Hardware and networking questions and answers pdf

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The address resolution protocol (ARP) is used to associate the 32 bit IP address with the 48 bit physical address, used by a host or a router to find the physical. Download basic networking interview questions and answers pdf for freshers and its internet address after by only knowing its hardware address (Physical). COMPUTER HARDWARE Questions and Answers pdf free download,objective troubleshooting questions,multiple choice questions,lab viva.

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+ Hardware And Networking Interview Questions and Answers, Question1: What is a node and links? Question2: What are the layers of the OSI reference. Top Networking Interview Questions & Answers .. computer network problems, what common hardware-related problems can occur?. You have to be well-prepared to crack a networking job interview. Here are some of the probable Hardware and Networking Interview.

Which is using now? A fixed central table lets a manager modify only one table, which is then read by other devices. What are the important topologies for networks? Q 33 Name the different types of network topologies and brief its advantages? What are the different DRAM types? Such a physical medium is called as Links and the computer it connects is called as Nodes.

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This is one of the protocols that are used for remote access. Tracert is a Windows utility program that can used to trace the route taken by data from the router to the destination network.

It also shows the number of hops taken during the entire transmission route. A network administrator has many responsibilities that can be summarize into 3 key functions: When you are accessing the resources that are shared by one of the workstations on the network, that workstation takes a performance hit. A hybrid network is a network setup that makes use of both client-server and peer-to-peer architecture. Its main task is to automatically assign an IP address to devices across the network.

It first checks for the next available address not yet taken by any device, then assigns this to a network device. This is a set of protocol layers that is designed to make data exchange possible on different types of computer networks, also known as heterogeneous network. Routers have built in console that lets you configure different settings, like security and data logging. You can assign restrictions to computers, such as what resources it is allowed access, or what particular time of the day they can browse the internet.

You can even put restrictions on what websites are not viewable across the entire network. This is possible because FTP is platform independent. Default gateways provide means for the local networks to connect to the external network. The default gateway for connecting to the external network is usually the address of the external router port. What can be considered as good passwords?

Good passwords are made up of not just letters, but by combining letters and numbers. A password that combines uppercase and lowercase letters is favorable than one that uses all upper case or all lower case letters. Passwords must be not words that can easily be guessed by hackers, such as dates, names, favorites, etc. Longer passwords are also better than short ones. The proper termination for unshielded twisted pair network cable is ohms.

Netstat is a command line utility program. The number of possible network IDs is 2 raised to 21 or 2,, The number of host IDs per network ID is 2 raised to 8 minus 2, or Cables that are too long would result in signal loss. This means that data transmission and reception would be affected, because the signal degrades over length.

Software related problems can be any or a combination of the following: This is also the protocol that manages error messages that are used by network tools such as PING. Ping is a utility program that allows you to check connectivity between network devices on the network.

You can ping a device by using its IP address or device name, such as a computer name. Peer to peer are networks that does not reply on a server. All PCs on this network act as individual workstations.

One major advantage of fiber optics is that is it less susceptible to electrical interference. It also supports higher bandwidth, meaning more data can be transmitted and received. Signal degrading is also very minimal over long distances. A hub acts as a multiport repeater. However, as more and more devices connect to it, it would not be able to efficiently manage the volume of traffic that passes through it.

A switch provides a better alternative that can improve the performance especially when high traffic volume is expected across all ports. There are three main network protocols supported: For Class A, there are possible networks and 16,, hostsFor Class B, there are 16, possible networks and 65, hostsFor Class C, there are 2,, possible networks and hosts 67 What is the standard color sequence of a straight-through cable? Is it possible to do this without using a hub or router?

Yes, you can connect two computers together using only one cable. A crossover type cable can be use in this scenario. In this setup, the data transmit pin of one cable is connected to the data receive pin of the other cable, and vice versa. Ipconfig is a utility program that is commonly used to identify the addresses information of a computer on a network. It can show the physical address as well as the IP address.

A straight-through cable is used to connect computers to a switch, hub or router. Servers provide a centralized repository of resources such as printers and files. Clients refers to workstation that access the server. Networking refers to the inter connection between computers and peripherals for data communication. Networking can be done using wired cabling or through wireless link.

The main purpose of this is the in the event that one server fails, all processing will continue on with the next server in the cluster. An anti-virus program must be installed on all servers and workstations to ensure protection. That's because individual users can access any workstation and introduce a computer virus when plugging in their removable hard drives or flash drives. Ethernet is one of the popular networking technologies used these days.

It was developed during the early s and is based on specifications as stated in the IEEE. Ethernet is used in local area networks. In case one workstation on the network suffers a malfunction, it can bring down the entire network.

Another drawback is that when there are adjustments and reconfigurations needed to be performed on a particular part of the network, the entire network has to be temporarily brought down as well. Multicast routing is a targeted form of broadcasting that sends message to a selected group of user, instead of sending it to all users on a subnet.

Encryption is the process of translating information into a code that is unreadable by the user. It is then translated back or decrypted back to its normal readable format using a secret key or password. Encryption help ensure that information that is intercepted halfway would remain unreadable because the user has to have the correct password or key for it. IP addresses are displayed as a series of four decimal numbers that are separated by period or dots.

Another term for this arrangement is the dotted decimal format. An example is Authentication is the process of verifying a user's credentials before he can log into the network. It is normally performed using a username and password. This provides a secure means of limiting the access from unwanted intruders on the network. This is a mode of data exchange wherein two communicating computers do not use IPSec themselves.

Instead, the gateway that is connecting their LANs to the transit network creates a virtual tunnel that uses the IPSec protocol to secure all communication that passes through it.

Analog connections - using conventional telephone lines; Digital connections - using digital-grade telephone lines; switched connections - using multiple sets of links between sender and receiver to move data. In the event that one link fails, there will always be another available.

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Mesh topology is actually one of the most fault-tolerant network topology. A large percentage of a network is made up of hardware. Problems in these areas can range from malfunctioning hard drives, broken NICs and even hardware startups.

Incorrectly hardware configuration is also one of those culprits to look into. A common way of dealing with such a problem is to use repeaters and hub, because it will help regenerate the signal and therefore prevent signal loss. Checking if cables are properly terminated is also a must. Instead of having to visit each client computer to configure a static IP address, the network administrator can apply dynamic host configuration protocol to create a pool of IP addresses known as scopes that can be dynamically assigned to clients.

Profiles are the configuration settings made for each user. A profile may be created that puts a user in a group, for example. Sneakernet is believed to be the earliest form of networking wherein data is physically transported using removable media, such as disk, tapes.

IEEE, or the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, is an organization composed of engineers that issues and manages standards for electrical and electronic devices. This includes networking devices, network interfaces, cablings and connectors. There are 4 protocols that are being managed by this layer. Rights refer to the authorized permission to perform specific actions on the network.

Each user on the network can be assigned individual rights, depending on what must be allowed for that user. A VLAN is required because at switch level there is only one broadcast domain, it means whenever new user is connected to switch this information is spread throughout the network. VLAN on switch helps to create separate broadcast domain at switch level.

It is used for security purpose. At present, IPv4 is being used to control internet traffic, butis expected to get saturated in the near future. IPv6 was designed to overcome this limitation. It is the most commonly used public key encryption algorithm in use today. Mesh topology is a setup wherein each device is connected directly to every other device on the network.

Consequently, it requires that each device have at least two network connections. The maximum allowable length for a network segment using Base-FX is meters. The maximum length for the entire network is 5 kilometers.

What are the types of errors? Errors can be categorized as a single-bit error or burst error. A single bit error has one bit error per data unit. A burst error has two or more bits errors per data unit. What do you mean by redundancy? Redundancy is the concept of sending extra bits for use in error detection. Three common redundancy methods are parity check, cyclic redundancy check CRC , and checksum.

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Define parity check. In parity check, a parity bit is added to every data unit so that the total number of 1s is even or odd for odd parity. Simple parity check can detect all single bit errors. It can detect burst errors only if the total number of errors in each data unit is odd. In two dimensional parity checks, a block of bits is divided into rows and a redundant row of bits is added to the whole block.

Define cyclic redundancy check CRC. C RC appends a sequence of redundant bits derived from binary division to the data unit. The divisor in the CRC generator is often represented as an algebraic polynomial. What is hamming code? The hamming code is an error correction method using redundant bits. The number of bits is a function of the length of the data bits. By rearranging the order of bit transmission of the data units, the hamming code can correct burst errors.

Define stop and wait ARQ. In stop and wait ARQ, the sender sends a frame and waits for an acknowledgement from the receiver before sending the next frame.

What do you mean by network control protocol? Network control protocol is a set of protocols to allow the encapsulation of data coming from network layer protocol that requires the services of PPP.

What do you mean by CSMA? To reduce the possibility of collision CSMA method was developed. What do you mean by Bluetooth? It is a wireless LAN technology designed to connect devices of different functions such as telephones, notebooks, computers, cameras, printers and so on.

What is IP address? The internet address IP address is 32bits that uniquely and universally defines a host or router on the internet. The portion of the IP address that identifies the network is called netid. The portion of the IP address that identifies the host or router on the network is called hostid. It is the method used to solve the channel allocation problem.

It is used for: It is of two types: Pure aloha 2. Slotted aloha. What is Firewalls? It is an electronic downbridge which is used to enhance the security of a network. What is Repeaters? A receiver receives a signal before it becomes too weak or corrupted,regenerates the original bit pattern,and puts the refreshed copy back onto the link.

It operates on phycal layer of OSI model. What is Bridges? They divide large network into smaller components. They can relay frames between two originally separated LANs.

They provide security through partitioning traffic.

They operate on physical and data link layer of OSI model. What is ICMP? It also handles both control and error messages.

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What is FDM? FDM is an analog technique that can be applied when the bandwidth of a link is greater than the combined bandwidths of the signals to be transmitted. What is WDM? WDM is conceptually the same as FDM, except that the multiplexing and demultiplexing involve light signals transmitted through fiber optics channel. What is TDM? TDM is a digital process that can be applied when the data rate capacity of the transmission medium is greater than the data rate required by the sending and receiving devices.

List the steps involved in creating the checksum. Divide the data into sections b. Add the sections together using 1's complement arithmetic c. Take the complement of the final sum, this is the checksum. Compare Error Detection and Error Correction: The correction of errors is more difficult than the detection. In error detection, checks only any error has occurred. In error correction, the exact number of bits that are corrupted and location in the message are known.

The number of the errors and the size of the message are important factors. What are the protocols in application layer? What are the protocols in transport layer? What do you mean by client server model? In client server model ,the client runs a program to request a service and the server runs a program to provide the service.

These two programs communicate with each other. One server program can provide services to many client programs. TELNET is a client —server application that allows a user to log on to a remote machine,giving the user access to the remote system. It is the main protocol used to access data on the World Wide Web.

It is so called because its efficiency allows its use in a hypertext environment where there are rapid jumps from one document to another. What is World Wide Web? World Wide Web is a repository of information spread all over the world and linked together.

It is a unique combination of flexibility,portability,and user-friendly features. The World Wide Web today is a distributed client-server service,in which a client using a browser can access a service using a server. The service provided is distributed over many locations called web sites.

What is Beaconing?

And networking hardware pdf answers questions and

The process that allows a network to self-repair networks problems. The stations on the network notify the other stations on the ring when they are not receiving the transmissions. What is RAID? A method for providing fault tolerance by using multiple hard disk drives. A transport protocol designed by microsoft and IBM for the use on small subnets.

The address resolution protocol ARP is used to associate the 32 bit IP address with the 48 bit physical address, used by a host or a router to find the physical address of another host on its network by sending a ARP query packet that includes the IP address of the receiver.

The reverse address resolution protocol RARP allows a host to discover its Internet address when it knows only its physical address. The header should have a minimum length of 20 bytes and can have a maximum length of 60 bytes.

What are major types of networks and explain? Server-based network: What are the important topologies for networks? BUS topology: In this each computer is directly connected to primary network cable in a single line. Inexpensive, easy to install, simple to understand, easy to extend. STAR topology: In this all computers are connected using a central hub.

Can be inexpensive, easy to install and reconfigure and easy to trouble shoot physical problems. RING topology: In this all computers are connected in loop.

All computers have equal access to network media, installation can be simple, and signal does not degrade as much as in other topologies because each computer regenerates it. What is mesh network? A network in which there are multiple network links between computers to provide multiple paths for data to travel. What is difference between baseband and broadband transmission? In a baseband transmission, the entire bandwidth of the cable is consumed by a single signal. In broadband transmission, signals are sent on multiple frequencies, allowing multiple signals to be sent simultaneously.

What is packet filter? Packet filter is a standard router equipped with some extra functionality. The extra functionality allows every incoming or outgoing packet to be inspected.

Packets meeting some criterion are forwarded normally. Those that fail the test are dropped. What is traffic shaping? One of the main causes of congestion is that traffic is often busy. If hosts could be made to transmit at a uniform rate, congestion would be less common. Another open loop method to help manage congestion is forcing the packet to be transmitted at a more predictable rate.

This is called traffic shaping. What is multicast routing? Sending a message to a group is called multicasting, and its routing algorithm is called multicast routing. What is Kerberos? It is an authentication service developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Kerberos uses encryption to prevent intruders from discovering passwords and gaining unauthorized access to files.

What is passive topology? Example for passive topology - linear bus. What are the advantages of Distributed Processing?

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Distributed database c. Faster Problem solving d. Security through redundancy e. Collaborative Processing. Name the factors that affect the reliability of the network?