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For instance, we use inferential statistics to try to infer from the sample data what the population thinks. Hyderabad is the HI-Tech. Which article of the constitution of India provides for the post of Governor of state? The 's saw many machines developed that were controlled by punch cards - weaving looms. Mainframe computers are large, expensive and process billions of characters of data rapidly and fill entire rooms. In computing, a mouse plural mice, mouse devices, or mouses is a pointing device that functions by detecting two-dimensional motion relative to its supporting surface.

The first one appeared in January and was the Altair kit. Only hobbyists bought these. Market growth remained sluggish until two business students - Dan Bricklin and Dan Fylstra - developed a program to run on Apple computers to handle the tedious recalculations in their school assignments. This program was called VisiCalc and is the forerunner to the spreadsheet program Lotus With VisiCalc as a useful tool, Apple sales took off.

Apple became the standard because all programs were written for Apple. Today in the US, Apple still dominates the school market. The PC was unable to run Apple software.

This means the technical details of how it operated were published with the product's introduction. This permitted hundreds of companies to write software programs for the IBM PC and a variety of hardware accessories. Adding IBM's sterling reputation, the open architecture did enable rapid market penetration. The microcomputer was no longer a toy, it was a business tool. The open architecture also allowed for the generation of a host of lower cost compatible computers.

IBM had traded quick initial market entry for eventual erosion of market share. In both instances, the consumers' benefit. In the early 90s Computers were applied variously in the fields of Science, Technology and Space exploration. Initially, PCs revolutionized how businesses are run, but today, computers deepest impact are felt in the merging of Communications and Information.

The emergence of the World Wide Web and the explosion of Internet usage is having far-reaching effects on all aspects of society.

Success and progress in all spheres of life, is now driven by Information and Technology. The future is bright, but it is up to every user of the technology to see that it is used to positive effect. Mauchly and J. Later, a punched card-to-tape machine was added to read IBM column and Remington Rand column cards. The UNIVAC I was used in November to calculate the presidential election returns and successfully predict the winner, although it was not trusted by the TV networks who refused to use the prediction.

The first of 23 Direction Centers went online in Nov.

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The ton computers known as "Clyde" were based on Jay Forrester's Whirlwind I and had magnetic core memory, magnetic drum and magnetic tape storage. The Centers were connected by an early network, and pioneered development of the modem and graphics display.

But Watson was impressed with the new transistor radios and gave them to his engineers to study. This program for the first time made hypertext popular and useable to a wide number of people. The beta version 0. The PC and Mac versions of Mosaic followed quickly in Mosaic was the first software to interpret a new IMG tag, and to display graphics along with text. Berners-Lee objected to the IMG tag, considered it frivolous, but image display became one of the most used features of the Web.

The Web grew fast because the infrastructure was already in place: This similar to asking why do we use cars? But too many people and organizations purchase and use Computers for the wrong reasons. Computers are practical tools to be used in helping you get results. Computers are needed where: There is a need for a more accurate and cost effective knowledge to assist decision making. Success and progress is now being determined by your access to information and how you use that information to get results.

It is impossible to get results due to either time constraint or sheer magnitude of work involved. It will reduce the mental and physical effort in tackling certain tasks. There is intense competition and there is a need for cost efficiency through the elimination and reduction of inefficient practices. There is a need to assist in enhancing Customer service.

There is a need for correct forecasting of market trends to ensure business survival. Here are a few of the application areas:. They are especially useful for humanly intractable calculations and simulation experiments. This is especially critical in situations where it would be too risky or expensive to directly carry out the required operation.

From the toddler to the full grown adult, educational Computer tools are available. Computers are useful for learning about Computers and learning about other subjects, i.

Learning is usually interactive and can be reinforced over and over. For children, the advent of Multimedia, has made learning fun. Computers enhances Customer service, through the provision of upto date and timely information for their Customers. Computers additionally assist with the monitoring of operational costs, to ensure cost effectiveness and profitability of operations.

In some financial institutions, Computers are used to identify trends and provide timely information for present and future management decision making. You know what they say about Jack. With the games, you could be the sole player, play against the Computer or you and a friend could play against each other.

This can be very useful in Crime detection and prevention. Such systems can be interfaced with photograph capturing and fingerprint systems.

They can also be linked to mobile radio communication systems over a wide area to enable in the fast and efficient sharing of information on Criminal activities. Such systems would possess enquiry facility for historical and analytic purposes.

There so many other areas where the impact of the Computer is being felt such as Medicine, Law, Sports, Entertainment, Media, Building, Construction, etc. In every situation the Computer performs different functions relating to Information storage, input, output and processing. It is no wonder that productive Computer based activity is referred to popularly as Information Technology.

What are Computers? HARDWARE In simplest terms, hardware is the physical parts associated with a computer - the electronic, magnetic, and mechanical devices monitor, keyboard, printer, micro chip boards, floppy drives, cables and physical pieces of a system.

These programs instructions tell the hardware how to do a particular task such as word processing, games, database management, etc. Although these instructions are usually stored inside a piece of hardware e. In a way, Software refers to the instructions that enable an otherwise dead machine to understand your inputs and transform them into desired outputs.

Computer hardware by itself lacks personality; this is determined by the software. Word processing software turns the computer into a word processor, accounting software turns the computer into an accounting tool, etc. Lets discuss a bit about Software before we go back to Hardware. There are two major types of software: Operating system software and Applications software. DOS is software that allows the terminal, printer, computer and mass storage systems floppy disks to work together as a unit, and controls the execution of programs.

It also allows you to do housekeeping chores regarding managing disks and files. Applications programs perform tasks on a higher level e. Generally an application software package uses the lower level operating system DOS to do routine tasks e. And what is a Database? A database is a collection of information that is organized for ease of reference.

For example, your address book is a database, just as an inventory of goods, a list of all churches in your state or your staff list. Before Electronic processing of information, databases had to be maintained on paper stored in file folders that were kept in filing cabinets. The CPU is a set of miniaturized circuits that does all the "thinking".

It controls the interpretation arithmetic-logic unit and execution control unit of instructions. It is the CPU that largely determines the operating speed of the computer. For example, while a processor would struggle to load Windows 3. Additionally, a processor is obviously incapable of running most new software. Pentium processor are now as fast as MHz. Now the good stuff. Lets read on and want delve into great complexity.

The central processing unit or CPU is the "brains" of every computer. It is the control center and contains two circuit elements to perform tasks plus several special locations or memory areas called registers which hold instructions.

Registers, located within the CPU chip are temporary storage locations which hold instructions. Secondly, the arithmetic logic unit or ALU is the location within the CPU where basic math and logic operations take place such as addition and subtraction. Finally, the control unit is a portion of the CPU which directs all elements of the computer.

It does not add or subtract like the ALU, it only directs the activity. Despite this seeming complexity, a basic fact remains: For purposes of digital computer electronics, internally a computer can only respond to two things: These electronic states of being might actually be a positive and negative voltage or a high and low voltage stored in a series of transistors etched in silicon on a chip, but to the computer the logic is on or off.

Two conditions, that is all. Back in the human world we can represent these as one and zero 1 and 0. A special branch of mathematics deals with calculations of numbers represented by 1 and 0 which is called binary arithmetic.

To computers ZERO is always a number!!! To a computer these binary numbers march together in a long string, one after another. Remember, the CPU has only two numbers to work with: Human Decimal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Computer Binary 0 1. A ninth "odd bit" is used for error checking parity testing to make sure the other eight bits are not accidentally erased or lost during storage or use by the computer. Bits are like alphabet characters and bytes are like the words made up from alphabet characters.

Bits and Bytes are used to measure information by the computer.

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BIT Smallest unit of information recognized by the computer. BIT is short for Binary Digit. A Binary Digit can be either a 0 or a 1. Several bits make up a byte.

This grouping of adjacent binary digits bits is operated on by the computer as a unit. A BYTE is also a unit of measure since it represents 1 character. For example, when the letter "A" is pressed, the keyboard actually sends the following to RAM: Your brain is a memory sponge. It contains a lifetime of memories that cause us to act or react based on inputs.

Inputs come through our 5 senses. If you see and smell hot suya burning on the grill inputs you know how to react based on previous experiences.

A set of miniaturized circuits which represents the working memory of the computer. This is where application programs software can be loaded from the outside and then executed.

The larger the RAM the better. A typical single user computer system may contain approximately 8,, bytes of RAM. Each day when we start up the computer one of the first tasks will be to fill RAM with instructions to give it an ability to do work. This work may be in the creation of documents or tracking accounting data. You control which instructions will go into the computer's brain. You control the sets of experiences you will provide the computer.

Once in RAM, the computer will evaluate inputs from many devices and react. The most typical input device is a keyboard. As you type commands, the computer evaluates them. Based on the set of instructions within its RAM, it will follow some action: At some later point you may empty the computer's brain and install a different set of instructions, thus giving it a different ability. The RAM is emptied when the computer is turned off - thus it is often called "volatile" memory.

To make it permanent we "save" it or "write" it to a floppy disk or hard drive. These devices are non volatile storage - they do not require electricity. Each time the computer is turned off, all information within RAM is lost. RAM is called volatile memory because of the electricity requirement. These instructions are set at the factory and cannot be changed - thus, they can only be "read", not written to.

ROM instructions perform equipment checks and initialization of the computer prior to each use. You can record information on a cassette that can be replayed indefinitely and if desired, recorded over. Floppy and Hard Disks operate in a similar fashion. We record Save something we have created - like a document - onto the disk. The magnetic disk used to store information works in a manner similar to a tape recorder - magnetic impressions are placed on the tape and can be later replayed.

A magnetic computer disk works in the same fashion but spins in a circle like a music record rather than moving in a straight line like recording tape.

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Magnetic computer disks are available in two basic types: Just like cassettes, the Floppy and Hard Disks do not require electricity to retain their information. Hard Disks and Floppy Disks are similar.

However, Hard Drives have a larger capacity for file storage, are faster and are less likely to fail due to the protected environment from within which they operate. Floppy and Hard Disks are nonvolatile in nature because they will retain their information without the aid of electricity. A hard disk can hold considerably more information than a floppy disk - frequently billions and millions of computer words or "bytes" while a floppy disk holds less than a million in many cases.

However what the floppy disk loses in capacity in gains in the advantage of portability since it can easily be removed from the PC and stored which is not true of the hard disk. When you format a disk you ask the computer to inspect the magnetic surface of the disk for any errors, prepare it for use by future data and create an index "file allocation table FAT " which is like a card index for a large library of books.

Formatting a disk is a little like taking a blank piece of paper and using a pencil and ruler to turn it into graph paper with both horizontal and vertical lines. What was blank before now has little cells or file drawers which can hold information. This device "reads data from a magnetic disk, and copies data into the computer's memory RAM so it can be used by the computer, and that "writes" data from the computer's memory onto a disk so it can be stored for later use.

A Disk Drive reads and writes on a 5. Will hold data even after the computer is turned off. Data on these disks is stored in concentric rings called tracks. The Disk surface is a thin piece of mylar and is coated with a magnetized material similar to audio or video tape. Therefore, the Disk can be used, erased, and reused indefinitely. Floppy disks are also available as double density and high density format. A standard floppy diskette is either 5D inches or 3A inches square.

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Obviously the high density of 3A" diskette contains more information than the 3A" double density diskette. A 5D" Double-sided, Double density disk holds approximately k worth of information double spaced pages of text.

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The smaller 3. Working with floppy diskettes. To insert a floppy diskette into your computer drive, first remove it from the paper or plastic slipcover if one protects it.

The proper way to insert a floppy diskette in most drives is as follows. Near the notches will be a jelly bean shaped hole about one inch long cut into the plastic surface of the diskette. Insert the diskette into the drive with the label side up and the two tiny notches FIRST into the drive opening then close the drive locking handle.

This is a safeguard feature you may wish to use from time to time. It is essentially a very large floppy disk. This Fixed Disk commonly called a Hard Drive is secured within the machine and cannot be seen or transported. Fixed Disks are available from 5M on up. The main advantages are that it has enough space to meet most users' total storage needs, operates much faster than a floppy times faster , and is less likely to fail since it "lives" within the protected computer.

The keyboard and the mouse. However, there are many extra special keys that are defined by the software you are running.

The mouse also contains several buttons to help select items on data on the monitor screen. A mouse was initially an optional device, but it is becoming difficult to work without it, with the spread of Windows based systems. This text and images can be from a variety of sources such as magazines, photographs, articles, scientific diagrams, etc.

The scanner creates a digital image from your photograph or drawing, for use in graphics, DeskTop Publishing or Presentation applications.

The flatbed scanner provides a larger scanning area than the other scanners and is the usually more expensive. Any pictures taken are transferred straight to the computer, i. It eliminates the need for film. The computer can control a plotter to combine on one piece of paper differing pen colors and text and pictures stored within the computer. Computer plotter can be purchased with flat table or flat bed configurations or in models which move the pen s back and forth with gears that also drive the paper movement at the same time.

There are many types of modern computer printer with differing speeds and capabilities. The most common printer is the Dot matrix printer which provides characters made up from tiny dots of ink on paper. Line printers usually with Mainframe computers or Minicomputers print entire lines of text in one sweep then move to the next line and are thus very fast.

Ink jet printers produce characters made from individual dots of ink sprayed onto the paper. The ink jet printer squirts individual dots of ink onto the paper to form letters or other characters.

A high quality paper is necessary since the wet ink can smear if not carefully handled. Although with the most recent models, ordinary paper can also be used. The Colour print facility is also now standard with most inkjet printer.

Finally, laser printers use a rapidly scanning laser to sensitize a polished drum with an entire page of information quickly and look and work roughly like an office copier.

The laser and ink jet printers are becoming more popular due to rapid speed of printing and quiet mode of operation. The laser printer is used for quickly producing one page of text at a time. In operation, the laser scans a polished drum with an image which is then dusted with dark toner particles which stick to the exposed areas made sensitive by the laser.

Paper is then placed in contact with the drum and the toner is transferred to the page and is finally fused with heat to "fix" or seal the toner particles to the page. Of the Microcomputer printers, the Laser is the most expensive in terms of purchase price, maintenance cost and consumable cost. Dot matrix printers are common and affordable alternatives for many small offices, home computer hobbyists or organizations with voluminous printing requirements e. The Dot matrix is additionally designed for use with continuous flow paper, as well as typical single sheet paper.

Dot matrix usually operates in varying modes of draft and letter quality. In draft mode, the printer speed is faster, with draft quality. Letter quality is slower with higher quality. Dot matrix printers produce letters via small pins which strike the ink ribbon and paper to produce print which can be jagged looking.

Nine pin dot matrix printers produce somewhat rough looking letters while 24 pin dot matrix printers produce crisper, fully- formed letters. The Dot matrix printer strikes the paper through a ribbon to transfer ink to the printed page. Connecting a printer via a cable to the computer is always done through one of two plugs or interfaces on the back of the computer.

One type of interface computer plug is serial, the other called parallel. The most commonly used interface for printers today is the parallel interface but serial interface printers do exist. What is the difference? Recall that there are eight bits computer dots and dashes to a byte or computer word. The serial interface has each bit sent one at a time to the printer - like men in single file at the supermarket checkout counter.

The parallel interface sends all eight bits at once - like eight men all entering eight supermarket counters at once. Each interface is different, the printer manufacturer will tell you which interface to use, i. Frequently, modems or mouse devices use the serial interface leaving the printer to the parallel interface.

The monitor is a television like device that the computer uses to communicate with you. The monitor or video display works much like your television - some older home computers still use a TV. An old term for a monitor is the cathode ray tube or CRT. Monitors differ in the sharpness or resolution they can display.

On the low end of the resolution spectrum is the monochrome single color monitor frequently available in either green or amber screens. Each monitor is matched to work with a circuit card located within the body of the computer. The dots which make up all images on the monitor screen are called pixels.

The smaller the pixels, the higher and sharper the image resolution. Typically the monitor displays 80 columns characters by 25 rows lines of information. The initial SVGA cards could only display 16 colours. And then colours. Now some SVGA card can display millions of colours. Typical devices mentioned earlier are the disks floppy and hard. A device to send and receive computer output over telephone lines.

Don't look for RAM near your mouse. Most of the components are internal, and kept inside a casing. This casing model can be Tower, minitower or desktop.

Inside the casing, there is a power supply unit that takes in the power supplied from the public power supply and steps it down to supply the computer's needs. Also inside the casing is the motherboard, which is a large printed circuit board that all expansion boards plug into. The motherboard contains the most essential parts of the computer such as the CPU, RAM, ROM, keyboard, speaker and power connections, and other assortment of important parts.

Hardware is a general term that refers to the physical artifacts of a technology. It may also mean the physical components of a computer system, in the form of computer hardware. Hardware historically meant the metal parts and fittings that were used to make wooden products stronger, more functional, longer lasting and easier to fabricate or assemble. In modern usage it includes equipment such as keys, locks, hinges, latches, corners, handles, wire, chains, plumbing supplies, tools, utensils, cutlery and machine parts, especially when they are made of metal.

In a more colloquial sense, hardware can refer to major items of military equipment, such as tanks, aircraft or ships. In slang, the term refers to trophies and other physical representations of awards. Retrieved from "http: System software is any computer software which manages and controls computer hardware so that application software can perform a task. System software contrasts with application software, which are programs that enable the end-user to perform specific, productive tasks, such as word processing or image manipulation.

System software performs tasks like transferring data from memory to disk, or rendering text onto a display device. Specific kinds of system software include loading programs, Operating systems, device drivers, programming tools, compilers, assemblers, linkers, and utility software. Software libraries that perform generic functions also tend to be regarded as system software, although the dividing line is fuzzy; while a C runtime library is generally agreed to be part of the system, an OpenGL or database library is less obviously so.

If system software is stored on non-volatile memory such as integrated circuits, it is usually termed firmware. Computer software is a general term used to describe a collection of computer programs, procedures and documentation that perform some tasks on a computer system.

The term includes application software such as word processors which perform productive tasks for users, system software such as operating systems, which interface with hardware to provide the necessary services for application software, and middleware which controls and co-ordinates distributed systems. Computer software is so called to distinguish it from computer hardware, which encompasses the physical interconnections and devices required to store and execute or run the software.

In computers, software is loaded into RAM and executed in the central processing unit. At the lowest level, software consists of a machine language specific to an individual processor.

A machine language consists of groups of binary values signifying processor instructions which change the state of the computer from its preceding state.

Software is an ordered sequence of instructions for changing the state of the computer hardware in a particular sequence. It is usually written in high-level programming languages that are easier and more efficient for humans to use closer to natural language than machine language. High-level languages are compiled or interpreted into machine language object code. Software may also be written in an assembly language, essentially, a mnemonic representation of a machine language using a natural language alphabet.

Assembly language must be assembled into object code via an assembler. The term "software" was first used in this sense by John W. Tukey in The theory that is the basis for most modern software was first proposed by Alan Turing in his essay Computable numbers with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem.

The Dvorak Simplified Keyboard layout arranges keys so that frequently used keys are easiest to press. Advocates of this keyboard layout claim that it reduces muscle fatigue when typing common English. Physically, a keyboard is an arrangement of buttons, or keys. A keyboard typically has characters engraved or printed on the keys; in most cases, each press of a key corresponds to a single written symbol. See input method editor. A majority of all keyboard keys produce letters, numbers or signs characters that are appropriate for the operator's language.

Other keys can produce actions when pressed, and other actions are available by the simultaneous pressing of more than one action key. A contemporary computer mouse, with the most common standard features: In computing, a mouse plural mice, mouse devices, or mouses is a pointing device that functions by detecting two-dimensional motion relative to its supporting surface.

Physically, a mouse consists of a small case, held under one of the user's hands, with one or more buttons. It sometimes features other elements, such as "wheels", which allow the user to perform various system-dependent operations, or extra buttons or features can add more control or dimensional input. The mouse's motion typically translates into the motion of a pointer on a display, which allows for fine control of a Graphical User Interface. The name mouse, originated at the Stanford Research Institute, derives from the resemblance of early models which had a cord attached to the rear part of the device, suggesting the idea of a tail to the common mouse.

For the use of the term input-output in economics, see Input-output model. Inputs are the signals or data received by the system, and outputs are the signals or data sent from it.

For instance, keyboards and mouses are considered input devices of a computer, while monitors and printers are considered output devices of a computer.

Devices for communication between computers, such as modems and network cards, typically serve for both input and output. Note that the designation of a device as either input or output depends on the perspective. Mouses and keyboards take as input physical movement that the human user outputs and convert it into signals that a computer can understand.

The output from these devices is input for the computer. Similarly, printers and monitors take as input signals that a computer outputs. They then convert these signals into representations that human users can see or read. For a human user the process of reading or seeing these representations is receiving input. In computer architecture, the combination of the CPU and main memory i.

For example, most operating systems provide application programs with the concept of files. The C standard library provides functions for manipulating streams for input and output. Die of an Intel DX2 microprocessor actual size: A Central Processing Unit CPU , or sometimes just called processor, is a description of a class of logic machines that can execute computer programs.

This broad definition can easily be applied to many early computers that existed long before the term "CPU" ever came into widespread usage. The term itself and its initialism have been in use in the computer industry at least since the early s Weik The form, design and implementation of CPUs have changed dramatically since the earliest examples, but their fundamental operation has remained much the same.

Early CPUs were custom-designed as a part of a larger, usually one-of-a-kind, computer. However, this costly method of designing custom CPUs for a particular application has largely given way to the development of mass-produced processors that are suited for one or many purposes.

This standardization trend generally began in the era of discrete transistor mainframes and minicomputers and has rapidly accelerated with the popularization of the integrated circuit IC. Both the miniaturization and standardization of CPUs have increased the presence of these digital devices in modern life far beyond the limited application of dedicated computing machines. Modern microprocessors appear in everything from automobiles to cell phones to children's toys.

When used within a robotic tape library, it is classified as tertiary storage instead. Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, refers to computer components, devices, and recording media that retain digital data used for computing for some interval of time. Computer data storage provides one of the core functions of the modern computer, that of information retention. It is one of the fundamental components of all modern computers, and coupled with a central processing unit CPU, a processor , implements the basic computer model used since the s.

In contemporary usage, memory usually refers to a form of semiconductor storage known as random access memory RAM and sometimes other forms of fast but temporary storage. Similarly, storage today more commonly refers to mass storage - optical discs, forms of magnetic storage like hard disks, and other types slower than RAM, but of a more permanent nature.

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Historically, memory and storage were respectively called primary storage and secondary storage. The contemporary distinctions are helpful, because they are also fundamental to the architecture of computers in general. As well, they reflect an important and significant technical difference between memory and mass storage devices, which has been blurred by the historical usage of the term storage.

Nevertheless, this article uses the traditional nomenclature. PC Memory Units - Noun1. Users may need to identify themselves for the purposes of accounting, security, logging and resource management.

In order to identify oneself, a user has an account a user account and a username, and in most cases also a password see below. Users employ the user interface to access systems. Users are also widely characterized as the class of people that uses a system without complete technical expertise required to fully understand the system. In most hacker- related contexts, they are also divided into lusers and power users.

See also End-user computer science.

Screen names also called a handle, nickname, or nick on some systems refer to a public name that can be used to 'screen' ones true user name from the public eye. Services such as AOL allowed customers to have multiple screen names per user name, and IRC nicks are independent of one's system account username. For instance, one can be a user of and have an account on a computer system, a computer network and have an e-mail account, an IM account and use one or more nicks on IRC.

Communication is an indispensable tool in all areas of human interaction. But it is a process that is complex. The extent of its complexity can be seen in the variety of ways in which it can be defined. Thus, communication is any behavior, verbal, nonverbal or graphic that is perceived by another. It involves a web of activities that differ in different situations.

In the workplace, for example, you would probably communicate differently when talking formally to customers as compared to informally with a peer. How you perceive the situation will often determine your communication behavior.

People communicate with each other in a variety of ways that depend on the message they want to send and the context in which it is to be sent. As a result there are a variety of forms and types of communication such as e-mail, face-to-face, telephone, meetings, corridor conversations and seminars. Dwyer categorizes these into. Like a jigsaw puzzle, each model provides a part of the picture, but no one model seems to cover all aspects. Berlo's focus remained on the transmission model of communication.

However, he introduced more of the human elements, such as the relationship between the message channel and the five senses. Effective communication involves both the sender and the receiver.

The sender must be as clear as possible and the receiver must signal understanding or clarification. It involves both content and relationship elements. The transmission model is concerned with the transfer of meaning from the sender to the receiver.

Communication is a one way process. The transmission model was subsequently adapted to form the process models in which people transmit, receive, interpret and respond to messages with feedback. The process models have seven main elements:. The receiver then provides feedback. The process is influenced by the context of the situation and any noise or interference. It is, therefore, important to try to minimize barriers to effective and efficient communication: Communication in an organization may be used to influence, inform, control or inspire.

Organizational communication can be divided into two broad categories - formal or structured within the 'systems' established by management and informal as when co- workers chat about company matters. Both areas are significant and both need to be 'healthy' for the organization to be healthy. Formal communication channels follow the organizational structure or hierarchy and flow in four directions:.

These four directions in which communication can travel are: Downward 1 communication involves communication from higher to lower levels so that leadership can communicate goals, strategies or role expectations. Upward 2 communication flows from lower levels to higher levels of the organization, for example, when there is a need to communicate problems, results or suggestions.

Horizontal 3 communication occurs across the same level and involves for example, coordination of activities with peers teams, committees , dissemination of useful information from one department to another for example sales forecasts from the sales department to production, and problems such as a problem with product design from the production department to research and development. Horizontal communication facilitates the linking of different areas of expertise and this may encourage innovation.

Diagonal 4 channels may potentially cause conflict as they involve communication between the lower level of one department to a higher level in another. In the diagram above, this may cause friction between the employee in accounting department C and the Vice-President VP of Accounting as the employee has gone around his or her own superior. Nevertheless this type of communication may be useful as it may simply be information relevant to the Marketing Department and the VP Accounting does not need to be involved.

Formal communication networks also occur within the hierarchy of the organization and reflect how groups of employees, for example those in a department, work together.

Networking or mapping the flow of communication in an organization can be a useful device. Many communication problems arise from the structure of the organization. Dwyer mentions three related organizational factors: Other factors may include downsizing which leads to ambiguous reporting structure and poor leadership.

Many of these problems may be overcome by:. Informal organizational communication exists outside the formal lines of the organizational structure. An example of this is friendship groups. The informal communication channel serves two main purposes: One of the most common forms of informal communication is 'the grapevine'. According to Kreitner and Kinicki the term grapevine originated from the American Civil War practice of stringing battlefield telegraph lines between trees as a means of efficient communication.

Now it supplements the formal channels of communication. Action research is a methodology that combines action and research to examine specific questions, issues or phenomena through observation and reflection, and deliberate intervention to improve practice. Applied research is research undertaken to solve practical problems rather than to acquire knowledge for knowledge sake.

Basic research is experimental and theoretical work undertaken to acquire new knowledge without looking for long-term benefits other than the advancement of knowledge. Qualitative research is research undertaken to gain insights concerning attitudes, beliefs, motivations and behaviors of individuals to explore a social or human problem and include methods such as focus groups, in-depth interviews, observation research and case studies.

Quantitative research is research concerned with the measurement of attitudes, behaviors and perceptions and includes interviewing methods such as telephone, intercept and door-to-door interviews as well as self-completion methods such as mail outs and online surveys. When a study is designed primarily to describe what is going on or what exists. Public opinion polls that seek only to describe the proportion of people who hold various opinions are primarily descriptive in nature.

And plzz suggest me best book for computer science according to syllabus …. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. Accept Read More.

All Rights Reserved. Recently it has been revised and many topics were added which were previously not there in the syllabus. PROS — There are several books available in the market, but we find this book error free compared to others Divided into ten units, New edition comprehensively covers all topics as per the latest prescribed syllabus.

Pdf 1 upkar ugc net paper

Explanation are very good and has got previous years solved papers as well. This book has become top seller in teaching and research aptitude section due to its better quality content.

None of the books cover all the topics of paper 1 in details. The brand has unique composition with no of NET exam books available in market for various subjects. This book was top seller in teaching and research aptitude section for years and in the past many direct questions were asked as it is.

So many students have reported many wrong answers in this book. Higher Education Section require inclusion of latest changes and scheme launched by Govt of India Topic wise objective question need to be segregated for better concept grasping. ICT Topics need revision to include current trends and technology.

Data Interpretation section lacks in types. Solved Papers of last 15 years from December to July examinations are sold separately so you need to buy two books to cover every. It is not at all updated from many years..

Free lecture videos are also included. New syllabus topics completely with lot of questions to practice. Continue Reading. KVS Books is better than anything else in the market, specially Arihant, and free of embarrassing typos too. You might also like More from author. Prev Next. Ani says 1 month ago. Not sure …it was supposed to come in last week of march …. Aniii says 1 month ago.

When kvs madaan new update available for paper 1??????