Basic Electrical Installation Work has helped thousands of students to gain their first qualification in electrical installation. Now in its fourth edition, this book has. Installation Work This page intentionally left blank. Basic Electrical Installation Work Fourth Edition. TREVOR LINSLEY Senior Lecturer Blackpool and The Fylde. Basic Electrical Installation Work PDF electrical installation work book by brian scaddan Releted Results: advanced electrical installation work edition pdf .
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Volume II: AC & DC Machines Volume IV: Electronic Devices & Circuits of topics in ''Basic BASIC ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING BASIC. Basic Electrical Installation Work Everything needed to pass the first part of the City & Guilds Diploma in Electrical Installations. Updated in line with the 3rd . The 5th Edition of Basic Electrical Installation Work has been completely rewritten This book of electrical installation theory and practice will be of value to the.
If this happens, see if it stops after a while, if can on the first day of illness. A 6 Prevent the load from swinging and twisting while small effort exerted over a greater distance the length being lifted. The Court accepted that an electrician had caused the death of another man as a result of his Regulations shoddy work in wiring up a central heating system. Devices, Drivers and Applications by B. The amount of induced emf is proportional to the rate or speed at which the magnetic field cuts the Inductance conductor.
The fourth edition of Basic Electrical Installation Work The City and Guilds examinations comprise assign- has been written as a complete textbook for the City ments and multiple-choice written papers. For this rea- and Guilds Level 2 Certificate in Electrotechni- son multiple-choice questions can be found at the end cal Technology and the City and Guilds Level 2 of each chapter.
The as an aid to private study and to encourage a thorough book meets the combined requirements of these knowledge of the subject. Level 2 examinations. Modern regulations place a greater responsibility I would also like to thank my colleagues and stu- upon the installing electrician for safety and the design dents at Blackpool and The Fylde College for their of an installation. The latest regulations governing suggestions and assistance during the preparation of electrical installations are the 16th edition of the IEE this book.
Wiring Regulations BS The fourth edi- Finally, I would like to thank Joyce, Samantha and tion of this book has been revised and updated to incor- Victoria for their support and encouragement. Safety regulations and laws Health, safety and welfare legislation has increased the awareness of everyone to the risks involved in the work- place.
All statutes within the Acts of Parliament must be At the beginning of the nineteenth century children obeyed and, therefore, we all need an understanding of formed a large part of the working population of Great the laws as they apply to our electrotechnical industry. They started work early in their lives and they worked long hours for unscrupulous employers or masters. Statutory cing apprentice working hours to twelve per day and Regulations have been passed by Parliament and have, improving the conditions of their employment.
The therefore, become laws. Non-compliance with the laws Factories Act of restricted the working week for of this land may lead to prosecution by the Courts and children aged 13 to 18 years to sixty-nine hours in any possible imprisonment for offenders. We shall now look at three Statutory Regulations as With the introduction of the Factories Act of , they apply to the electrotechnical industry.
They are: They were allowed to employ a small number tricity, Safety, Quality and Continuity Regulations of assistants and were given the responsibility of inspect- formerly Electricity Supply Regulations , ing factories throughout England, Scotland, Ireland and and the Electricity at Work Regulations This small, overworked band of men, were the forerunners of the modern HSE Inspectorate, enforcing the safety laws passed by Parliament.
As the years pro- gressed, new Acts of Parliament increased the powers of The Health and Safety at Work the Inspectorate and the growing strength of the Trade Unions meant that employers were increasingly being Act pressed to improve health, safety and welfare at work. The most important recent piece of health and Many governments have passed laws aimed at improv- safety law was passed by Parliament in called the ing safety at work but the most important recent legis- Health and Safety at Work Act.
This Law not only for stimulating and encouraging high standards of increased the employers liability for safety measures but health and safety at work; the Act puts the responsibility also put the responsibility for safety on employees too.
The employer has a duty to care for the health and 5 demand the dismantling or destruction of any equip- safety of employees Section 2 of the Act. To do this ment, material or substance likely to cause immedi- he must ensure that: Employees have a duty to care for their own health and safety and that of others who may be affected by their actions Section 7 of the Act.
Part 1, Section 3 of the Act instructs not interfere with or misuse anything provided to all employers to prepare a written health and safety protect their health and safety.
Figure 1. Your employer must let you or both.
This is a large laminated poster, mm suit- Laws and rules must be enforced if they are to be able for wall or notice board display. The system of control under the Health and All workplaces employing five or more people must Safety at Work Act comes from the Health and Safety display the type of poster shown in Fig.
The HSE is divided into a number of specialist To promote adequate health and safety measures the inspectorates or sections which operate from local employer must consult with the employees safety rep- offices throughout the UK. From the local offices the resentatives. In companies which employ more than inspectors visit individual places of work. The safety officer is usually employed 1 enter premises unannounced and carry out investi- full-time in that role.
Small companies might employ gations, take measurements or photographs; a safety supervisor, who will have other duties within 2 take statements from individuals; the company, or alternatively they could join a safety 3 check the records and documents required by group.
The safety group then shares the cost of employ- legislation; ing a safety adviser or safety officer, who visits each 4 give information and advice to an employee or company in rotation. Company objective The promotion of health and safety measures is a mutual objective for the Company and for its employees at all levels. It is the intention that all the Companys affairs will be conducted in a manner which will not cause risk to the health and safety of its members, employees or the general public.
For this purpose it is the Company policy that the responsibility for health and safety at work will be divided between all the employees and the Company in the manner outlined below. Companys responsibilities The Company will, as a responsible employer, make every endeavour to meet its legal obligations under the Health and Safety at Work Act to ensure the health and safety of its employees and the general public. Particular attention will be paid to the provision of the following: Reference should be made to the appropriate safety etc.
Management and Supervisors responsibilities Management and supervisors at all levels are expected to set an example in safe behaviour and maintain a constant and continuing interest in employee safety, in particular by: General Managers are ultimately responsible to the Company for the rectification or reporting of any safety hazard which is brought to their attention.
Joint consultations Joint consultation on health and safety matters is important. The Company will agree with its staff, or their representatives, adequate arrangements for joint consultation on measures for promoting safety and health at work, and make and maintain satisfactory arrangements for the participation of their employees in the development and supervision of such measures.
Trade Union representatives will initially be regarded as undertaking the role of Safety Representatives envisaged in the Health and Safety at Work Act. These representatives share a responsibility with management to ensure the health and safety of their members and are responsible for drawing the attention of management to any shortcomings in the Companys health and safety arrangements.
The Company will in so far as is reasonably practicable provide representatives with facil- ities and training in order that they may carry out this task. Review A review, addition or modification of this statement may be made at any time and may be supplemented as appropriate by fur- ther statements relating to the work of particular departments and in accordance with any new regulations or codes of practice. This policy statement will be brought to the attention of all employees.
They are designed to ensure a proper and safe supply of electrical energy up to the consumers terminals. These regulations impose requirements upon the regional electricity companies regarding the installation and use of electric lines and equipment. The regula- tions are administered by the Engineering Inspectorate of the Electricity Division of the Department of Energy and will not normally concern the electrical contractor except that it is these regulations which lay down the earthing requirement of the electrical supply at the meter position.
The regional electricity companies must declare the supply voltage and maintain its value between prescribed limits or tolerances. The government agreed on 1 January that the electricity supplies in the United Kingdom would be harmonized with those of the rest of Europe. Thus the voltages used previously in low-voltage supply systems of V and V have become V for three- phase supplies and V for single-phase supplies.
HSE Crown nominal supply voltage of V. The safety representative should The frequency is maintained at an average value of then bring the dangerous situation to the notice of the 50 Hz over 24 hours so that electric clocks remain safety committee for action which will remove the dan- accurate. This may mean changing company policy or pro- Regulation 29 gives the area boards the power to cedures or making modifications to equipment.
All refuse to connect a supply to an installation which in actions of the safety committee should be documented their opinion is not constructed, installed and pro- and recorded as evidence that the company takes tected to an appropriately high standard. This regula- seriously its health and safety policy.
They are statutory regulations and enforced by the Health and Safety Executive. Every work activity shall be carried out We will now look at six non-statutory regulations in a manner which does not give rise to danger. In the the Management of Health and Safety Regulations case of work of an electrical nature, it is preferable that , the COSHH Regulations , the Provision the conductors be made dead before work commences. Requirements for Electrical Installations BS An electrical contractor could reasonably be expected to have exercised all diligence if the installation was wired according to the IEE Wiring Regulations see below.
However, electrical contractors must become The Management of Health more legally aware following the conviction of an electrician for manslaughter at Maidstone Crown Court and Safety at Work in The Court accepted that an electrician had caused the death of another man as a result of his Regulations shoddy work in wiring up a central heating system. The Health and Safety at Work Act places respon- He received a 9 month suspended prison sentence.
Directors and future any tradesman or professional who causes managers of any company who employ more than five death through negligence or poor workmanship risks employees can be held personally responsible for fail- prosecution and possible imprisonment.
The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations tell us that employers must system- Non-statutory regulations atically examine the workplace, the work activity and the management of safety in the establishment through a Statutory laws and regulations are written in a legal process of risk assessments. A record of all significant framework, they do not actually tell us how to comply risk assessment findings must be kept in a safe place and with the laws at an everyday level.
Informa- Non-statutory regulations and codes of practice tion based on these findings must be communicated interpret the statutory regulations. They have been to relevant staff and if changes in work behaviour pat- written for every specific section of industry, commerce terns are recommended in the interests of safety, then and situation to enable everyone to comply with the they must be put in place.
The process of risk assess- Health and Safety laws. When the Electricity at Work Regulations EWR Risks, which may require a formal assessment in tell us to ensure that all systems are constructed so as to the electrotechnical industry, might be: However, the IEE Regulations working at heights; tell us precisely how to carry out our electrotechnical using electrical power tools; work safely in order to meet the statutory requirements falling objects; of the EWR.
If your electrotechnical work meets the working in confined places; requirements of the IEE Regulations you will also meet electrocution and personal injury; the requirements of the Electricity at Work Regulations.
In their latest site conditions falling objects dust weather amendments the COSHH Regulations focus on water accidents and injuries. Where personal protective equipment is provided by an employer, employees have a duty to use it to The Control of Substances safeguard themselves.
They were re-enacted in with modifications and improve- These regulations tidy up a number of existing require- ments, and the latest modifications and additions came ments already in place under other regulations such as into force in Regulation 6 Act If sonal protective equipment PPE so that employees will an employer has purchased good quality plant and not endanger themselves or others through exposure to equipment, which is well maintained, there is little hazardous substances.
Employees should also know what else to do. Some older equipment may require modi- cleaning, storage and disposal procedures are required fications to bring it in line with modern standards of and what emergency procedures to follow.
The necessary dust extraction, fume extraction or noise, but no assess- information must be available to anyone using haz- ments are required by the regulations other than those ardous substances as well as to visiting HSE inspectors. The most important recent 6 cement and wood dust causing breathing problems piece of legislation are the Construction Regulations.
Construc- equipment and employees must make full and proper tion work is defined as any building or civil engineer- use of it. Safety signs such as those shown at Fig. The vulnerable parts of the body ling of a structure. Schedules tion from falls may need to be considered. Objects specify the requirements for guardrails, working plat- falling from a height present the major hazard against forms, ladders, emergency procedures, lighting and which head protection is provided.
Other hazards welfare facilities. Welfare facilities set out minimum include striking the head against projections and hair provisions for site accommodation: Typical methods sanitary conveniences and protective clothing. There is of protection include helmets, light duty scalp protec- now a duty for all those working on construction sites tors called bump caps and hairnets.
Types of eye protectors include safety spectacles, safety goggles and face shields. Screen based workstations are being used Personal Protective Equipment increasingly in industrial and commercial locations by all types of personnel.
Working with VDUs visual PPE at Work Regulations display units can cause eye strain and fatigue and, therefore, this hazard is the subject of a separate sec- PPE is defined as all equipment designed to be worn, tion at the beginning of Chapter 3 headed VDU or held, to protect against a risk to health and safety.
This includes most types of protective clothing, and Noise is accepted as a problem in most industries equipment such as eye, foot and head protection, safety and surprisingly there has been very little control leg- harnesses, life jackets and high visibility clothing. A continuous exposure limit of below 85 dB many coal miners, has made people aware of the for an eight hour working day is recommended by dangers of breathing in contaminated air.
Some people may prove to be allergic to quite inno- Noise may be defined as any disagreeable or undesir- cent products such as flour dust in the food industry able sound or sounds, generally of a random nature, or wood dust in the construction industry. The main which do not have clearly defined frequencies.
The effect of inhaling dust is a measurable impairment of usual basis for measuring noise or sound level is the lung function. This can be avoided by wearing an decibel scale. Whether noise of a particular level is appropriate mask, respirator or breathing apparatus as harmful or not also depends upon the length of expos- recommended by the companys health and safety ure to it. This is the basis of the widely accepted limit policy and indicated by local safety signs such as those of 85 dB of continuous exposure to noise for eight shown in Fig.
A peak sound pressure of above pascals or about dB is considered unacceptable and dB is the threshold of pain for humans. If a person has to shout to be understood at two metres, the background noise is about 85 dB.
If the distance is only one metre, the Masks Respirators noise level is about 90 dB. Continuous noise at work must be worn must be worn in this area in this area causes deafness, makes people irritable, affects con- centration, causes fatigue and accident proneness and Fig. It may be possible to engineer out some of the noise, A workers body may need protection against heat for example by placing a generator in a separate sound- or cold, bad weather, chemical or metal splash, impact proofed building.
Alternatively, it may be possible to or penetration and contaminated dust. Alternatively, provide job rotation, to rearrange work locations or there may be a risk of the workers own clothes caus- provide acoustic refuges. Appropriate clothing will be recommended at work it may be reduced by ear protectors.
These in the companys health and safety policy. Ordinary may be disposable ear plugs, re-usable ear plugs or ear working clothes and clothing provided for food hygiene muffs. The chosen ear protector must be suited to the purposes are not included in the Personal Protective user and suitable for the type of noise and individual Equipment at Work Regulations.
Breathing reasonably clean air is the right of every Hands and feet may need protection from abrasion, individual, particularly at work.
Some industrial temperature extremes, cuts and punctures, impact or processes produce dust which may present a poten- skin infection. Gloves or gauntlets provide protection tially serious hazard. The lung disease asbestosis is from most industrial processes but should not be caused by the inhalation of asbestos dust or particles worn when operating machinery because they may and the coal dust disease pneumoconiosis, suffered by become entangled in it.
Care in selecting the appropriate. This is a food production area Protective clothing must be worn Wash your hands before commencing work. Wear hairnets NO smoking. European standards.
Boots or shoes with in-built toe caps can give pro- To assist electricians in their understanding of the tection against impact or falling objects and, when fitted Regulations a number of guidance notes have been with a mild steel sole plate, can also provide protec- published. The guidance notes which I will frequently tion from sharp objects penetrating through the sole. Seven other guidance notes book- employees working in wet areas. These are: Whatever the hazard to health and safety at work, Selection and Erection the employer must be able to demonstrate that he or Isolation and Switching she has carried out a risk analysis, made recommenda- Inspection and Testing tions which will reduce that risk and communicated Protection against Fire these recommendations to the workforce.
Where there Protection against Electric Shock is a need for PPE to protect against personal injury and Protection against Overcurrent to create a safe working environment, the employer must Special Locations. So, who non-statutory regulations. They relate principally to has responsibility for these workplace Health and the design, selection, erection, inspection and testing Safety Regulations? The findings cultural and horticultural premises, construction sites concluded that the main cause of accidents at work was and caravans and their sites.
Paragraph 7 of the intro- apathy on the part of both employers and employees. The IEE Wiring Regulations only apply to installa- In general terms, the employer must put adequate tions operating at a voltage up to V a. They do health and safety systems in place at work and the not apply to electrical installations in mines and quar- employee must use all safety systems and procedures ries, where special regulations apply because of the responsibly.
In specific terms the employer must: The current edition of the IEE Wiring Regulations is the 16th edition incorporating amendment number provide a Health and Safety policy statement if 1: The main reason for incor- there are five or more employees such as that shown porating the IEE Wiring Regulations into British in Fig.
Compulsory Insurance Act ; As an Employee you must: Really, just common sense things like politeness used safely; will help you to get on at work. In specific terms the employee must: It is quite common to work a week in hand safety issues by not interfering or misusing any- if you are paid weekly, which means that you will be thing provided for health, safety and welfare in the paid for the first weeks work at the end of the second working environment; week. When you leave that employment, if you have report any health and safety problem in the work- worked a week in hand, you will have a weeks wage to place to, in the first place, a supervisor, manager or come.
Money that you have worked for belongs to employer. Every employee is entitled to a payslip along with their wages, which should show how must you have Employment rights and earned gross , how much has been taken off for tax and national insurance and what your take home pay net is.
Always keep your payslips in a be employed by a member company and receive a safe place. We have seen in the beginning of this chapter that We are all allowed to earn a small amount of money there are many rules and regulations which your tax free each year and this is called the personal employer must comply with in order to make your allowance.
The personal allowance for the tax year in work-place healthy and safe. So bilities that apply to you, as an employee or worker every pound that we earn above is taxed. Your personal It is the employers duty to protect the health and safety tax code enables the personal allowance to be spread and welfare of its employees, so if you do have an acci- out throughout the year and you pay tax on each of dent at work, however small, inform your supervisor, your wages on a system called PAYE, pay as you earn.
Failure to do you a form called a P. It is important Always be careful, use commonsense and follow to keep your P. If in doubt, ask someone. A simple acci- payslips. If at some time you want to buy a house a dent might prevent you playing your favourite sport building society will want proof of your earnings, for a considerable period of time. When leaving a particular employment you must obtain from your employer a form P.
On starting HOLIDAYS new employment this form will be required by your new employer and will ensure that you do not initially Most employees are entitled to at least four weeks paid pay too much tax. After two months it becomes Employees cannot be forced to work more than forty- two twelfths and so on. Ask your supervisor or the eight hours each week on average, and forty hours for kind lady in the office who makes up the wages to 16 to 18 year old trainees.
Trainees must also have explain your holiday entitlement to you. Older workers, required to work for more than six hours continuously, are entitled to a twenty minute rest break, PROBLEMS AT WORK to be taken within the six hours, and must have eleven It is not unusual to find it hard to fit in when you start hours uninterrupted rest from work each day.
If you a new job. Give it a chance, give it time and things are think you are not getting the correct number of breaks, likely to settle down.
As a new person you might seem talk to your supervisor or trade union representative. K, if everyone is treated the If you are sick and unable to go to work you should same, but not so good if you are always the one being contact your employer or supervisor as soon as you teased.
If this happens, see if it stops after a while, if can on the first day of illness. When you go back to not, talk to someone about it. Dont give up your job work, if you have been sick for up to seven days, you without trying to get the problem sorted out. After seven If you feel that you are being discriminated against days you will need a medical certificate from your or harassed because of your race, sex or disability, then doctor and you must send it to work as soon as you can.
There are laws about discrimination that are must pay you statutory sick pay SSP , which can be discussed in Advanced Electrical Installation Work. If you are sick after You can join a Trade Union when you are 16 years twenty-eight weeks you can claim incapacity benefit. Trade Unions work toward fair deals for To claim this you will need a form from your employer their members. If you have a sickness prob- subscriptions subs to pay.
These are often reduced or lem, talk to your supervisor or someone at work who suspended during the training period. As a member of you trust, or telephone the local Social Security Office.
If there is a problem of any kind at work, you that each year over eight thousand young people are in can ask for Union support. However, you cannot get apprenticeships in the electrical contracting industry this support unless you are a member. Most of the trainees Most employers like to have your resignation or go on to qualify as craftsmen and enjoy a well paid and Notice in writing.
Your Contract of Employment fulfilling career in the electrotechnical industry. The min- imum Notice you should give is one week if you have been employed for one month or more by that employer. However, if your Contract states a longer Safety signs period, then that is what is expected. If you have worked for one month or more, but less The rules and regulations of the working environment than two years, you are entitled to one weeks Notice.
If are communicated to employees by written instruc- you have worked for two years you are entitled to two tions, signs and symbols. All signs in the working envir- weeks Notice and a further weeks Notice for every addi- onment are intended to inform. They should give tional continuous year of employment with the same warning of possible dangers and must be obeyed.
At employer up to twelve weeks for twelve years service. However, if you do some- Safety Signs and Signals Regulations have intro- thing very serious, like stealing or hitting someone, duced a standard system which gives health and safety your employer can dismiss you without Notice. The You can also be dismissed if you are often late or purpose of the regulations is to establish an inter- your behaviour is inappropriate to the type of work nationally understood system of safety signs and colours being done.
You should have verbal or written warn- which draw attention to equipment and situations ings before you are dismissed. Text-only If there are twenty or more employees at your place safety signs became illegal from 24th December If a pictogram or symbol such as those shown in you do get a warning, then you might like to see this Fig.
Signs fall into four categories: These are circular white signs with a red border and I do not want to finish this section in a negative way, red cross bar, and are given in Fig. They indicate talking about problems at work, so let me finally say an activity which must not be done.
They give white symbol, and are given in Fig. They give warning of a hazard or danger. They give instructions which Despite new legislation, improved information, edu- must be obeyed. Drinking water First aid Emergency stop post.
An accident may be defined as an uncontrolled event causing injury or damage to an individual or property. An accident can nearly always be avoided if correct procedures and methods of working are followed. Any accident which results in an absence from work for more than 3 days, causes a major injury or death, is notifiable to the HSE.
There are more than 40 accidents reported to the HSE each year which occur as a result of some building-related activity. To avoid having an accident you should: The working environment 5 avoid over-enthusiasm and foolishness; should be kept clean by placing rags in a metal bin with 6 stay alert and avoid fatigue; a lid. Combustible waste material should be removed 7 not use alcohol or drugs at work; from the work site or burned outside under controlled 8 work within your level of competence; conditions by a competent person.
OXYGEN If you observe a hazardous situation at work, first make the hazard safe, using an appropriate method, Oxygen is all around us in the air we breathe, but can or screen it off, but only if you can do so without put- be eliminated from a small fire by smothering with a ting yourself or others at risk, then report the situ- fire blanket, sand or foam.
Closing doors and win- ation to your safety representative or supervisor. Most substances will burn if they are at a high enough Fire control temperature and have a supply of oxygen. The min- imum temperature at which a substance will burn is A fire is a chemical reaction which will continue if called the minimum ignition temperature and for most fuel, oxygen and heat are present. To eliminate a fire materials this is considerably higher than the sur- one of these components must be removed.
This is rounding temperature. However, a danger does exist often expressed by means of the fire triangle shown in from portable heaters, blow torches and hot air guns Fig. A safe distance must be maintained between heat sources and all flam- FUEL mable materials. Fuel is found in the construction industry in many forms: Most solvents are flammable.
Rubbish also represents a Heat can be removed from a fire by dousing with water, source of fuel: Water Foam Carbon Dry powder Vapourising dioxide gas foam. Signal red Pale cream Black French blue Emerald green flash on red flash on red flash on red flash on red flash on red. The base colour of all fire extinguishers is red, with a different coloured flash to indicate the type. Some fire in fighting the fire should walk to a safe area or assem- extinguishers have a cooling action which removes bly point.
Fires are divided into four classes or categories: Fires in industry damage property and materials, injure people and sometimes cause loss of life. Everyone Class A are wood, paper and textile fires. Class D are very special types of fire involving burn- In the event of fire you should: Using the wrong type of the path of the fire, if the fire is small, and if this extinguisher could make matters worse. For example, can be done safely; water must not be used on a liquid or electrical fire.
The normal procedure when dealing with electrical Only attack the fire if you can do so without endan- fires is to cut off the electrical supply and use an extin- gering your own safety in any way. Always leave your guisher which is appropriate to whatever is burning.
Those not involved Figure 1. Work Regulations recommends that the following procedure be adopted so that the device itself is proved:. Electrical safety and isolation 2 Isolate the supply and observe that the test device now reads 0 V. Electrical supplies at voltages above extra low voltages 3 Connect the test device to another source of ELV that is, above 50 V a.
As an electrician working on 4 Lock off the supply and place warning notices. Every circuit must be provided with a means of isolation Regulation and you should isol- The test device must incorporate fused test leads to ate and lock off before work begins. Electrical isol- Electrician at Work sign should be displayed on the ation of supplies is further discussed in Chapter 3 of isolation switch.
Where a test instrument or voltage this book. How- ever, as stated previously in this chapter, construction sites are dangerous places and the temporary electrical supplies must be safe. IEE Regulation tells us that the regulations apply to temporary electrical installations such as construction sites. The frequency of inspection of construction sites is increased to every 3 months because of the inherent dangers.
Regulation recommends the following voltages for distributing to plant and equipment on construction sites:. Portable tools must be fed from a V socket out- let unit see Fig. Socket outlet and plugs are also colour-coded for voltage identification: The level or To prevent people receiving an electric shock acci- intensity of the shock will depend upon many factors, dentally, all circuits contain protective devices.
All such as age, fitness and the circumstances in which exposed metal is earthed, fuses and miniature circuit the shock is received. The lethal level is approximately breakers MCBs are designed to trip under fault condi- 50 mA, above which muscles contract, the heart flutters tions and residual current devices RCDs are designed and breathing stops.
A shock above the 50 mA level to trip below the fatal level as described in Chapter 4. Below 50 mA only an unpleasant do receive electric shocks, usually as a result of. When this Are there inexperienced workers on site? Actions to be taken fied by the companys Hazard Risk Assessment?
The regulations state that:. Switch off the supply if possible. Employers are under a duty to provide such num- Alternatively, remove the person from the supply bers of suitable persons as is adequate and appro- without touching him, e. For this purpose a person shall not be If breathing or heart has stopped, immediately call suitable unless he or she has undergone such professional help by dialling or and asking training and has such qualifications as the for the ambulance service.
Give precise directions Health and Safety Executive may approve. The casualty stands the This is typical of the way in which the health and best chance of survival if the emergency services safety regulations are written.
The regulations and codes can get a rapid-response paramedic team quickly to of practice do not specify numbers, but set out guide- the scene. They have extensive training and will lines in respect of the number of first aiders needed, have specialist equipment with them. Let us now consider the questions what is first aid? Treat for shock. The regulations give the following definitions of first aid. First aid is the treatment of minor injuries which would otherwise First aid receive no treatment or do not need treatment by a doctor or nurse or In cases where a person will require Despite all the safety precautions taken on construc- help from a doctor or nurse, first aid is treatment for tion sites to prevent injury to the workforce, accidents the purpose of preserving life and minimising the do happen and you may be the only other person able consequences of an injury or illness until such help is to take action to assist a workmate.
If you are not a obtained. A more generally accepted definition of first qualified first aider limit your help to obvious common- aid might be as follows: The Health and Safety First Aid Regu- Now having defined first aid, who might become a lations and relevant approved codes of practice first aider? A first aider is someone who has undergone and guidance notes place a duty of care on all employ- a training course to administer first aid at work and ers to provide adequate first aid facilities appropriate holds a current first aid certificate.
The training course to the type of work being undertaken.
Adequate facil- and certification must be approved by the HSE. The ities will relate to a number of factors such as: How many employees are employed? A first aider may also undertake the duties of an What type of work is being carried out? An appointed person is someone who is Are there any special or unusual hazards? The appointed person will also look after the first aid Is there shift work or out of hours work being equipment, including re-stocking the first aid box.
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