FULL PROJECT REPORT ON ROAD CONSTRUCTION IN PWD, CD-1, A Summer Training Report On CONSTRUCTION OF CEMENT. The projects in road and highway construction and civil engineering are varied and challenging. In order to manage various challenges in a cost-efficient. T2. Project Title: Guidelines on the selection and use of road construction materials. Project Reference: R APPROVALS. Project Manager. Quality reviewed.
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This Procedure Manual provides a guide to the correct construction practices and procedures for use on road contracts by the Roads and. Highways Department. 𝗣𝗗𝗙 | In the context of formulation of the 11th Five Year Plan, it was decided by the require a significant boost to the capacity of road construction industry. issued primarily for constructing roads and bridges on Federal Highway projects under Construction contracts of the Federal Highway Administration are also.
Contraction joints have a crack onset which extends to a depth of one third of the slab thickness and can be equipped with dowels. The operations to be performed are: It is, for example, the primary form of sand apparent in areas where reefs have dominated the ecosystem for millions of years like the Caribbean. Angel Castro. Usually, the specifications prescribe that the concrete has to be transported in dump trucks as paving concrete consists of a relatively dry mix having a consistency that makes transport and unloading in truck mixers difficult. Portland cement may be grey or white. A bitumen road tanker.
The mix falls through a series of inclined vibrating screens and the various size f i fractions are storedd in i hot h storage bins. The sizes are mixed and then the required q amount of hot bitumen is added and mixing continued. The batch is then discharged from the mixer into a waiting truck, and the batching process repeated.
Hot Storage Bins, Brisbane Plant. In the Brisbane plant, the batches of hot mix are stored in insulated storage g bins, and this means that arriving trucks can be filled more rapidly.
Asphalt Paving. Paving Machine, Front View. This is a view of the front of a typical self-propelled, p p , floating g screed,, ppaving g machine. Tip trucks discharge the hot asphalt into the front hopper and it is then conveyed to the rear of the machine hi by a chain and slat conveyor.
Paving Machine, Machine Rear View. View This picture shows a truck with its tray tipped, discharging mix into the paver. The operator sits on top and steers the machine to the required alignment. Screed Unit. The screed unit consists of levelling arms, a screed pplate which vibrates to act as a tamper, and thickness controls. It is supported by the mix which gives it a floating action.
Reference Beam Attached to Paver. A long moving reference beam, mounted on shoes or skis can be used to ensure the screed follows a smooth line regardless of irregularities in the surface being paved. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Arif Samoon. Nordin Yunus. Satya Narayan Shah. Resa S Mall. Hazirah Achik. Vizag Roads.
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WordPress Shortcode. GLA University Follow. Published in: Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Net at DigitalEssay. I was kind of shocked with the quality of the paper they gave me. Recommended it to a bunch of my foreign friends and now they use it too. Our vehicle's tyres are made for flexible pavement, suspension are also made for flexible pavement.
It is the flexible pavement that gives smoothness of drive. My point being, driving cars on concrete roads asks for early maintenance of tyres and other car parts. It would certainly help if some cost-benefit analysis is done keeping road users safety and maintenance in mind.
Show More. Ashutosh Ind. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. I express my deepest gratitude to my supervisor and mentor Mr. His consistent support and advices has helped me to complete this research project successfully. They have always been a source of inspiration to me. It plays a pivotal role in the implementation of government construction projects. It also undertakes projects for autonomous bodies as deposit works.
Public works Department has highly qualified and experienced professionals forming a multi-disciplinary team of civil, electrical and mechanical engineers who work alongside architects from the Department of Architecture. With its strong base of standards and professionalism developed over the years, PWD is the repository of expertise and hence the first choices among discerning clients for any type of construction project in Uttar Pradesh.
Besides being the construction agency of the Government, it performs regulatory function in setting the pace and managing projects for the country's construction industry under the close supervision of the Ministry of Housing and Public Works.
The Public works Department has highly qualified and experienced professionals forming a multi-disciplinary team of civil, electrical and mechanical engineers who work alongside architects from the Department of Architecture.
As a sister organization falling under the administrative control of the Ministry of Public Works department, the latter works well with the PWD in providing service to the nation. With its strong base of standards and professionalism developed over the years, the PWD is the repository of expertise and hence the first choices among discerning clients for any type of construction project in Bangladesh. It is recognized as a leader and pacesetter in the construction industry because of its consistently superior performance.
Roads are the major channel of transportation for carrying goods and passengers. They play a significant role in improving the socio-economic standards of a region.
Roads constitute the most important mode of communication in areas where railways have not developed much and form the basic infra-structure for the development and economic growth of the country. The benefits from the investment in road sector are indirect, long-term and not immediately visible. Roads are important assets for any nation. However, merely creating these assets is not enough, it has to be planned carefully and a pavement which is not designed properly deteriorates fast.
India is a large country having huge resource of materials. If these local materials are used properly, the cost of construction can be reduced.
There are various type of pavements which differ in their suitability in different environments. Each type of pavement has its own merits and demerits. A lot of research has been made on use of Waste materials but the role of these materials is still limited.
So there is need to take a holistic approach and mark the areas where these are most suitable. India has one of the largest road networks in the world over 3 million km at present. For the purpose of management and administration, roads in India are divided into the following five categories: The State Highways are supposed to carry the traffic along major centres within the State.
Other District Roads and Village Roads provide villages accessibility to meet their social needs as also the means to transport agriculture produce from village to nearby markets. Major District Roads provide the secondary function of linkage between main roads and rural roads. Point of view geographic and population of the state is the nation's largest state. State Industrial, economic and social development of the state and the population of each village is absolutely necessary to re-connect to the main roads.
In addition to state important national roads, state roads and district roads and their proper broad be made to improve the quality of traffic point of view is of particular importance. Public Works Department to build roads and improve connectivity in rural zones, Other District Road and State broad and improvement of rural roads and main routes narrow construction of zones and depleted bridges and brides reconstruction of the bases are transacted on a priority basis.
Also under Pradhanmantri Gram Sadak Yojana and pre-fabricated construction of rural roads linking the work of other district roads broad Kilometres the scale bases are edited. Activities by planning, execution, and quality control etc. Pavement or Road is an open, generally public way for the passage of vehicles, people, and animals. Pavement is finished with a hard smooth surface.
It helped make them durable and able to withstand traffic and the environment. They have a life span of between 20 — 30 years. It can be characterized by the tire loads, tire configurations, repetition of loads, and distribution of traffic across the pavement, and vehicle speed.
These eliminating moisture problems such as mud and pounding puddles. Drainage system consists of: Removing all water present on the pavement surface, sloping, chambers, and kerbs. Removing water that seep into or is contained in the underlying sub-grade.
This is the most convenient and simple type of construction. The cost of construction of single lane bituminous pavement varies from 20 to 30 lakhs per km in plain areas. Due to freezing and melting of ice in bituminous voids, volume expansion and contraction occur. This leads to pavements failure. In near future, there will be scarcity of bitumen and it will be impossible to procure bitumen at very high costs. There are various merits in the use of Rigid pavements Concrete pavements are summarized below: The demand for bitumen in the coming years is likely to grow steeply, far outstripping the availability.
Hence it will be in India's interest to explore alternative binders. Cement is available in sufficient quantity in India, and its availability in the future is also assured. Thus cement concrete roads should be the obvious choice in future road programmes. The fuel savings themselves can support a large programme of concreting. At present it is recommended that the paving slabs not be made longer than 5,even if the joints have dowels to transfer the loads.
The movements as a result of fluctuations in temperature and humidity are concentrated in the joints. Normally, these joints 8. The width of the pavement slabs is limited to a maximum of 4. The diameter of the reinforcing bars is calculated in such a way that cracking can be controlled and that the cracks are uniformly distributed spacing at 1 to 3 m.
The crack width has to remain very small, i. However, in that sector they are used intensively.
For road pavements steel fibre concrete can be used for thin or very thin paving slabs or for very specific application. Communities around the world rely on concrete as a safe, strong and simple building material. It is used in all types of construction; from domestic work to multi-storey office blocks and shopping complexes. Despite the common usage of concrete, few people are aware of the considerations involved in designing strong, durable, high quality concrete.
The word "cement" traces to the Romans, who used the term caementicium to describe masonry resembling modern concrete that was made from crushed rock with burnt lime as binder.
The volcanic ash and pulverized brick additives that were added to the burnt lime to obtain a hydraulic binder were later referred to as cementum, cimentum, cement, and cement. Cements used in construction can be characterized as being either hydraulic or non-hydraulic.
Hydraulic cements e. Thus, they can harden underwater or when constantly exposed to wet weather. The chemical reaction results in hydrates that are not very water-soluble and so are quite durable in water. Non-hydraulic cements do not harden underwater; for example, slaked limes harden by reaction with atmospheric carbon dioxide. The most important uses of cement are as an ingredient in the production of mortar in masonry, and of concrete, a combination of cement and an aggregate to form a strong building material.
The resulting hard substance, called 'clinker', is then ground with a small amount of gypsum into a powder to make 'Ordinary Portland Cement', the most commonly used type of cement often referred to as OPC. Portland cement is a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar and most non-specialty grout. The most common use for Portland cement is in the production of concrete.
Concrete is a composite material consisting of aggregate gravel and sand , cement, and water. As a construction material, concrete can be cast in almost any shape desired, and once hardened, can become a structural load bearing element. Portland cement may be grey or white. The fly ash is pozzolanic, so that ultimate strength is maintained.
Because fly ash addition allows lower concrete water content, early strength can also be maintained. Where good quality cheap fly ash is available, this can be an economic alternative to ordinary Portland cement. In countries where volcanic ashes are available. However, silica fume is more usually added to Portland cement at the concrete mixer SAND Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.
The composition of sand is highly variable, depending on the local rock sources and conditions, but the most common constituent of sand in inland continental settings and non-tropical coastal settings is silica silicon dioxide, or SiO2 , usually in the form of quartz.
The second most common type of sand is calcium carbonate, for example aragonite, which has mostly been created, over the past half billion years, by various forms of life, like coral and shellfish. It is, for example, the primary form of sand apparent in areas where reefs have dominated the ecosystem for millions of years like the Caribbean.
For a good concrete mix, aggregates need to be clean, hard, strong particles free of absorbed chemicals or coatings of clay and other fine materials that could cause the deterioration of concrete. Aggregates, which account for 60 to 75 percent of the total volume of concrete, are divided into two distinct categories-fine and coarse. Coarse aggregates are any particles greater than 0. Gravels constitute the majority of coarse aggregate used in concrete with crushed stone making up most of the remainder.
Natural gravel and sand are usually dug or dredged from a pit, river, lake, or seabed. Crushed aggregate is produced by crushing quarry rock, boulders, cobbles, or large-size gravel. Recycled concrete is a viable source of aggregate and has been satisfactorily used in granular sub bases, soil-cement, and in new concrete.
Aggregate processing consists of crushing, screening, and washing the aggregate to obtain proper cleanliness and gradation. If necessary, a benefaction process such as jigging or heavy media separation can be used to upgrade the quality. Once processed, the aggregates are handled and stored in a way that minimizes segregation and degradation and prevents contamination. Aggregates strongly influence concrete's freshly mixed and hardened properties, mixture proportions, and economy.
Consequently, selection Although some variation in aggregate properties is expected, characteristics that are considered when selecting aggregate include: Grading limits and maximum aggregate size are specified because grading and size affect the amount of aggregate used as well as cement and water requirements, workability.
Fine aggregate shall consist of sand, or sand stone with similar characteristics, or combination thereof. Coarse aggregate shall consist of clean, hard, durable gravel, crushed gravel, crushed boulders, or crushed stone. The following table sets forth the master limits of the job mix for the several grades of concrete, and designates the quantities of materials and relative proportions for each grade of concrete.
The quantities of aggregates set forth in the tabulations are for oven dry materials having a bulk specific gravity of 2. For aggregates having a different specific gravity, the weights shall be adjusted in the ratio that the specific gravity of the material used bears to 2. This allows to provide a homogeneous bond between the concrete slab and its foundation which is important for the later behaviour of the pavement structure.
For roads with a base, drainage of the water must be provided. Mud, leaves, etc. When the base is permeable, it should be sprayed with water in order to prevent the mixing water from being sucked out of the concrete. However, if the base is impermeable e. The following points are important for roads without a foundation: