PDF | "The modern and largely academic and urban initiated concern with environmental protection of landscapes, species, watersheds, biodiversity. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION. - 1 -. OOIL fully endorses and embraces a policy under which safety and the protection of the environment are foremost and . Environment Protection Act. CAP. Arrangement of Sections. Revised Edition. Page 3. ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION ACT. Arrangement of Sections.
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Environmental protection. Corporate author: UNESCO Office Bangkok and Regional Bureau for Education in Asia and the Pacific . Person as author: Steele. expertise in leading on science-based environmental protection .. https://www. caite.info%20Reports/iema20ghg20reportpdf. The Ethics of Environmental Protection. Conference Paper (PDF Available) · November with 3, Reads. Conference: International Colloquium of Social.
Rather, this continuous use of chemical fertilizers for crop production has given rise to situations where for instance, Labe reported that a millet crop now requires higher fertility rates to produce at optimum level capacity soils. Resources Conservation and Recycling Standardized Environmental Performance Indicators. Tidwell, J. We've made some changes to EPA. SSF are usually simple and can use waste of agro-industrial substrates for enzyme production. Ogunji, Johnny O.
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Download times of large PDF files vary based on connection speed. If a document is labeled with a megabyte, it should be considered a large file and it may take a while to download to your PC. Compounding this problem is the permanent agriculture system practiced in the tropics which generally lead to in severe nutrient depletion in sub-Saharan Africa Zake, As a result of the combination of all these factors, crop yields do not increase as expected in spite of the progress made in agricultural research on crop yield improvement.
On most soils, fertilizer use efficiency decreases due to the deterioration of the soils as thousands of hectares of arable land are destroyed irrevocably every year Kurt, Consequently, it is reported that more than 10kg N, 4kg P 2O5 and 10kgK2O per hectare per year are lost from the soil Zake, It is estimated that 1.
Over half of the worlds grasslands are degraded Action Aid, Consequently, one major problem of most African soils is the rehabilitation of the degraded soils. While farmers resort to the use of chemical inorganic fertilizers to supplement or provide more nutrients to the crop Cooke, ; Kurt, ; they fail to realize that the mere application of fertilizers to the soil does not necessarily trigger crop productivity Zake, Rather, this continuous use of chemical fertilizers for crop production has given rise to situations where for instance, Labe reported that a millet crop now requires higher fertility rates to produce at optimum level capacity soils.
Moreover, the use of chemical fertilizers beyond their immediate effects on crop yields has its draw backs. Tian et al. Enwezor et al. In recent times, serious attention and criticism has been raised on grounds of the serious damage caused to the environment by fertilizers and other chemical herbicides, pesticides and fungicides residues.
Nevertheless, these responses are reported to be ameliorated through practices known to provide the soil with organic matter from decaying plant residue, such as clipped cowpea fodder Lu and Hue, ; Woomer and Mulchena, ; Odion and Singh, a. Moreover, the clipping management facilitates the production of large amounts of green plant organic biomass fresh fodder on- farm which can be put to various uses.
Essentially, it further proves that Sustainable agriculture can greatly increase productivity among resource poor small holder farming communities in developing countries. This is particularly true if the existing farming system uses few fertilizers and other chemicals, which is largely the case for Nigeria and Africa as a whole.
It has tremendous potential for achieving sustainable yield increases by improving the growth conditions for crops and the efficiency of input. It reverses soil degradation processes and builds up soil fertility amongst others: Smallholder farmers are able to save money through less fertilizer and pesticide use; and accrue extra income from selling surpluses.
Moreover, CA has the potential to bring higher prices in emerging markets because of the quality and safety of its production. Referring to the ability of farms to produce food indefinitely, without damaging soils and ecosystems, or human and social capital.
Consequently, such pro- poor income growths originating from sustainable agricultural development as this, need to be encouraged and supported; as evident by the facts that it is productive and has the potential of reducing hunger, poverty and food insecurity in the region, Africa and the world in general Sambo, ; ActionAid, ; Ching, Shollyte Yahoo.
Com; Tel: The need for standardized environmental performance indicators EPIs which link financial and environmental performance in order to support the quality of decision making of stakeholders cannot be overemphasized. In spite of the existence or underway development of a number of guidelines for measuring and disclosing environmental performance, many environmental indicators are of a limited benefit due to the lack of standardization of environmental information.
Most information today moves in a digital format and people often go to the internet for information. Sustainability information, however, has largely remained in print, but report preparers and users have much to gain by moving environmental and social performance information into the wider digital flow of information.
This paper therefore, while showcasing the importance of and need for environmental accounting and reporting, provides a recipe underscored by information standardization through the engagement of the twenty-first century corporate reporting language known as eXtensible Business Reporting Language XBRL.
It thus recommends that Nigeria and the developing countries should embrace the XBRL technology as they cannot afford to be left behind by the fast spreading current worldwide future reporting standard. This is because the adverse impacts of the company activities, products and services on the environment may significantly endanger its existence, prosperity, and may even result in its liquidation.
The protection of the environment represents a highly relevant topic because negative environmental impacts are connected with the activity of each entity i. Hyrslova and Hajek, It is essential that an information system must always be in accordance with information needs of its users. This means that collection, recording, analysis, as well as reporting of information must, in the best possible way, fill the information needs of the most important interested parties.
The information system must be capable of providing information to relevant users in the form enabling them to make decision. Thus, the attributes of such an information system must include the enablement to: Where the aims of an organization include a sound approach to the environment and improvements of economic performance, it is imperative that the management and other interested parties must have at their disposal information concerning the environmental aspects and impacts of the company activities, products and services on the environment, as well as their economic consequences.
This paper showcases environmental accounting as a system that provides the aforementioned information, protects the environment and enhances sustainability reporting.
Making this connection is the challenge to enterprise and the accounting profession, and to the broad audience whose interest is environmental protection. Sustainability and climate change are key issues confronting Nigeria and the global environment. If the various environmental problems are to be tackled, then there is need to access meaningful data through a global and digital medium such as XBRL.
The implication of this is that organizations will be able to adopt a uniform approach that can then be aggregated in real time overcoming any information lag issues which will enable better strategic responses to the long term impacts of business upon the environment, leading to more sustainable approaches to business enterprise.
In other words, XBRL will make possible a reporting future whereby: This paper has endevoured to bring to limelight, the XBRL which is a global standard that is now gaining acceptance and Nigeria as well as the developing world must be aware that XBRL will soon become the international digital language of business.
Its adoption is not a matter of if, but when. It has posited that the XBRL offers a way-out opportunity to the challenges of environmental and sustainability reporting in the twenty-first century as a result of its Standardized Business Reporting SBR features. As companies prepare to launch into their initial XBRL-based communications, proper planning and internal communication will be essential.
Particularly, those who are: These would be designed to help company leaders and academics understand this new communication standard and transit interested parties e. The establishment of electronic government mechanisms for easy access to corporate social responsibility information is made possible through the more appropriate xbrl format.
Advisory committees that will pave the way for requiring companies to turn their environmental financial statements into more easily searchable, comparable, and interactive documents must be constituted. For example, all publicly traded companies could be required to file audited XBRL financial statements in three to five years. In the near term, the largest companies could be required to use the extensible business reporting language to tag their environmental data and share that information with the regulatory bodies without an external auditor's review.
The XBRL concept, projects, and education should form a strong part of the curricula in schools at tertiary and secondary levels.
How should XBRL return on investment be determined? What are the relevant costs? How can the long term benefits be quantified? What is the proper conversion process? Should the current financial reporting system run parallel to the XBRL system? Should the implementation work or the reporting system be outsourced to consultancies? What role should be played in the conversion to a mandated XBRL-based financial reporting environment?
The way to get there is by following the path of: Retrievedfrom http: Accessed date: Coffin, Z. Cohen, E. Gilbert, D. Environmental Reporting. Standardized Environmental Performance Indicators. Willis, M. The Language of Accounting in a Digital World. ABSTRACT Nigeria has for many years been over dependent on conventional and imported building materials which are rather costly and beyond the affordability of the common man.
The building industry in Nigeria is encapsulated with shortage of affordable building and construction materials. People have difficulties building houses of their own because the costs of building materials are astronomically high.
A look inward reveal that Nigeria has a good number of agro-allied wastes, industrial wastes and mineral deposits such as rice husk, saw dust, coconut fiber, palm kernel fibre, marble dust,caicium cabonate to mention but a few.
Rice husk dumps are mountainously available in alarming proportion in Abakaliki and other communities. The rice husk dumps contribute immensely to environmental pollution, degradation and hazards. The evacuation of rice dumps. From these communities requires urgent attention. With an optimized ratio the researcher used Rice husk, marble dust, pulp, cement and water to produce ebonite roofing tiles.
The researcher invented a chemical locally made that can be used to treat rice husk and make it workable in the production of roofing tiles. It can not work except it is treated. Also burning the rice husk before use would destroy its water repellent qualities. The equipment used are vibrator, Italian vortex hydra ferrar, pulverizing machine, oven, shovel and trowels, twenty four tests were carried out on the tiles including fire endurance 30min U-value 0.
The tile is cost effective, strong, maintenance free; resistant to corrosion, water and heat, and it is not casenogenic. The level of technological development determines the level of social, economic and environmental development.
Nigeria for a long time, has depended on conventional building materials which are rather astronomically costly. The problem of over dependence on conventional building materials can be solved by diverting our attention toward the local sourcing of alternative materials for building and construction.
It was for this reason that the Nigerian building and road research institute NBRRI was established in ukot NBRRI laid emphasis on the development of suitable local building materials from mineral deposits and agro industrial wastes that are abundantly available at little or no cost.
The waste materials that are available in our environment include rice husk, saw dust, coconut fibre, palm kernel fibre, marble dust, stone dust to mention but a few. Rice husk dumps are increasing in alarming proportion at Abakaliki. Disposing and evacuating the rice dumps is urgently necessary because of the impending environmental hazards, degradation and pollution it posses to the people and the environs. In attempt to dispose rice husk, most communities, set the rice husk takes dumps on fire.
Unfortunately a small heap of rice husk takes months to get burnt to ashes. Opara noted that rice husk burns to ashes at the o temperature of F. Even when burnt to ashes, it is still an eyesore in the communities especially during the rainy season. Rice husk dump on fire constitute serious environmental hazards especially during the harmattan season when the dust devil and other manner of winds blow.
It can set nearby buildings on fire. Some people are known to have died by unknowingly running into or stepping into rice husk dumps on fire beneath the surface.
Rice husk can be used in the production of roofing tiles. Okorie stated that the harvested rice kernel known as paddy is enclosed by the hull or husks otherwise called rice husk. To obtain the rice husk, the rice paddy is parboiled, dried and milled to separate the rice from the husk.
He also revealed that the rice husk contains cuticule,a biological membrane that does not allow for easy. The federal and State Government should realize that there is urgent need of reduction of prices of contemporary building materials through the manufacture of local building materials. With the break through in the sourcing of a local material that can be used in the production of roofing tiles such as rice husk, immediate action should be taken to establish large or small scale industries to utilize rice husk dumps in the production of roofing tiles.
The establishment of rice husk roofing tile industries will set in motion a giant stride in sustainable technological development in the country. Rice husk is not casenogenic and has no infection whatsoever. Rice is an edible food. It will project the image of Nigeria technologically to the outside world. Rice husk roofing tile industries, if established will create an open door for job opportunities for youth wishing to choose career in the production of roofing tiles and maintenance of machines used in the production of roofing tile.
It will surely reduce the unemployment and poverty rate in Nigeria. The production of rice husk roofing tile is the most effective means of disposing of the rice husk dumps in rice producing communities thereby solving the problem of environmental degradation, environmental pollution and environmental hazards caused by rice husk dumps in the rice producing communities in Nigeria. The commercialization of this rice husk roofing tile is a direct ticket toward the achievement of the melenium goal and the seven-point agenda of the president his Excellency, Shelmusa Yaradua[late] Investors should utilize this golden uportunity to enlarge the scope of their business , to advance Nigeria technologically,.
O , Strenght of Concrete Elements in Building: Unpublished manuscript. University of Jos. Bolynn, C. C , Production of roof tiles using Cocoanut fibre. Abuja Nigeria Bolyn Construction Ltd. Hornbostel, C.
New York: John Willey and Sons Inc. Naomichi, H , Hydromthermal reactivity of rice husk ash and its use for calcium silicate products. American Concrete Abstract A utility of rice husk and its derivations in building industry. Parry, J. Fibre Concrete roofing. Gradley health: Parry and Associates. Ten years of building and road research activities in Nigeria Lagos. Ukpon A. O Partial displacement of cement with rice husk in concret element, unpublished manuscript. And Ayorinde, O.
Urban renewal is perceived to play an important role in the policy towards sustainable development of cities. The paper achieves this through a literature review of urban renewal programmes and draws out implications for effective urban renewal programme in Nigeria. Cities, as seen today exert an increasing attraction on people worldwide; in fact, the population tends to concentrate in big cities. Gomez and st Salvador opined that in the 21 century the number of people living in cities will progressively increase.
City is not an artificial construct; the city is a set of habits, customs and lifestyles. These elements are interrelated, and rather than being viewed individually, they are subsumed in the identity of place and the identification of the city Sepe, According to the author, the contemporary city is characterized by complexity, simultaneity and instability, producing situations of transience and transformation.
In the developed countries in Europe and America, transformations have contributed to an increasing urban identity crisis which transformed cities into heterogeneous.
The mutations in interpersonal relationships and intergeneration gaps, technological development, mass migrations and globalization have transformed to spaces in the urban landscape; new types of place have arisen and the utilization of existing spaces has been modified Sepe, ; Gospodim, ; Gospodim, , pp.
However, each city has its own history, marked by the way it extended and grew; thus it is not surprising to find cities that expanded and occupied new land even in periods in which the population was decreasing. Urban phenomenon is continuously increasing, extending the boundaries of the city or metropolitan areas. Thus, urban planning is experiencing a crisis; at least the concept of urban planning that appeared with the modern movement and its myriad of architects.
The reality in the big cities in Nigeria such as Lagos, Ibadan, Port Harcourt and Benin presents a number of problems that are worth mentioning. These include urban decay, slum, overcrowding, lawlessness; invasion of periurban spaces causes the loss of land and natural resources. The basis of the urban crisis lies in the dimensions and expansion of the large cities where these problems become even more severe.
The number of slums in the city is estimated to have increased to about due to the inadequacy of private public institutions to provide housing the increasing population Adelekan, Inadequacy of basic infrastructures in the urban centres, in many African cities, poor urban planning together with other urban governance challenges contributes to making African urban slum dwellers works at risk.
Poor urban planning or lack of planning as urban development increases is evident in not preventing new development on areas at risk of flooding Adelekan, According to McGranahan et. The objectives of the study are to: Conclusion As stated Ademiluyi and Solanke, , Nigerian Urban centers are faced with numerous problems, so complex are these problems, that they urban centres can be described as an increasingly important stages on which all aspects of the human drama are performed; the highest learning and the grossest ignorance, unimaginable levels of wealth and the most abject poverty exists side by side.
Urban areas in Nigeria depend on natural resources for water, foods construction materials, energy and the disposal of wastes. Urbanization will not, however, deliver its benefits for sustainability automatically; they require careful preparation and nurturing. Thus revitalization of city centres calls for implementation in Nigeria.
Restoring vitality to urban centres means designing centres of attracting. It means offering more and different reasons to come to the city. It also means offering a space that can be used by different groups of people with different needs, each that can find satisfaction.
The above discussion and measure are fundamental to ensure efficient urban renewal that can transform our cities in Nigeria. Perhaps for the Nigerian urban centres to be healthy, and sustainable, the extent of urban decay needs to be investigated and renewal approaches should be identified as done in this study.
Urban renewal or redevelopment can be a useful tool to facilitate the transformation of Nigerian cities. However, in order to ensure sustainable urban development, it is important to take note of the following issues for implementation among others: Proper education and enlightenment of people on issues of urban renewal.
This include- a. Institutional arrangements in formulating and implementing urban renewal policies. Statutory and executive power of implementation agencies and its composition of the board and public accountability. Compensation and rehousing policies. References Adelekan, I. Fifth Urban Research Symposium. Ademiluyi, I. Umanyano press. Afsar, R. Agbola, T. Ahianba, J. Akinbode, I. Alao, J. Aluko B. Regional Conference Accra, Ghana, March 8 — Andersen, H. Transformation of the Urban Concept Del.
Ashley, R. Butler, D. Clark, A. Ho chi. Minh City, Vietnam, September. Emordi, E. Pp 95 — ISSN — Glass, R. Reported in Glan, R. Gomez, F. Gospodim, A. Harvey, D. Hugo, G. Igbokwe, J. Lichtenberger, E. Mabogunje, A. A Spatial Perspective, Hutchinson and Co. Publishing Ltd. Mc Gianahan, G. Balk, D. Environment and Urbanization 19, 17 — Newman, P. Oyesiku, O. Phillip, M. Sepe, M. Journal of Sustainable Development Planning Vol. Wadsworth Inc. Terradas, J. Rubes ed. Toman M.
Opportunities and Challenges for Sustainability in an Urbanizing. Temple, A. Valdya C. UK, 1 — Vidfor, J. Is Urban Revitalisation Bad Too? Paper No. Waque S. Webster, D. Washington D. The World Bank. Zeeman, G. Sustainability rests on the principle that we must meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Therefore, stewardship of both natural and human resources is of prime importance. Stewardship of human resources includes consideration of social responsibilities such as working and living conditions of laborers, the needs of rural communities, and consumer health and safety both in the present and the future.
Stewardship of land and natural resources involves maintaining or enhancing this vital resource base for the long term. Three kinds of reserves of natural resources can be identified Reijnders , Chapman The last are created by very slow geological processes, so slow in human terms that their use diminishes the available stocks.
Resources such as clean water, fertile soils and biodiversity, given the time required for their recovery, can also be considered to be non-renewable.
The Club of Rome first drew attention to the depletion of resources at the beginning of the s. At that time the emphasis was on the depletion of fossil and mineral resources. It was assumed that various important natural resources such as oil and various metal ores would be exhausted within a few decades. In fact this turned out not to be true. Discoveries of new deposits, technological advances and falling energy prices have made possible the recovery of lower grade ores, and the estimated remaining lifetimes of some resources have been considerably extended.
But this is no reason for complacency. Sooner or later, at the current rate of consumption, the reserves of certain resources will be exhausted. This may be a long way off for a number of fossil fuels and mineral ores, but other resources such as biodiversity and fertile soils are being used up so quickly there is a danger that critical thresholds will be crossed.
The drain on biotic resources is particularly alarming; biodiversity and fertile soils are being rapidly used up. And there is no sign of this attack on biodiversity diminishing.
The Earth's natural resources are vital to the survival and development of the human population. Some of these resources, such as minerals, species, and habitats, are finite — once they have been exhausted or destroyed, they are gone forever. Although many effects of over-exploitation are felt locally, the growing interdependence of nations and international trade in natural resources make their management a global issue. A careful and well planned integrated crop, livestock and fish farming will go a long way at ensuring sustainability of our natural resources and environmental protection.
Selected Bibliography Anonymous. Agri-food production Facts and Figures.
Industry and Environment 22 ISSN Chapman P. Metal resources and energy. Butterworths Monographs in Materials. De Vries S. Mijnbouw en duurzaamheid.
IVEM, Groningen. International trade, environment and sustainable agricultural development: The livestock sector and the environment: Climate Change. Climate Change Impacts, adaptations and mitigation of climate change: ISBN 0 9. Strategy to Matthews E. Critical Consumption Trends and Implications. Washington DC: World Resources Institute. ISBN Joint Report on Trade and Environment, Working group on the state of the environment.
Towards more sustainable household consumption patterns, Indicators to measure progress. Pinstrup Anderson P. Towards ecologically sustainable world food production. Reijnders L. A normative strategy for sustainable resource choice and recycling. Resources Conservation and Recycling Nationale Milieuverkenning 5 Voetafdrukken van Nederlanders, energie en ruimtegebruik als gevolg van consumptie. Achtergronden MB98 en MB Report no. Land use, Land —use change, and Forestry.
Cambridge University Press, pp. WWF International. New economics foundation. World conservation monitoring centre: Living Planet Report Agricultural sustainability: Adewuyi, 3N.
Babayemola yahoo. Management of municipal solid waste in Nigeria has become a hydra-headed problem; the menace of solid waste in the environment has never justified both the efforts of government and individuals; and hence the need for continual research on various options for sustainable management of solid wastes. Nine different common African wood species - Irvingia gabonensis Orokoro , Celtis Zenkeri Ita , Albizia zygia Ayunre , Terminalia superba Afara , Cola gigantia Obi , Cordia millennia Omo , Funtumia elastica Ire , Ceiba petandra Araba and Ficus exasperata Obobo , were assessed for combustion and alkali production as options for management of wood waste.
The wood waste sawdust from these species was obtained from a wood factory located behind Bodija market in Ibadan. Ashing was conducted on saw dusts in porcelain o crucibles at C for 4 hours in a muffle furnace for the determination of ash contents. Extraction of potash from the ashes was done using distilled water with a set of filtration system made up of 4-litre transparent plastic bottle with ash sediment itself serving as a sieve while the extract solution leaked out through pin-holes made at the bottom of the bottle.
The purity of the crude potash and proportions of hydroxides and carbonates were determined by titrimetry; while recrystallization of the crude potash was carried out on three of the wood species which showed low purity to evaluate possible enhancement of their purity. The ash content obtained ranged from 1. Volumetric estimation may portray a better picture of ash and potash yield potentials of the plant 3 materials, and hence expressed as 1.
The hydroxide content obtained ranged from 0. The purity was enhanced from The use of wood ash in the past had primarily been restricted to its utilization as liming agent and a source of nutrients for plant Campbell, The chemical composition of an ash depends on that of the substance burned: Exploration of ash-derived alkalis for domestic use is an age-old craft Onyegbado et al.
Studies of chemical composition of wood ash in the past have primarily been restricted to the elemental composition Baker et al. A common assumption in most of these analyses has been that the minerals present are oxides of different elements Mahendra, et al. The assumption may be sufficient to identify the extent of alkalinity of wood ash Shelton and Shapiro, Analysis of extracts from ashes by Nwoko and others Onyegbado et al. Tarun et al. Ashes have a composition which varies according to the kind of wood and the soil in which it grew Kevin, The physical and chemical properties of wood ash vary significantly, depending upon various factors, which in addition to the kind of wood and soil include method and manner of combustion, efficiency of the boiler, and other supplementary fuel used with wood Tarun et al.
Several authors have studied the potash yield of plant materials: Potassium content of some wood species were analyzed by Misra et al Potash has been described as a white crystalline residue that remains after aqueous extract from ashes is evaporated Kevin, It is an impure form of potassium carbonate mixed with other potassium salts Wikipedia, These could be produced locally and industrially.
There are various local extraction technologies, depending on the desired quality, quantity and intended use of the resulting potash Babayemi et al, a. Generally, containers made of aluminum are to be avoided since alkali attacks aluminum. It consists of two clay pots of about 50 litres each mounted on each other. The one on top is open at the base, with radius about half the open top. The open base is completely blocked with pieces of sticks, followed by a layer of wood charcoal.
The remaining space on top is then packed with ashes which had already been moistened with water for some days to aid quick extraction.
Water is then carefully poured on top, as to only saturate the ashes, and not to leach the desired component yet. After few hours, when the ash would have completely absorbed the water and every large pores and air spaces blocked, sufficient water is then carefully poured on top. The water slowly leaches the potash into the lower pot, the ash itself serving as a filter. Perhaps the charcoal removes some unwanted organics from the leaching potash.
The potash produced this way is usually coloured brown, and may have contributed to the black colour of the local soap produced with it. At the top is a transparent plastic bottle of about 2 litres capacity and at the base is a beaker.
The bottle is filled with ashes to about one-third. Sufficient water is added, capped and then shaken thoroughly to dissolve the soluble components. The ash is allowed to settle, till a clear liquid is observed at the top. One or two pin- holes are made at the bottom, and then placed on the beaker, while the cap is removed. The solution on top is filtered by the ashes as it leaks into the beaker. The potash solution obtained this way is usually clear, that is, colorless, although it also depends on the source of the ash.
One of the major management problems in the mega-cities of Nigeria is that of solid waste disposal. Wood waste and ashes take a considerable percentage of solid wastes being generated in Nigeria every day.
Wood factories, including saw mills, are established in their thousands in various states, with thousands of tons of wood shavings and saw dusts being generated each day Aina, At present in Nigeria, apart from the insignificant use as poultry deep litters, the largest percentage of saw dusts and wood shavings end up in dump sites as waste, where they are burnt and the ashes carried away by flood every year.
The ashes generated, including those from combustion of firewood in various homes and food canteens, are either land-filled or open-dumped. This report evaluates the efficiency of burning and consequent extraction of alkali from the resulting ash, as options for management of wood waste. Results and Discussion Table 1 shows the results of the moisture content, dry matter content, density of sample, and density of ashes; the values ranged from The values of ash and potash contents obtained Figure 3 ranged between 1.
Crude potash purity 4. Funtumia elastica gave the highest moisture content while Funtuia elastica had the lowest dry matter content. Ceiba pentandra had the lowest moisture content, highest dry matter content, lowest density and lowest ash yield. Terminali superba had relatively lower moisture content, relatively higher dry matter content, relatively high density and highest ash yield. Funtumia elastica gave the lowest ash yield, while Terminalia superba gave the highest.
This observation was completely reversed in the case of potash yield: Terminalia superba gave the least potash yield. A higher yield was obtained for Funtumia elastica and Ficus exasperata gave the highest yield. It may then be inferred that where ash yield is of interest, Ficus exasperata offers the best option; and where potash yield is of interest, Ficus exasperata offers the best option. As shown in Table 3, the results of the determination of ash content in terms of volume ranged 3 3 from 1.
Taking the upper value And assuming the wood 3 factories generated 82 m of sawdust per day Babayemi and Dauda, , it gave 1 Potash content of the ashes ranged 3 between 4. Taking What a great resource! Alkali content observed for Ficus exasperata was the highest; and Irvingia gabonensis, being the least.
The high alkali content suggests potential use as laboratory reagent, since these results are comparable to the recommended purity of It may then be inferred that potash from ashes is predominantly carbonate of potassium or sodium. The formation of oxides K2O and Na2O suggested by Onyegbado et al could only be true for the burning of pure metals in air; this may not be applicable to the burning of these metals in organic matrices: During combustion, there is a high release of carbon IV oxide, leading to the formation of carbonate rather than oxide of the metals as suggested by these authors.
Irvingia gabonensis contained the highest non-alkali content and Ficus exasperata contained the least. A very high percentage of The results obtained after the enhancement of purity of the crude potash by recrystallization show the possibility of improving upon purity of potash alkali and making it fit for various uses. The two Figures 5 and 6 showed no correlations. Conclusion Ficus exasperata, Ceiba pentandra and Funtumia elastica gave higher potash yield and very high purities were obtained for Ficus exasperata.
These wood species could be recommended as choice materials for potash production. Ash and potash content of the different wood species 30 Enhancement of purity of crude potash Leaching of caustic potash from cocoa husk ash. Bioresource Technology. Aina, O. Wood waste utilization for energy generation. Ankrah, E. Chemical studies of some plant wastes from Ghana. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 25 10 , Evaluation of solid waste generation, categories and disposal options in developing countries: Babayemi, J.
O, Dauda, K. Assessment of ancient and improved alkali production technology. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences. In press. Determination of potash alkali and metal contents of ashes obtained from peels of some varieties of Nigeria Grown Musa species.
BioResources 5 3: Evaluation of the composition and Chemistry of ash and potash from various plant materials — a review. Journal of Applied Sciences. Baker, D. Techniques for rapid analyses of corn leaves for eleven elements. Journal 56, pp. Campbell, A. Recycling and disposing of wood ash. Tappi 73 9 , pp. A 2a Powder Bulk Density. West African Crops. Oxford University Press. Caveman Chemistry.
Retrieved from http: Retrieved from www. Factors affecting the lixiviation of palm bunch ash as a source of alkali for soap production. Ife Journal of Technology. Manhendra, K.
Wood ash composition as a function of furnace temperature. Biomass and Bioenergy, 4 2 , pp. Practical Environmental Analysis. Misra, M. Wood Miroslav, R. Plant ash composition as a function of furnace temperature.
Biomass and Bioenergy 4 2 , Chemical processing development. Nwoko, V. Effects of mixing oil on the preparation and properties of soap. Private Communications. Ojokuku, G. Practical Chemistry for Schools and Colleges. Onyegbado, C. Solid soap production using plantain peels ash as source of alkali. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. Onyekwere, C.
Cassava peels ash: Shelton, J. The wood BurnersEncyclopedia. Vermont Crossroads Press, Waitfield. Taiwo, O. Evaluation of various agro-wastes for traditional soap production. Tarun, R. Use of wood ash in cement-based materials. Wikipedia, the free Encyclopedia, K and Adeboye, A. B Covenant University Ota, Nigeria. Estimated costs of building projects, which hitherto have been based on regression models, are usually left with gaps for high margin of errors and as well, they lack the capacity to accommodate certain intervening variables as construction works progress.
Data of past construction projects of the past 2 years were adjusted and used for the study. This model is developed and tested as a predictive cost model for building projects based on Artificial Neural Networks ANNs. This model will help professionals save time, make more realistic decisions, and help avoid underestimating and overestimating of project costs, which are some of the advantages over previously used Regression models.
A number of uncompleted and abandoned projects are attributable to overall bad projects management of which poor forecasting approach is a factor. Poor cost forecasting approach will lead to underestimating or overestimating and consequently cost overrun. Project abandonment as a result of cost overrun arising from poor cost forecasting approach, is an interesting phenomenon locally as well as globally. This phenomenon has led to various stakeholders in built environment to be aware of importance of accurate project cost right from conceptual stage of building project as well as throughout the life cycle of the project work.
The awareness of working with accurate cost has thus created a trend among various clients including private, corporate, as well as public clients government , that prudency in resources allocation is a great necessity for successful execution of project works. This development led to the advent of forecasting project cost so as to generate project cost information which reveals what the value of a project cost could be in future. However, in providing project cost information, cost estimator often resort to using traditional approach, recent developments on the other hand has proven the fact that traditional approach, which uses historical methods do not tend to capture the details of project works cost components, as well as intervening variables that impacts the cost magnitude.
The cube method was the first recorded forecasting method; this was invented about years ago, floor area approach was developed around Skitmore et al ,some researchers later developed storey enclosure method on , which provides better result over the previously developed cube and floor area, certain variables were identified and incorporated into the model other than those used in the past, like floor areas vertical positioning, storey heights, building shape and presence of basement.
However in the mids, researchers started deploying statistical techniques cost modeling, through these, conventional methods evolved, such as approximate quantities and optimization. Peculiar to the research work in this era is possibility of demonstrating the applicability of the developed models, as a result of seemingly non applicable nature of model generated.
The analysis carried out in the study, presents preliminary validation of prospect of obtaining a model that will predict building construction cost with minimum error, and as well demonstrates the applicability of Neural network in forecasting the cost of building work.
The result of the analysis indicates high level of accuracy in the output obtained from the neural network model. The model when developed will be simple to use. It is believed that the model will be suitable for use at different stages project work. O; OjO, and Obamiro, J. Pp Brandon, A. The Royal Institution of chartered surveyors, London.
Bouabaz M and Hamami, M. American Journal of Applied Sciences. PP56 — Copeland, J and Proudfoot, A Creese, R. Ferry, D. J; Bandon, P. S Cost Planning of Building. Blackwell th Science Limited. Garza, J and Rouhana, K. Neural Networks Versus Parameter based Application. Y; Shanker, M. Anals of Operations research, 87, PP — John, F.
D, Smith, P and David, J Cost planning of building, Seventh Edition, Blackwell science, Oxford. Iowa State Press. Third Edition, Blackwell Publishing Company. United State of America. Moore C. F; Lees, T. Rics paper series. Morantz, B. H; Whalen, T. Rafiq M. U, Bugman G, Easterbrook D. Compustruct, 79, Skitmore, R. M, and Ng, S. Walczak S. Journal of Managements Information System, 17 4 , William, T.
In Topping, B. It is also an oil rich nation with diversity of ecosystems. The country is committed to the principle of sustainable development by adopting environmental protection policy. The paper through historical approach traces the environmental policy development in the country. It identifies the policy strategies designed in support of sustainable development. It reckoned that policy impediments are hindrances to environmental sustainability. The environment could be looked at as the basis for man existence.
The misuse or misappropriation of the constituents of the environment could hamper the health, socio-economy and peace of a nation. This may leads to state or national security. Thus, it is essential that man should design a way for its sustainability.
This can only be achieved through formulation and development of adequate and dynamic environmental protection policy which will engender environmental sustainability.
The Environmental Sustainability as an off shoot of the Principle of Sustainable Development emphasizes the need to meet the needs and aspiration of the present without compromising the needs of the future WECD, It can only be midwife by the nation with the support of its citizenry.
Sustainable development entails the harmonization of population growth with utilization and exploitation of natural resources through redirection and reorientation of research and development as well as institutional changes UN-ECA, Environmental Policy formulation, adoption and implementation are generally developing concepts that came about in the late These concepts are still evolving in developing economy like Nigeria when they claimed to be put into force.