The Musical Terminology and Symbols represented here are the basic terms They also know how to perform a musical composition when these terms and. In mediaeval music the term accent was also applied to musical notation, the first two and most common of the signs being the accentus acutus, and accentus. Glossary of Common Musical Terms. A cappella – Singing without an accompaniment. Accelerando - Gradually quicken tempo. Adagio - A tempo having slow.
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DICTIONARY OF MUSICAL TERMS. 1. AB form - A musical plan that has two different parts, or sections. See form. ABA form - A musical plan. art-music: a general term used to describe the "formal concert music" traditions of the West, art song: (genre) a musical setting of artistic poetry for solo voice. literature. These are words and phrases which I have found in solo and Any serious student of music should own a copy of the Harvard Dictionary of Music.
To Ersterben, Ger. Bravura, Breit, Ger. In strict time. In marching style. Figurate counterpoint, fe-goo-ra-ti.
A3, ed. Da Capo Press, Breitkopf, , p. Christian Herold, , p. This content downloaded from In the latter instance, successive repetitions of the melodic material in each part occur transposed to different intervals. Edited and transcribed by Lapo Bramanti. Musica Rinascimentale in Italia 12 Rome: Pro Musica Studium, , pp.
The cipal theoretical sources for such general canonic inscriptions and t accompanying music are the treatises of Pietro Cerone, Herman F and an anonymous Scottish author. Georg Rhaw, ; Reprint. Gargano an Nucci, ; Reprint. Forni, , pp. Judson D. E and Commentary, 2 vols. This accomp Motu and, therefor note values of the c in meaning, but term in the sources, as th imitation in which tained, and that in w example, G. Bono ingin his Musico pr The difference b contraria riversa oneonly has regar which the parts m apart from this, fu degrees of the mod In simpler terms, intervallic imitation that the latter can b proceeds in free cou canonic imitation is recall Zarlino's scio Bononcini does not in this fashion, alth example, without d ple 3.
This resemble exactness of tone a instance, in Exampl sure 2 is answered b However, the exam exact imitation in the inversion. Giacomo Monti, Bononcini, II Musico prattico Canone per moti contrari This issue, which was of interest to Bach's contemporaries appears in the writings of both Johann Mattheson and F. Marpurg The following extract from Marpurg's Abhandlung quoted here Alfred Mann's translation gives a concise summary of terms for con trary motion still in contemporary usage: There are two kinds of inverted imitation: Free inversion occurs when the following part imitates the intervals of the preceding part in inver- sion but does not retain the arrangement of whole- and half-tone steps.
Strict inversion occurs when the whole- and half-tone steps in the first part are fol- lowed in precisely the same order in the second part. Free inversion is simply called al rovescio , alla riversa , contrarium simplex, motu contrario. Bach also used the synonymous term alV roverscio in Canon 2 of the "14 Canons" and in l7Mattheson, Capellmeister, pp. Haude and J. Spener, Reprint ed. Georg Olms, , pp. Alfred Mann, The Study of Fugue, pp.
IK"Diese verkehrte Nachahmung wird wieder in die freye und strenge eingetheilet. Strenge heisst sie, wenn die ganzen und halben Tone der ersten Stimme in der andern in eben derjenigen Folge nachgemacht werden. Canon 5 of the M specific to the com "Ascendenteque M glory of the King r a canon per tonos - in which successive transposed up or do original starting po eral seventeenth- an defined until Marpu Accordingly the tones [or] can Canon 5 repeats the repetition, until it r Canon 1 of the canon - in essenc motion was first ra Beiche points out,2 cion cancrizante b l9For an overview of th chanal of the Andrians ture of the Renaissance London: University of 20".
Antonio Barre, ; Reprint. Edward Lowinsky, Kassel: Canone cancherizante Italian Canon cancrizans Latin is a "Crab-canon": Several other canons by Bach use this procedure without any accompanying term see Example 1, above. The first theorist to introduce terminology for this procedure was Bononcini who used the terms "infinito" and "circolare," to describe the practice; furthermore, he uses the term "finito" to indicate canons which do not involve such repetitions.
Nucci, , p. Giacomo Monti; ; Reprint. Forni, , bk. I, pp. II, p. Theodor P. Calvisi, , p. Wolf- gang Deer, ; Reprint. Kassel and Basel: M Capellmeister, p. The use of the Greek term "epidiapente" "at the fifth above" further emphasizes the learned nature of this composition. He also states that canonische Fuge is commonly called "canon.
Originally embracing canonic imitation, the term fuga became increasingly associated with the formal technique which culminated in the late Baroque fugue.
The term "canon," employed by theorists to refer to either canonic imitation or to a textual inscription, is here used as an adjective to describe the strict imitation employed in a fugai form. Jean-Baptiste-Christophe Ballard, , p. Simon, , p. Lelio della Volpe, , xx. Forni, , p. Johann Mattheson lists the Italian terms in his Capellmeister, p. Bes, Ger. Betont, Ger. Bizzarro, It.
Wind in- Blech-instrume'nte, Ger. Brass in- B B mol, Fr. The note B flat. The key of B-flat minor. Bogen, Ger. Bow, slur, or tie. Bourdonnement, Fr. Humming, An Bourre", Fr. The Brace.
An Branle, Fr. The Bratsche, Ger. Bravura, Breit, Ger. Buona nota, Bdrla, It. A first Accented no-ta. Cachucha, Sp. The notes. Biiffa, It. Brillante, Brio, brilliancy. Stately, slow. The Breve.
Dash, bra-zw-ra. Bridal song. Braut-lied, Ger. That part of a vocal or It. Caisse, Fr. Calando, A drum. Calma, It. Cal6re, It. A kind of composition in which two or more parts take up in succession the same melody or subject.
Cantando, It. A style. In is used to indicate a flow- instrumental music the term ing, song-like character. Canto, It. Song ; the highest vocal or instru- Canto clef. The C clef when placed on the first line. Canto cromatico, It.
Singing in semitones. Mn-to fe-goo -ra-to. A figured melody. Canto fune'bre, It. A funeral song. Canto Gregoriano, It. The Gregorian chant. A term which It. Canto primo, It. The first treble or so- Canto necessario, prano. A kan-tfr. Cantrice, 15 precentor.
Cant us, Lat. A melody. Song, ballad, canzonet. Capelle, Ger. An orchestra. Capellmeister, Ger. Capo, It.
Capriccio, style. Carita, It. Carmen, Ger. A tion. Carillon, Fr. A song, a tune. Cassa, A It. A short song. The term is frequently used by opera composers to indicate a vocal air of less extent than the aria, and with little or no Cavatina, It. A Caxa, Sp. Decrescendo Cdez, Fr. Celere, It. Celeste, Fr. Celestial, heavenly. An organ stop. A Cento. Ces, Ger.
A cka-tra. An instrumental composition in i time and slow tempo, usually founded on a ground bass. Chamade, Pr. Signal for a parley or surrender by beat of drum.
Vocal or instrumental compositions whose them more suitable for performance in a room or small hall than in halls of large dimension. A A short Chansonnette, Fr.
Chant de noel, Fr. A song. Christmas carol. Characterstucke, Ger. A name given to short instrumental compositions of a descriptive style. Chef, Fr. The lower , i register of the voice. A reservoir in an organ for holding Chiaro, It. Chiave, It. Clear, brilliant tone. A clef, or key. Chevrotement, Fr. A tremor or shake in singing. Choeur, Fr. Choir, chorus. Chor, Ger. An early German Protestant church hymn-tune, or a hymn-tune of that Chord.
Two or more tones of different pitch united accord- ing to the laws of harmony. A body of singers them. Chroma, Gr. Proceeding Cinq, Fr. An old C1 tsls. Cis, Ger. Clams, Lat. Clavier, Ger. Clavis, Lat. A character placed at the head of the staff to indicate the position of one note, and thereby that of the Clef. C major. The diatonic scale, or key of C, without flats or The diatonic scale, or key of C, with the third sharps. C minor. The key of C without flat or sharp. C6da, A C minor. C6da brillante, It.
A brilliant termina- tion. Col, It. With the. With the bass. With the melody or voice. With the left hand. With the voice. The acColla v6ce, It. It, k81 kdn-io. Runs, passages, trills, addinstrumental or composi- tion. C6me, It. C6me prima, It. As at first. C6me supra, It. Common Common time. Double or quadruple turn. A time. The range of notes of which any voice or ment is capable. A Complesso, It. Compound intervals. Con, With. With animation. Harmony of voices and instruments. Concerted music.
Compositions written for several voices or instruments. A The leading first violinist of an orchestra. Concertstuck, Ger. One who Conductor. Contera, Sp. Contra bass. A double bass. Consolante, In Germany the term See Alto.
Cor, C6rchea, Sp. C6rno, It. A A kdr-no. C6ro, A crotchet. The Counterpoint. Counter tenor. Crescendo, sound. Cr6mmo, It. High The tenor.
A highest male voice. Increasing the volume of choral dirge. A quarter-note. Music inserted in small notes just before the entrance Cue. Cum D. Da, cantu, Lat. The second note It. By, for, from, Da capo, It. From M-po the beginning.
Dagli, Dai, It. Dal, It. DalP, It. Dalla, It. Dalle, It. Dallo, It. To the, From ddm-pter. Da da skdrt-so. Dampfer, Ger. Lively, playful. Decdnto, Lat. To sing, to chant. Deciso, It. Decided, energetic. In declamatory da. Declamando, It. Decresce'ndo, It. Dei, Del', It.
Decreasing the volume Dying away. Any style. Decompose", Fr. Delia, It. Delle, It. Dello, It. Delirfo, It. Deliziosame'nte, sweetly. Demi, Fr. Des, Ger. Detached, staccato. Deztra, Lot. Di, It. Desire, longing. Deux, Fr.
Destra, Deliciously, Half. Delicate, 21 In a devotional style. Of, from, to. A term used to describe the tones of the major or minor scale. Di chiaro, It. Di c6lto, It. At once. Difficile, It. Di gala, It. Dilue'ndo, Difficult. Diminishing in loud ness. Di nu6vo, It. Again, anew. D 1 Dis, Ger. The treble or soprano voice. Div6to, The Do. Italian Devoutly. Sweet, soft. D61ce, It. The fifth note in the scale.
Donner une serenade, Fr. D6pO, It. Doppel, Ger.
An Double. Doucement, Fr. Gently, softly. Doux, Fr. Gentle, soft. Doux mais soutenu, Fr. Soft but sustained. Drangend, Ger. Drei, Ger. Dreiklang, Ger. Dreist, Ger. Hurrying, hastening. Dreigstigkeit, Ger. Dreistimmig, Ger. Three tones, a triad. For three parts, or voices. Drohne, Ger. Droit Due, c , It. A drone. Dumph, It.
Duolo, Of a dull, 23 hollow sound. Sadness, melancholy. Double rhythm. Rhythm Dur, Ger. Durdle, Major. Durchfuhrung, Ger. The development of a theme. Duster, Ger. Dux, The E. E, It. The Lot. Ebollime'nto, It.
Ed, a. A sudden and impas- Echoing, resounding. Same as Brio. Evenness, smoothness. Egalite", Fr. To Eilen, Ger. Eilig, Ger. Ein, Eins, Ger. In a hurried in, Ins. Einfach, Ger. Einhalten, Ger. To pause. Einleitung, Ger. Einschlafen, Ger. Eis, Ger. E1 Elegante, Fr. To It. Brisk, lively. Emeiillonne', Fr. Empater les sons, Fr. To produce a Elevate, It. Empfindungsvoll, Ger. With emo- tion. Emphatique, Fr. Emporte", Fr. Carried away by feeling. Eager, in haste. En elargissant, Fr. Same as allargando.
To increase the tone. Enfler, Fr. Engfuhrung, Ger. The stretto in a fugue. A but not in pitch of any tone, interval, chord, or scale. Thus, for example, the note C may be named B 9 or Dbb. Enjoue', Fr. Cheerful, gay. Ensemble music. Music intended for En serrant, Fr. Entr'acte, Fr. Music intended for performance between the acts of an opera or play.
Entschlafen, Ger. Entschlossen, Ger. En E It. And then. In a determined manner. In voice. Affected, stirred. Ergriffen, Ger. Erhaben, Ger. Lofty, sublime. Erdico, Erotic. A Amatory. Erst, Ger. To Ersterben, Ger. Esempio, Eses, Ger. Espirando, Espressivo, It. Hardly audible. Expiring, dying away. Espressi6ne, Example. Exact, true. Awakening, animation. Esatto, Animation. Earnest, serious, grave. Playing with decis- ion. Etouffe", Fr. Etwas, Ger. Eutimia, It. Stifled, muffled. Expressif Fr. The fourth tone in the natural diatonic scale.
The syllable used for the note F in the " fixed do system of notation it is also the name of the fourth ' ; degree of the diatonic scale.
An Fabe'lla, Lat. Facile, Facilita, i'i-sel and ft. J Weak. Faible, Fr. To execute. Faire, Fr. Falsetto, The highest register of a voice. The It. A Fanfare. Farandole, Fr. France in time. Feier, Ger. Feier-gesang, Ger. Festival hymn. Festive, solemn. Feierlich, Ger. Fein, Ger. Fermame'nte, It. Delicate, refined. With firmness.
Fermata, It. A pause, hold, interruption. Firm, decided. Festigkeit, Ger. Festiglich, GVr. Festlich, Ger. Festlichkeit, Ger.
Feuer, 6Vr. Fire, passion. Wild, It. Fiero, Fifth. An interval containing five degrees. A motive; a group of notes. Figurate counterpoint, fe-goo-ra-ti.
End, Last It. Finale, mental composition in an opera. End, close. Till, up It. Fioche"tto, To fen-que. FiorltO, It.
Fis, Ger. Fistel, Ger. A character lowers 6, old ; 5, it of a vocal or instru- also the closing Fine, Flnqui, Counterpoint configures containing to, number of an act as far as. Faint, veiled. Florid, embellished. Feigned voice. Flessibile, A flourish. F16reo, Sp. Fliichtig, Ger. Fluted, Fr. F6co, Fire, ardor.
Soft, sweet. Fois, Fr. Folatre, Fr. Playful, F6rte, Very ardently. To F6rtsingen, Ger. F6rza, It. Franche"zza, term used when a note or strengthen. Fred6nner, Fr. Frei, Ger. Frescame'nte, Fresco, continue singing.
An Fourth. Confidence, freedom. To triU, to shake. Frdtta, It. Haste, speed. Freude, Ger. Freudengesang, Ger.
Freudig, Ger. Frisch, Ger. Joyful Lively, vigorous. Frb'hlich, Ger. Joyous, gay. Funereal, mournful. Funebre, Fr. Funf-stimmig, Ger. Fu6co, Furia, It. Fur6re, ft. Fuss, Ger. Fusa, Lat. Fury, passion. Funoso, For Fire, spirit. Furib6ndo,' 2Q Fury, passion, vehemence.
A quaver. Gaglidrdo, It. Gai, Fr. Lively, gay. Gaily, cheerfully. Galante, Fr. Galanterstyl, Ger. Free style; ideal Gajame'nte, Gamut. A scale, or staff key of G. Ganz, Ger. Ganz langsam, Ger. Very slowly. Ganze note, Ger. A whole note. Garbatamente, It. Gargdntear, Sp. Gauche, Fr. Gaudlnte, It. To Gracefully. Gayme'nte, Sp. Gaily, lively. The character used to fix the position of one G-clef. Broken, arpeggioed. Gebr6chene akk6rde, Ger.
Broken chords. Gebunden, Ger. Tied, legato. Gedampft, Ger. Pleasure, liking. Gefallen, Ger. Gefallig, Ger. Gefuhl, Ger. Emotion, expression. Gehalten, Ger. Held, sustained. Ghend, Andante. Gelassen, Ger. Gelaufig, Ger. Gelaufigkeit, Ger. Celerity, fluency, velocity. Gemachsam, Ger. Comfortable, easy- Gemachlich, Ger.
Gemahlig, Ger. Gemuthlich, Ger. Gener6so, It. Gentfle, It. Gerdde taktart, Ger. Ges, Ger. Gesang, Ger. Noble, dignified. Art of singing; song, hymn, air.
Geschick, Ger. Skill, dexterity. Slurred, legato. Geschleift, Ger. Geschwind, Ger. Rapid, swift. Gesteigert, Ger. Geteilte, Ger. Gezogen, 6Vr. Gioche'vole, It. Giocondame'nte, Gioc6so, Gi6ja, Confidently. Giocdndo, It. Giusto, It.
Jovial, cheerful. Suitable, strict, tempo-giusto , exact It. Smooth, even. Glatt, Ger. Alike, equal. Gleich, Ger.
Gleichstimmig, Ger. Gleiten, Ger. G16sa, Sp. Joyfully, gaily. Gis, Ger. Giuocante, Playfully. Giubil6so, J get-eo-g'n. Getrost, Ger. To gles-jaw-do. A Harmonious. Gout, Fr.
Taste, style. An embellishment not essential to the melodic or harmonic structure of a composition. The long appogit was written as a small giatura is an exception grace note in order to evade the rule against the use of unprepared dissonances.
Grand, Fr. Granddzza, Grdn gusto, Dignity, grandeur. A term used movement. Gravisonante, It. Large, great. Grati6so, It. Grave, Fr. Lofty, elevated.