Finally, we would like to express our gratitude to the many people xvi Foreword whom we have had the honor to meet and work with over the years using the Intuitive Eating process. You have been our teachers, even as we have counseled you on your healing path. You have inspired us to continue this work and bring out this second edition of Intuitive Eating. Thank you!
Introduction If you could cash in every diet like a frequent flier program, most of us would have earned a trip to the moon and back. Ironically, we seem to have more respect for our cars than for ourselves. If you took your car to an auto mechanic for regular tune-ups, and after time and money spent the car didn't work, you wouldn't blame yourself.
Yet, in spite of the fact that 90 to 95 percent of all diets fail—you tend to blame yourself, not the diet! Isn't it ironic that with a massive failure rate for dieting—we don't blame the process of dieting? Initially, when we ventured into the world of private practice we did not know each other. Yet, separately, each of us had remarkably similar counseling experiences that caused us to rethink how we work. This led to a considerable change in how we practice and years later was the impetus for this book.
Although we practiced independently of each other, unknowingly each of us got started by making a vow to avoid the trap of working with weight control. We didn't want to deal with an issue that was only set up to fail. But while we tried to avoid weight-loss counseling, physicians kept referring their patients to us.
Typically, their blood pressure or cholesterol was high. Whatever their medical problems, weight loss was the key to treatment. Because we wanted to help these patients, we embarked on the weight-loss issue with a commitment to do it differently: Our patients would succeed.
They would be among the small 5 to 10 percent success group. These plans were based on the widely accepted "exchange system" commonly used for diabetic meal planning and weight control. We told them that this was not a diet, for even back then we knew diets didn't work. We rationalized that these meal plans were not diets, because patients could choose among chicken, turkey, fish, or lean meat. They could have a bagel, a muffin, or toast. If they really wanted a cookie, they could have one not five!
They could fill up with "free foods" galore, so that they never had to feel hungry. We told them that if they had a craving for a particular food, they could go ahead and eat it without guilt.
But we also reinforced gently, yet firmly, that sticking to their personalized plan would help them achieve their goals.
As the weeks went by, our clients were eager to please us, followed their meal plans, and, finally, their weight goals were met. Unfortunately, however, some time later we started getting calls from some of these same people telling us how much they needed us again. Somehow, the weight had come back on again!
Their calls were very apologetic. Somehow, they couldn't stick to the plan anymore. Maybe they needed someone to monitor them. Maybe they didn't have enough self-control. Maybe they just weren't any good at this, and definitely, they felt guilty and demoralized. In spite of the "failure," our patients put all the blame on themselves. After all, they trusted us—we were the great nutritionists who had helped them lose weight. Therefore, they had done something wrong, not us.
As time went on, it became clear that something was wrong with this approach. All of our good intentions were only reinforcing some very negative, self-effacing notions that our patients had about themselves—that they didn't have self-control, they couldn't do it, therefore they were bad or wrong.
This led to guilt, guilt, guilt. By this time, we had both reached a turning point in the way we counseled. How could we ethically go on teaching people things that seemed logical and nutritionally sound, yet triggered such emotional upheaval? Yet, on the other hand, how could we neglect an area of treatment that could have such a profound effect on a patient's future health?
As we struggled with these issues, we began to explore some of the Introduction xix popular literature that suggested a degree departure from dieting. It proposed a way of eating that allowed for any and all food choices, without regard for nutrition. Our initial reactions were highly skeptical, if not downright rejecting. We reacted with self-righteous indignation. How could we, as nutritionists registered dietitians , trained to look at the connections between nutrition and health, sanction a way of eating that seemed to reject the very foundation of our knowledge and philosophy?
The struggle continued. The healthy meal plans were not helping people maintain permanent weight control, yet the "throw-out nutrition approach" was a dangerous option. The suggestion to ignore nutrition and disregard how the body feels in response to eating "whatever you want" discounts the respect for one's body that comes along with the gift of life.
Eventually, we resolved the conflict by developing the Intuitive Eating process. This book is a bridge between the growing antidiet movement and the health community. While the antidieting movement shuns dieting and hails body acceptance thankfully , it often fails to address the health risks of obesity and eating.
How do you reconcile forbidden food issues and still eat healthfully while not dieting? We will tell you how in this book.
If you are like most of our clients, you are weary of dieting and yet terrified of eating. Most of our clients are uncomfortable in their bodies—but don't know how to change.
Intuitive Eating provides a new way of eating that is ultimately struggle-free and healthy for your mind and body. It is a process that releases the shackles of dieting which can only lead to deprivation, rebellion, and rebound weight gain.
It means getting back to your roots—trusting your body and its signals. Intuitive Eating will not only change your relationship with food, it may change your life.
We hope you find that Intuitive Eating will make a difference in your life, regardless of your weight goals—it has for our clients. In fact, when our clients learned that we were writing this book, they wanted to share some specific thoughts or turning points with you: It's just a time-out to make sure that they're not eating on autopilot.
If they want to eat anyway, they can! That comes from all the times I used to go to the diet doctor, and I would have to tell him how I had sinned after he had weighed me. This isn't coming from you, but the inner Food Police. I'm free and not thinking about food all the time anymore. Nothing tastes quite as good as it did when it was forbidden.
I kept looking for the old thrill that food used to give me until I realized that my excitement in life wasn't going to come from my eating anymore. And making choices based on what I want and not on what somebody else is telling me, feels so empowering.
I realized that the food was covering up my bad feelings. But it was also covering up my good feelings. I'd rather feel good and bad rather than not feeling at all! It's so nice to eat more sometimes and not feel guilty that I'm going against some plan.
Now I think—it's free, it's there, and it's mine! All I know is that it works! Sandra was a dieting pro. At first, dieting was fun, even exhilarating. But the weight lost would eventually rebound like an unwanted tax bill. Sandra had hit diet bottom. By now, however, she was more obsessed with food and her body than ever.
She felt silly. Dieting had made her more preoccupied with food. Dieting had made food the enemy. Dieting had made her feel guilty when she wasn't eating diet-type foods even when she wasn't officially dieting. Dieting had slowed her metabolism. It took years for Sandra to truly know that dieting doesn't work yes, she was familiar with the emerging concept that dieting doesn't work, but she always thought she would be different. While most experts and consumers accept the premise that fad diets don't work, it's tough for a nation of people obsessed with their bodies to believe that even "sensible dieting" is futile.
Sandra had been hooked into modern-age social mythology, the "big diet hope," for most of her life, since her first diet at the age of fourteen.
While Sandra couldn't bear the thought of another diet, she didn't realize that most of her food issues were actually caused by her dieting. Sandra was also frustrated and angry—"I know everything about diets.
That's the big caveat, losing weight and keeping it off is not usually a knowledge issue. If all we needed to be lean was knowledge about food and nutrition, most Americans wouldn't have weight problems.
The information is readily available. Pick up any women's magazine, and you'll find diets and food comparisons galore. Also, the harder you try to diet, the harder you fall—it really hurts not to succeed if you did everything right. The best description for this effect is given by John Foreyt, Ph.
He likened it to a Chinese finger puzzle a hollow cylinder of straw into each end of which you insert an index finger. The harder you try to get out, the more pressure you exert, the more difficult it is to get out of the puzzle. Instead, you find yourself locked in tighter. It may be just one side effect, or several. By the time Sandra came to the office, she had the classic symptoms of diet backlash.
She was eating less food, yet had had trouble losing weight during her more recent diet attempts. Other symptoms include: One study indicates that postdieting binges occur in 49 percent of all people who end a diet. Understandably, every diet Hitting Diet Bottom has taught you not to trust your body or the food you put in it. Even though it is the process of dieting that fails you, the failure continues to undermine your relationship with food.
The lifespan of a diet gets shorter and shorter. Is it no wonder that Ultra Slim-Fast's sales pitch is, "Give us a week. Every diet is preceded by consuming foods you presume you won't eat again.
Food consumption often goes up during this time. It may occur over one meal or over a couple of days. The Last Supper seems to be the final step before "dietary cleansing," almost a farewell-to-food-party. For one client, Marilyn, every meal felt like it was her last. She would eat each meal until she was uncomfortably stuffed—she was terrified she would never eat again. For good reason: She had been dieting over twothirds of her life, since the sixth grade, through a series of fasting and calorie diets.
As far as her body was concerned, a diet was only around the corner—so she felt she had better eat while she could.
Each meal for Marilyn was famine relief. Since it's hard to stay on a diet and go to a party or out to dinner, it becomes easier just to turn down social invitations. At first, social food avoidance may seem like the wise thing to do for the good of the diet, but it escalates into a bigger problem. There's often a fear of being able to stay in control. It's not uncommon for this experience to be reinforced by "saving up the calories or fat grams for the party," which usually means eating very little.
But by the time the dieter arrives at a party, ravenous hunger dominates and eating feels very out of control. Each diet teaches the body to adapt better for the next self-imposed famine another diet. Metabolism slows as the body efficiently utilizes each calorie as if it's the last. The more drastic the diet, the more it pushes the body into the caloriepinching survival mode. Fueling metabolism is like stoking a fire. Remove the wood and the fire diminishes.
Coffee and diet drinks are often abused as management tools to feel energetic and filled up while being underfed. Finally for some, repeated dieting is often the stepping-stone to an eating disorder, ranging from anorexia nervosa or bulimia to compulsive overeating.
Although Sandra felt she could never diet again, she still engaged in the Last Supper phenomenon. We regularly encounter this when we see someone for the first time. She literally ate greater quantities of food than usual, and consumed plenty of her favorite foods because she thought she would never see these foods again.
It's as if she were getting ready for a long trip, and was packing extra clothes. Just the thought of working on her food issues put her into the pre-diet mentality, a common occurrence. While Sandra was just beginning to understand the futility of dieting, her desire to be thin had not changed—clearly a dilemma. She held on to the allure of the noble American dream.
Eating a single morsel of any high-fat or non-nutritionally-redeeming food is punishable by a life sentence of "guilt" by association. You may be paroled, however, for "good behavior. And so begins the deprivation cycle of dieting—the battle of the bulge and the indulge. Rice cakes one week, Haagen-Dazs the next. It's as if we live in a food police state run by the food mafia.
And there always seems to be a dieting offer you can't refuse. Reprinted with permission from: Wiseman, Claire et al. Increasing pressure to be thin: Eating Disorders: A study published in the Eating Disorders— The Journal of Treatment and Prevention found that between and , commercials for dieting aids diet food, reducing aids, and diet program foods increased tremendously.
The researchers also noted that there is a parallel trend in the occurrence of eating disorders. They speculate that the media pressure to diet via commercials is a major influence in the eating disorder trend. The pressure to diet is fueled by more than television commercials. Magazine articles and movies contribute to the pressure to be slim.
A new Kent cigarette, "Slim Lights," especially characterizes this focus on women's body issues. Their ad reads more like a commercial for a weight-loss center than for a cigarette by highlighting slender descriptions, "long," "lean," "light. Lighting up as a weight-loss aid is not a new concept. As early as , a Lucky Strike print ad campaign aimed at women stated, "To keep a slender figure. Sadly, we have heard women in our offices contemplate taking up smoking again as a weight-loss aid.
But weight loss is not just a women's issue although there's clearly added pressure on women. The proliferation of light beer commercials have planted the seed of body consciousness in men's minds as well—a lean belly is better than a beer belly. It's no coincidence that we've seen the launch of magazines aimed at men, such as Men's Fitness and Men's Health.
While the pursuit of leanness has crossed the gender barrier, regrettably, we have given birth to the first generation of weight watchers.
A disturbing new dieting trend is affecting the health of U. Shocking studies have demonstrated that school-age children are obsessing about their weight—a reflection of a nation overly concerned with diet and weight. Around the country, children as young as six years old are shedding pounds, afraid of being fat, and increasingly being treated for eating disorders that threaten their health and growth. Societal pressure to be thin has backfired on children. Dieting not only does not work, it is at the root of many problems.
While many may diet as an attempt to lose weight or for health reasons, the paradox is that it may cause more harm than good. Here's what our nation has to show for dieting: Consequently, when you are given the first opportunity to really eat, eating is often experienced at such intensity that it feels uncontrollable, a desperate act. In the moment of biological hunger, all intentions to diet and desire to be thin are fleeting and paradoxically irrelevant.
In those moments we become like the insatiable man-eating plant in the movie The Little Shop of Horrors, demanding to eat—"Feed me, feed me. Yet so often, postdiet eating is viewed as having "no willpower," or a character defect.
But when you interpret postdiet eating as such, it slowly erodes trust in yourself with food, diet after diet. Every diet violation, every eating situation that feels so out of control, lays the foundation for the "diet mentality," brick by brick, and diet by diet. The seemingly brave solution—try harder next time—becomes as bewildering as the Chinese finger puzzle.
You can't fight biology. When the body is starving, it needs to be nourished. Yet so often a dieter laments, "If only I had the willpower. When underfed— whether from a self-imposed diet or starvation—you will obsess about food.
Maybe you don't diet, but eat vigilantly in the name of health and fitness.
This seems to be the politically correct term for dieting in the nineties. But for many, it's the same food issue—with the same symptoms. Avoiding fat at all costs and subsisting on fat-free foods is essentially dieting, and often results in being underfed.
There are many forms of dieting and many types of dieters. We will explore your dieting personality and meet the Intuitive Eater in the next chapter. There are many eating styles that are actually unconscious forms of dieting. Many of our patients have said they were not on a diet—but upon closer inspection of what and how they eat we found they were still dieting! Here's a good example. Ted came in because he wanted to lose about fifteen pounds.
He said that in his fifty years of living, he had only been on four serious diets. When perusing the book titles in the office compulsive overeating texts, eating disorder books, and so forth he stated, "You work with a lot of serious dieting problems. Yet it turned out that he was an unconscious dieter. Although Ted was not actively dieting, he was undereating to a level where he was nearly passing out in the afternoon.
The reason—he had always been unhappy with his weight! In the mornings he would go for an intense hilly bike ride for one hour, then come home and eat a small breakfast. Lunch was usually salad with iced tea while this sounds healthy, it's too low in carbohydrates. By suppertime, his body would be screaming for food. Ted was not only in a severe calorie deficit, but also carbohydrate-deprived.
Evenings turned into a food fest! Ted had thought he had a "food volume" problem with a strong sweet tooth. In reality, he had an unconscious diet mentality that biologically triggered his night eating and sweet tooth. Alicia also was not a conscious dieter. She came in not to lose weight, but because she wanted to increase her energy level. So she was asked if she had been dieting a lot.
She looked astonished. As it turns out, Alicia had been dieting since she was a child. Although she was not officially dieting, she retained and expanded a set of food rules with each diet that nearly paralyzed her ability to eat normally.
We see this all the time, the hangover from dieting: Avoiding certain foods at all costs, feeling out of control the moment a "sinful" food is eaten, feeling guilty when self-imposed food rules are broken such as "Thou shall not eat past 6: Unconscious dieting usually occurs in the form of meticulous eating habits.
There can be a fine line between eating for health and dieting. Notice how even the frozen diet foods such as Lean Cuisine and Weight Watchers are putting their emphasis on health rather than diet. As long as you are engaged in some form of dieting, you won't be free from food and body worries. Whether you are a conscious or an unconscious dieter, the side effects are similar—the diet backlash effect.
This is characterized by periods of careful eating, "blowing it," and paying penance with more dieting or extra-careful eating. Later, you will meet the Intuitive Eater and the Intuitive Eating style, the solution to living without diets. These eating personalities are exhibited even when you are not officially dieting. It's possible to have more than one eating personality; although we find that there tends to be a dominant trait.
Events in your life can also influence or shift your eating personality. For example, one client, a tax attorney, was normally a Careful Eater, but during tax season he became the Chaotic Unconscious Eater. But when your eating exists in one of these domains most of the time, it can be a problem. Read through each eating personality and see which one best reflects your eating style.
By understanding where you are now, it will be easier to learn how to become an Intuitive Eater. For example, you may find you have been engaged in a form of dieting, and not even have been aware of it.
Or you may discover traits that unknowingly work against you. The Careful Eater Careful Eaters are those who tend to be vigilant about what foods they put into their bodies. Ted was an example of a Careful Eater by day. On the surface, Careful Eaters appear to be "perfect" eaters. They are highly nutrition-conscious. Outwardly, they seem health- and fitnessoriented noble traits admired and reinforced in our society.
Eating Style. There is a range of food behaviors that the Careful Eater exhibits. At one extreme, the Careful Eater may anguish over each morsel of food allowed into the body. Grocery shopping trips are spent scrutinizing food labels.
Eating out often means interrogating the waiter—what's in the food, how the food is prepared—and getting assurances that the food is cooked specifically to the Careful Eater's liking usually not one speck of oil or other fat used.
What's wrong with this? Aren't label reading and assertive restaurant ordering in the health interest of most people? Of course! The difference, however, is the intensity of the vigilance and the ability to let go of an "eating indiscretion.
The Careful Eater can spend most of his or her waking hours planning out the next meal or snack, often worrying about what to eat. While the Careful Eater is not officially on a diet, his or her mind is—chastising every "unhealthy" or fatty food eaten. The Careful Eater can run the fine line between being genuinely interested in health, and eating carefully for the sake of body image.
What Kind of Eater Are You? I 1 Sometimes the Careful Eater is guided by time or events. For example, some Careful Eaters are meticulous during the weekdays, so that they earn their "eating right" to splurge on the weekends or at an upcoming party. But weekends occur days of the year—the splurges can backfire with unwanted weight gain. Consequently, it's not unusual for a Careful Eater to contemplate going on a diet. The Problem. There's nothing wrong with being a Careful Eater and interested in the well-being of your body.
The problem occurs, however, when diligent eating almost bordering on militant affects a healthy relationship with food—and negatively impacts your body. Careful Eaters, upon closer inspection, resemble a subtle dieting style. They may not diet, but they scrutinize every food situation.
The Professional Dieter Professional Dieters are easier to identify; they are perpetually dieting. They have usually tried the latest commercial diet, diet book, or new weight-loss gimmick. Sometimes dieting takes place in the form of fasting, or "cutting back. Today, the Professional Dieter is also well-versed in counting carbohydrate grams.
Professional Dieters also have careful eating traits. The difference, however, is that chronic dieters make every eating choice for the sake of losing weight, not necessarily for health. When the dieter is not officially on a diet, he or she is usually thinking about the next diet that can be started. She often wakes up hoping this will be a good day— the new beginning.
While Professional Dieters have a lot of dieting knowledge, it doesn't serve them well. It's not unusual for them to binge or engage in Last Supper eating the moment a forbidden food is eaten. That's because chronic dieters truly believe they will not eat this food again; for tomorrow they diet, tomorrow they start over with a clean slate. Better eat now, it's the last chance.
Diet, lose weight, gain weight, binge intermittently, and go back to dieting. It's hard to live this way. Yo-yo dieting makes it increasingly difficult to lose weight, let alone eat healthfully. Chronic undereating usually results in overeating or periodic binges. For some Professional Dieters, the frustration of losing weight becomes so intensified that they may try laxatives, diuretics, and diet pills.
And because these "diet aids" do not work, they may try extreme methods such as chronic restricting, in the form of anorexia nervosa, or purging throwing up after a binge , in the form of bulimia. While anorexia and bulimia are multifactorial and rooted with psychological issues, a growing body of research has demonstrated that chronic dieting is a common stepping-stone into an eating disorder.
One study in particular found that by the time dieters reach the age of fifteen years, they are eight times as likely to suffer from an eating disorder as nondieters. The Unconscious Eater The Unconscious Eater is often engaged in paired eating—which is eating and doing another activity at the same time, such as watching television and eating, or reading and eating.
Because of the subtleties, and lack of awareness, it can be difficult to identify this eating personality. There are many subtypes of Unconscious Eaters.
The Chaotic Unconscious Eater often lives an overscheduled life, too busy, too many things to do. The chaotic eating style is haphazard; whatever's available will be grabbed—vending machine fare, fast food, it'll all do.
Nutrition and diet are often important to this person—just not at the critical moment of the chaos. Chaotic Eaters are often so busy putting out fires that they have difficulty identifying biological hunger until it's fiercely ravenous. Not surprisingly, the Chaotic Eater goes long periods of time without eating. The Refuse-Not Unconscious Eater is vulnerable to the mere presence of food, regardless if he or she is hungry or full.
Most of the time, however, RefuseNot Eaters are not aware that they are eating, or how much they are eating. For example, the Refuse-Not Eater may pluck up a couple of candies on the way to the restroom without being aware of it. Social outings that revolve around food such as cocktail parties and holiday buffets are especially tough for the Refuse-Not Eater.
The Waste-Not Unconscious Eater values the food dollar. His or her eating drive is often influenced by getting as much as you can for the money. The Waste-Not Eater is especially inclined to clean the plate and others as well. It's not unusual for a Waste-Not Eater to eat the leftovers from children or spouse. The Emotional Unconscious Eater uses food to cope with emotions, especially uncomfortable emotions such as stress, anger, and loneliness. While Emotional Eaters view their eating as the problem, it's often a symptom of a deeper issue.
Eating behaviors of the Emotional Eater can range from grabbing a candy bar in stressful times to chronic compulsive binges of vast quantities of food. Unconscious eating in its various forms is a problem if it results in chronic overeating which can easily occur when you are eating and not quite aware of it. Keep in mind that somewhere between the first and last bite of food is where the lapse of consciousness takes place.
As in, "Oh, it's all gone! That's a simple form of unconscious eating. But unconscious eating can also exist at an intense level, in a somewhat altered state of eating.
In this case, the person is not aware of what is being eaten, why he started eating, or even how the food tastes. It's like zoning out with food. The solution for the frustrated eater: Try harder with a new diet! At first the new diet seems exhilarating and hopeful, but eventually the familiar pounds return.
Dieting gets more difficult, and even when you resume your baseline eating personality, it may feel more uncomfortable than before.
This is because with each diet the inner food rules get stronger. These food rules often perpetuate feelings of guilt about eating even when you are not officially dieting. Also, the biological effects of dieting as detailed in Chapter 5 make it increasingly difficult to have a normal relationship with food.
The Intuitive Eater personality, however, is the exception. It is the one eating style that doesn't work against you, and can help you end chronic dieting and yo-yo weight fluctuations. The Intuitive Eater is an unaffected eater. Yet it is increasingly difficult to be an unaffected eater in today's health-conscious society when you consider the bombardment of nutrition, food, and weight messages from commercials, media, and health professionals.
When we've described the basic eating traits of the Intuitive Eater to our clients, it's amazing how often we'll hear the response, "That's how my wife eats" or "That's how my boyfriend eats. They are the natural Intuitive Eaters—virtually free from societal messages about food and body image.
Toddlers have an innate wisdom about food if you don't interfere with it. They don't eat based on dieting rules or health, yet study after study shows that if What Kind of Eater Are You? This is probably the toughest thing for a concerned parent to do—to let go and trust that kids have an innate ability to eat!
A landmark study led by Leann Birch, Ph. This holds true even when, meal by meal, the little tykes' eating appears to be a parent's nightmare. Researchers found that at a given meal, calorie intake was highly variable, but it balanced out over time. Yet, many parents assume that their young children cannot adequately regulate their food intake.
Consequently, parents often adopt coercive strategies in an attempt to ensure that the child consumes a nutritionally adequate diet. But previous research by Birch and her colleagues indicates that such control strategies are counterproductive.
Furthermore, Birch notes that "parents' attempts to control their child's eating were reported more often by obese adults than by adults of normal weight. Even well-meaning parents interfere with intuitive eating. When a parent tries to overrule a child's natural eating cues, the problem gets worse, not better. A parent who feeds a child whenever a hunger signal is heard, and who stops feeding when the child shows that he's had enough, can play a powerful role in the initial development of Intuitive Eating.
In fact, groundbreaking work by therapist and dietitian Ellyn Satter has shown that if you get the parents of overweight kids to back off, and let them eat without parental pressure, the kids will eventually eat less. The child begins to hear and understand his own inner signals of hunger and satiety. The child also knows that he or she will have access to food. According to Satter, "Children deprived of food in an attempt to be thin become preoccupied with food, afraid they won't get enough to eat, and are prone to overeat when they get the chance.
Only for adults, the intuitive eating process has been buried for a long time, often years and years. Instead of having a parent loosen up the pressure, this loosening of pressure has to come from within. And against society's myth of dieting and distorted body worship. Fortunately, we all possess the natural intuitive eating ability; it's just been suppressed, especially by dieting. This book is devoted to showing you how to awaken the Intuitive Eater within.
There are several external forces that influence your eating, which can further bury intuitive eating. You have already seen the damage that chronic dieting plays, including but not limited to: The more you go to external sources to "judge" if your eating is in check, the, further removed you become from Intuitive Eating. Intuitive Eating relies on your own internal cues and signals. Eat-Healthfully-or-Die Messages.
Messages about eating healthfully are everywhere, from nonprofit health organizations to food companies What Kind of Eater Are You?
Yet anguishes over each food morsel and its effect on the body. On the surface, this person seems health- and fitnessoriented. To sit down and simply eat is often viewed as a waste of time. Eating is usually paired with another activity to be productive. There are many subtypes. Chaotic Unconscious Eater Overscheduled life This person's eating style is haphazard—gulp 'n' go when the food is available. Seems to thrive on tension. Refuse-Not Unconscious Eater Presence of food This person is especially vulnerable to candy jars, or food present in meetings or sitting openly on the kitchen counter.
Waste-Not Unconscious Eater Free food This person's eating drive is often influenced by the value of the food dollar and is susceptible to allyou-can-eat buffets and free food. Professional Dieter Feeling fat This person is perpetually dieting, often trying the latest commercial diet or diet book. Intuitive Eater Biological hunger This person makes food choices without experiencing guilt or an ethical dilemma. Honors hunger, respects fullness, enjoys the pleasure of eating.
The inherent message? What you eat can improve your health. Conversely, take one wrong move bite and you're one step closer to the grave. Is this an exaggeration? For example, a press release issued by the Harvard School of Public Health stated that eating trans fatty acids found in margarine may cause 30, deaths each year in the United States from heart disease. That kind of message can easily leave you feeling guilty for eating the "wrong" kind of food and confused about what you should eat.
Magazine and newspapers have also greatly increased their coverage of food and health. One food editor, Joe Crea, of a major metropolitan newspaper, the Orange County Register California , noted that in a sixyear period his stories on nutrition increased fivefold. Of nearly eight hundred food stories, two hundred were on health-related issues.
While there is no doubt that what you eat can have an impact on your health, the exponential increase in media coverage has served as a conduit to building food paranoia in the consumer, especially the dieter. It puts the reader in conflict. Of course not. However, when you have a dieting mind-set, the barrage of healthy-eating messages can make you feel guiltier about the food you choose to eat. Obesity and Health reported a survey on 2, adults in Florida that revealed that 45 percent of adults felt guilty after eating foods they like.
Keep in mind that this survey was conducted to reflect typical American demographics. These "guilt-by-eating" numbers would most likely be much higher if performed on dieters. Women may be especially guilt-ridden. An American Dietetic Association Gallup poll showed that women feel guiltier than men about the food they eat 44 percent versus 28 percent.
Could this be because women diet more frequently than men? Or because women are usually the target of health messages and food ads consider the number of women's magazines. Women are the key decision makers for the health care for the family, and are usually the gatekeepers of food and nutrition issues as well; they serve as a prime target. We have found that establishing nutrition or healthy eating as an initial priority in the Intuitive Eating process is counterproductive.
In the beginning we ignore nutrition, because it interferes with the process of re-learning how to become an Intuitive Eater.
Nutrition heresy? It's possible to respect and honor nutrition. It just can't be the first priority when you've been dieting all your life.
Or look at it this way, if you have focused all your attention on nutrition, has it helped? People can embrace even the most nutritious eating plan including counting fat grams as another form of diet. You can recapture Intuitive Eating, but first you have to get rid of the diet mentality rules that keep the Intuitive Eater buried. In the next chapter, we will briefly introduce you to the core principles of Intuitive Eating.
The remainder of the book will show you step by step how to become an Intuitive Eater. Chapter 3 Principles of Intuitive Eating: Overview O n l y when you vow to discard dieting and replace it with a commitment to Intuitive Eating will you be released from the prison of yo-yo weight fluctuations and food obsessions. In this chapter, you will be introduced to the core principles of Intuitive Eating—just a snapshot essence of each concept, with a brief case study or two.
While in many of these cases, our clients lost weight, the most significant achievement for them was gaining a healthy relationship with food and their bodies. By following the ten principles of Intuitive Eating, you will normalize your relationship with food. How this affects your weight depends on your existing eating style and attitude toward your body.
Later in the book, each principle will be discussed step by step in great detail. You may find it useful to return to this chapter for a quick reference.
Get angry at the lies that have led you to feel as if you were a failure every time a new diet stopped working and you gained back all of the weight. If you allow even one small hope to linger that a new and better diet might be lurking around the corner, it will prevent you from being free to rediscover Intuitive Eating.
Overview 21 James dieted most of his life, starting with the little diets his mother put him on and ending with a liquid protein fast which gave him his most recent short-lived "success. He knew he was incapable of ever going on another diet but felt guilty because he thought he "should. He discovered that he was not a failure, but that the system of dieting itself created the setup for failure.
Today, James is a committed ex-dieter who found his way back through Intuitive Eating. He no longer feels that he "should" be on a diet. He is pleased and amazed that he has lost twenty-five pounds while eating everything he likes. Now, James sadly watches others go from diet to diet, while he himself realizes that dieting is the quickest shortcircuit to a healthy relationship with food.
Otherwise, you can trigger a primal drive to overeat. Once you reach the moment of excessive hunger, all intentions of moderate, conscious eating are fleeting and irrelevant. Learning to honor this first biological signal sets the stage for rebuilding trust with yourself and food. A critical step to becoming an Intuitive Eater for Tim, a busy physician, was learning to honor his hunger.
Tim dieted all through medical school while trying to keep up with a frenetic schedule working over eighty hours a week.
He felt hungry most of the time, but ignored these signals because he was watching his weight. By midafternoon, his eating was out of control with snack attacks at the vending machine. His weight fluctuated with each dieting attempt and failure. Not surprisingly, he felt low in energy most of the time. Today, Tim has learned to pay attention to his biological signals of hunger and to honor them by taking the time to feed himself.
Tim has learned to honor his hunger. As a result of becoming an Intuitive Eater, Tim feels full of energy throughout the day and is back to his college weight maintaining a fifteenpound weight loss.
He has ended the cycles of restriction and overeating that plagued him for twenty years and feels confident that this futile cycle is gone forever. Give yourself unconditional permission to eat. If you tell yourself that you can't or shouldn't have a particular food, it can lead to intense feelings of deprivation that build into uncontrollable cravings and, often, bingeing.
When you finally "give i n " to your forbidden foods, eating will be experienced with such intensity, it usually results in Last Supper overeating and overwhelming guilt. Nancy is a waitress whose battleground was a gourmet restaurant offering an array of delicious, rich foods. Before becoming an Intuitive Eater, Nancy would valiantly refrain from all of the tempting foods available at the restaurant.
She would leave each night, physically tired and with haunting visions of the foods she shouldn't have. Her restraint was consistent, until making her first appointment. Suddenly in the week prior to her coming in, all she wanted to do was eat. And eat, she did! Nancy experienced the Last Supper effect that accompanies intense food deprivation. She had an eating backlash from not allowing herself to touch her favorite foods.
Nancy believed that any nutritionist would confirm that she had to give up these foods for good and follow a rigid meal plan. She acknowledged feeling scared and angry about her future food loss and automatically went into a phase of overeating, especially foods that she perceived would be forbidden forever.
Overview 23 at the restaurant and elsewhere. She no longer restricts the foods she likes, nor does she overeat and feel guilty. She discovered that some of the foods that looked wonderful didn't even taste good! Nancy has made peace with food, and loves the freedom that comes with it.
The Food Police monitor the unreasonable rules that dieting has created. The police station is housed deep in your psyche and its loudspeaker shouts negative barbs, hopeless phrases, and guilt-provoking indictments. Chasing the Food Police away is a critical step in returning to Intuitive Eating. As an adolescent, Linda had been a competitive track sprinter and went on to qualify for the Olympic trials. Linda's coach had been a strong influence in her life, and to this day, her coach's voice reverberates, "To be competitive, you must diet to get rid of body fat.
These inner tapes culminated from her well-meaning coach and numerous diets, only to be reinforced with negative messages that her mother doled out. Linda's Food Police strengthened with each diet, each coaching admonishment, and each motherly chastisement.
Linda's breakthrough came when she discovered how to challenge the Food Police. Linda learned to talk back to the inner critical voices that tried to restrict her food choices. She learned to give herself nurturing messages and make nonjudgmental decisions about her eating.
The voice of the Intuitive Eater was allowed to re-emerge once the Food Police were silenced. Linda is now guilt-free about her eating, and her weight has stabilized at its natural level without dieting. Observe the signs that show you're comfortably full.
Pause in the middle of eating and ask yourself how the food tastes, and what your current fullness level is. Jackie was a party girl. She loved to go out to eat with her friends every night after work and felt that weekends were not complete without a party. Jackie loved life and loved to eat. But she also didn't know how to stop eating when she began to feel full. Rather, she often did not recognize feeling full until she was uncomfortably satiated, stuffed. The morning after each social event she made the same vow: I feel sick and stuffed and bloated, and I hate this roll around my middle.
She began to pay attention to the transition from an empty stomach to a slightly full stomach. She soon learned to sense the signals of fullness that started to emerge in the midst of her meals. It was easier for Jackie to honor her body's satiety signals when she truly knew she could eat again if hungry even within the hour , and eat her favorite foods. What starving person would stop at comfortable fullness if he thought he was never going to eat again, or have access to a particular food?
Jackie made an interesting observation during one of her out-of-town parties, while feeding alley cats: