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Długa wojna by Terry Pratchett & Stephen Baxter is Fantasy Jeden świat to za mało Długa. Ziemia stoi otworem. Ludzkość rozprzestrzeniła. nad II wojną Źwiatową i spoŹród tych pomijanych najbardziej godnym uwagi (a nie .. których nikt ju˝ nie wymienia, Długa jest droga na Wschód. Trenkner w swoim artykule podaje .. po polsku caite.info Walczy- łem i wiem, czym jest wojna, a jako szefowi rządu przypada mi w Rzeczywi- ście silne wrażenie wywołuje długa relacja dotycząca alianckie- go.

First Serbian and later Montenegrin forces were compelled to retreat and seek shelter in neutral Albania. Another argument in favor of and only the two remaining from a different type of lime- this conception was the documented presence of numerous stone Fig. XI, red. Savory, Iran under the Safavids, Cambridge [pierwotnie wydane w ], s. Mende, Die nordischen Geschiebe Norddeutsch- , p. The rock material used to make tured from these materials would be pretty much the same.

International Diplomacy on the European Periph- ery 15thth Century. After dedicating to his presence, abundant with happiness, caravans of honors associated with friendship and convoys of reverences adorned with affection, the tenor of the [present] judgment [i. The latter term referred in the Crimean Khanate to high ranked envoys sent on important missions.

Although the latter term fits better in the given context, it is nonetheless equally likely that Shahin Giray sent to the shah a trusted person ranked simultaneously as the head mead cupbearer.

O pobycie Szahina Gereja w Iranie zob. Savory, Boulder , t. D OKUMENT 4 of sovereignty and rule, the seat of majesty and pomp, the highly placed awakening of glory and justice, the rider on the horse exercise-grounds of Lurestan,6 who sits on the throne of the Genghis-khanid sultanate, who is the special object of the grace of the Lord whose aid is implored [i.

Since the path of brotherhood has [also] been chosen between my prosperous majesty and the said illustrious khan, the duty of amity is that the requirements of unity and friendship, which exist between You [i.

And You should let [us] know, without formalities, what things You need that are in this country, so that it may be resolved [to send them]. Why so much excessive verbosity? May the days of the sultanate, majesty, and prosperity last! After his elder brother Mehmed Giray ascended the Crimean throne in , Shahin returned to the Crimea and became his qalga cf. On the basis of the present letter we may guess that during his stay in Iran Shahin had been assigned some lands in the western province of Lurestan, although the Persian court chronicler Eskandar Beg Monshi only attests that he had been assigned residence in Derbent.

As the qalga i. Persian documents of the Matenadaran. Decrees, t. III — , red. Kostikyan, Yerevan , s. Todua et al. Whoever is not lying like dust on his threshold, even if an angel, dust be on his head [i. Decrees, vol. III , ed. Kostikyan Yerevan, , p. For other translations of this verse, cf. Kutaisi, , p. V] Original paper document in Turkish: Polish translation by Prandota Dzier ek: It contained a distich by Sanai and was appended to solemn Safavid documents cf.

After having displayed amity and friendship — abundant beyond bounds and limits —, and union and unity — magnanimous beyond the sphere of imagi- nation and comparison — to his excellency, the high ranked padishah who is the refuge of sovereignty and might, the seat of pomp and majesty, the high- ly placed awakening of greatness and justice, marked by amity and friend- ship, of praiseworthy way of acting, the most just from among the successful Christian rulers [lit.

Now, as according to the celestial decree and preordaining, a tragic event occurred to his excellency, my father3 mercy be upon him! The A. Therefore, in order to display friendship and cause companionship, the present letter marked with amity has been written with the pen of unity.

And if they have any kind of needs in this country, for the sake of uni- ty they should make them known so that they may be generously granted and accomplished by our imperial kindness. And by no means should they permit anything contrary or uncouth as that would be detrimental to the demonstration of affection and friendship. There has been no excessive verbosity. God], and may their end [i. Jean Baptiste Tavernier, Les six voyages [ VI] Original paper document in Persian: Italian contemporary translation: A French voyager Jean Baptiste Tavernier, who traveled from Aleppo to Isfahan in the spring of , recorded that his caravan left Aleppo on Mardi Gras which fell on 5 March and it took 58 days for the caravan to reach Isfahan.

Hence, di Santi apparently reached Isfahan in early May ; cf. Feketego zob. After the manifestation of established usages related to affection and old friendship and the proclamation of the provisions of sincerity and hereditary unanimity, it shall be revealed to the sight of lunar luminosity that the sublime letter adorned with affection and the epistle ornamented with friendship that commands respect, which had recently been sent with the cream of his peers, Sulurur Beg Dast n,5 has arrived under good omen during the best 3 I.

This envoy must be identical with Domenico di Santi alias de Santis, a Venetian merchant cum diplomat who set out from Europe in and arrived at Isfahan in May cf. His name figures in the Italian translation of the present letter preserved in Warsaw cf. A je li po tej stronie [tj. O poselstwie Domenico di Santiego zob. The obligation of friendship is such that these approved foundations should be always observed, the path of coming and going should be frequented more often than before [i.

And whatever thing [which they need] there might be in this direction [i. The remaining matters have been entrusted to the aforementioned envoy so that he shall deliver an oral report when received at their place during the high audience. May the passing of events be in conformity with the consent of His Excellency, the Lord of Glory [i.

On the mission of Domenico di Santi, cf. I warmly thank Dr. Afshar, Do farm n-e safavi marbut be rav bet-e Ir n va Lahest n, s. VII] Original paper document in Persian: Latin contemporary translation: O Ali! The rule [belongs] to God Oh, Muhammad! Oh, Ali!

Jerzego Ilicza; por. Carmelitarum Discalceatorum, zob. This minister of sound foresight, [while] duly striving to augment the provisions of mutual friendship and unity, should openly [bel hej b, lit. Written in the month of Shawwal, may it end with prosperity and success,10 of the year On the death of Ilicz, referred to as D. Antonio was alternatively referred to as Petroschi or Petrovski, yet we ignore whether it was his original surname or a nickname.

On St. Majewskiego w: This refuge of statesmanship, [while] duly striving to augment the provisions of mutual friendship and unity, should openly [bel hej b, lit. Written in the month of Shawwal, may it end with prosperity and success,12 of the year He was granted audience by the shah on 18 October ; cf.

Encyclopaedia Iranica, t. IX] Original paper document in Persian: He has fully directed the attention of the noble mind [i. That refuge of ministry, [while] constantly striving to augment the provisions of mutual friendship, should openly [bel hej b, lit.

X] Original paper document in Persian: An order, obeyed by the world, has been issued and dispatched to the name of that refuge of statesmanship. Having constantly displayed his sincere disposal and goodwill, he shall be the stimulator of the chain of mutual friendship.

And [while] constantly striving to augment the provisions of mutual affection and friendship, he should openly [bel hej b, lit.

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XI] Original paper document in Latin: Cracow, Biblioteka Czartoryskich, ms. Serenissime Princeps, Amice Noster Charissime: Quam magni semper fecerint cum divi maiores nostri tum nosmetipsi serenissimorum Persarum regum amicitiam, illud Serenitas Vestra probe nosse potest: Mittendo enim nobilem virum Gasparum Szymanski negotiorum nostrorum causam ad Calmucenses Tartaros, eidem iniunximus, ut Serenitati Vestrae et felix imperii regimen nostro nomine co- ram gratuletur et de prona voluntate non dispare a serenissimis praedecesso- ribus nostris eandem reddat certiorem.

Nos vero uti tanti regis glo- riae quae per tot terrarum mariumve spatia ad nos usque pertingit impensius favemus: Przybosia w: XII] Original paper document in Latin: On the historical background of this embassy, cf. Illustrissime Princeps, Domine Amice Observandissime: Mittit serenissimus ac potentissimus princeps et dominus, dominus meus clementissimus Joannes Casimirus Dei gratia rex Poloniae et Sueciae, magnus dux Lithuaniae Russiaeque etc.

Praestitura rem et suo dignam nomine et nobis gratissimam atque pari affec- tus testimonio rependendam quod reliquuum est Illustritati Vestrae optimam a Deo valetudinem precor et exopto. III obverse without the invocation and seal. Its Persian text albeit incomplete and partly erroneous , along with a German translation and the facsimiles of three impressions of the same seal, containing the date A.

Iram wspomniany jest w 89 surze Koranu. Appendix de le- gationibus Persico-Polonicis, w: Its architecture invoked the representation of paradise. Iram is mentioned in the 89 sura of the Koran.

Szkic historyczny Cracow, , p. Ha- sanem Zakim al-Askarim], i Prowadzonym [przez Boga] [tj. Muhamma- dem Mahdim]! While the conclusion of [all] matters depends on the consent of the Creator of mankind, let it be ordered that they be associated with goodness and the right course. O God!

Blessing be upon [outer circle] the Prophet [i. Adam Walaszek ed. The last verse apparently refers both to Shah Sulayman, the father and predecessor of Sultan Husayn, and to the biblical king Solomon who epitomized a good ruler in early modern Middle East as well as in Europe.

Sigilla regum et reginarum Poloniae. Instrukcja poselska datowana 19 kwietnia r. XIV] Original paper document in Latin: The letter is preserved along with an envelope which contains the impression of the royal seal Biblioteka Czartoryskich, ms. The failure of the Persian mission explains why its documents are today held in Poland. Piwarskiego w: Mandalian, Warszawa , s. Kouymjian, History of Armenian Paleography, w: Kouymjian, H. Lehmann and M. Stone, Al- bum of Armenian Paleography, Aarhus , s.

Codicology, Paleography, and Beyond, w: Armenian philology in the modern era from manuscript to digital text, ed. Calzolari with the collaboration of M. Stone, Leiden-Boston , s. XV] Original paper document in Armenian: Stone, Album of Armenian Paleography Aarhus, , pp. Stone Leiden-Boston, , pp. II, —, s. The seal engravings are ordered in four circles: The letters on the seal are written in majuscules.

Yet, whereas the word can indeed be also read as , the seal on the letter addressed to Vladislaus IV contains clearly written words not , and not. A comparison of the two editions shows that their errors are identical, for instance the mistaken identifying of Vladislaus IV as Vladislaus VII.

Braun, Warszawa , s. Akinean, Vienna , bez numeru strony. Sahakean; zob. Roszko and edited by E. Braun Warsaw, , pp. Polish contemporary translation, copied on 2 July by the Crown chancery translator Antoni Crutta: Russian nineteenth-century translation: Akinean Vienna, , without page number.

A photograph of the original document that appears in the catalogue was taken by a certain G. Grigorowi Brutyanowi. We also thank Prof. Grigor Brutyan for his consultations regarding the Armenian calendar. In that year, precisely on 13 January 23 January N. In the Armenian scribal tradition, the number of the year as well as other numbers were recorded with letters. Until the nineteenth century, Armenians resorted to their own calendar while measuring the lapse of time. The beginning of the year fell on the first day of the month Navasard nawasard.

A thesis voiced by some authors, according to which the additional five days constituted a separate thirteenth month of the year is not supported by any evidence from the medieval authors, which is no wonder considering that a month was associated with a lunar phase.

In the Armenian calendar not only months, but also each day of a month and even hours of the day had distinct names. III Kolofon ten opublikowany jest w: II — , opr. Hakobyan, A. Hovhannisyan, Erevan , s. Since the Armenian year measured days only, every four years the beginning of the Armenian year receded by one day in compari- son to the Julian calendar.

This means that we must admit a possible inaccuracy that may reach up to one year. The new system was named the Minor Armenian calendar and referred to as the Small Count. In the following centuries still more systems were created, yet they were rarely applied. Only in the Armenian Apostolic Church officially adopted the Gregorian calendar. Today, the old system is used only exceptionally, for instance in printed Church calendars.

The colophon is published in: Hakobyan and A. Hovhannisyan Yerevan, , p. Agathangelos, History of the Armenians, translation and commentary by R. Thomson, Albany , s. Thomson, Cambridge, Mass. II, Vienna , s. For this reason the spirit of God is permanently lying upon you, just like on a tetramorphic throne. Oh wonderful ruler, the hope of all Christians, the protector and defender of the spiritual sheepfold of Christ! Thomson Albany, , p.

Thomson Cambridge, Mass. An Armenian church was later built at that place, devoted to St. Mateusza 5: Jakuba Wujka S. Along with this cordial welcome speech please be reminded, oh the most invincible king, that kings are deputies of the Immortal King, and just like He raises His sun over the evil and the good ones, and sends his rain on the righteous and the unrighteous ones,23 similarly the kings should with tender love protect and look after all Christians, according to the admonition of Solomon: In his letter to the pope, the catholicos greets the addressee in the same form as in the letter to the king of Poland: Matthew 5: Proverbs 3: In the King James Version, this fragment reads: Hakobyan, S.

III, Erevan , s. Haykakan Sovetakan Hanragitaran, t. VII, Erevan , s. I — , opr. II — , s. XVII, s. Hovhannisyan Yerevan, , pp. Apart from the interior of Persia, the West, and Assyrian Mesopotamia, also listed in the letter to the king, the letter to the pope mentions in addition the Pontus Pontos , Constantinople Kostandinupolis , and Cyprus Kipros. An almost identical fragment can be found in the letter to the pope, in which we read: Stopka, Armenia Chri- stiana.

Mateusza 9: Marka 6: Let there be no such affair between you [i. Do not add an injury over an [old] injury and do not 31 Cf. Genesis Psalm 85 Cracow, , pp.

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Judith The phrases are almost iden- tical in both letters, yet the letter to the pope contains some damaged, hence illegible fragments; cf. Albowiem wszyscy wy jeste cie jednym w Chrystusie Jezusie Aw- gerean, t. II, Venetik reprint Erevan , s. A bruised reed he will not break, and a smoldering wick he will not snuff out. Galatians 3: In his letter to the pope, the catholicos invokes another fragment from the Bible that is similar in tone, namely: Awgerean, vol.

Yet in the given case the author rather aimed to render the foreign word pat r Latin pater , here used in the Armenian plural. Later on, the catholicos assures the pope that he similarly treats the missionaries, whom likewise he honors and pays them respect, as much as is in his power, by the love of Christ; cf. Isaiah I, Venetik reprint Erevan , s. Ponadto w sierpniu r. Jednak o. II], opracowali O. Eganean, A. Dewrikean, Erevan , s.

This writing has been written at the gate of the Holy Etchmiadzin, in the year [ JA],48 [on] 30 [L] of the month of August.

Job This could make sense if one keeps in mind that Vladislaus was elected only in November , and his solemn coronation in Cracow took place on 6 February Yet the catholicos might have assumed that with the death of King Sigismund III on 30 April , his oldest son automatically inherited the throne. The manuscript has been preserved in Matenadaran, no.

Eganean and A. Dewrikean Yerevan, , pp. Eganean, redakcja P. Hayrapetean, indices compiled by V. Dewrikean Yerevan, , p. Apparently this sign alluded to the fact that the catholicos was the head of the Armenian Church, just like a dome with a cross tops a church building.

The error was apparently caused by a misreading of the Armenian letter L 30 , which referred to the day of the month, as the letter Z 6. XVI] Original paper document in Armenian: Hence 12 October should fall in the year The heading then follows on in Armenian: Oskean, Vienna , s.

W edycji o. May the one who safely delivers [it] be blessed by Christ. Notwithstanding the above minor difference and confusion regarding the precise date, it is nonetheless evident that the copyist who entered the date on the reverse side of the letter committed a mistake: Hamazasp Oskean Vienna, , p. Zohraba zob. III, Vienna , s.

Jana 8: O znaczeniu tego symbolu, por. Along with Apostle Thaddeus he is regarded as the patron of the Armenian Church. It is in the commemoration of these two saints that the Armenian Church has received its official name: In the Armenian tradition, the catholicoi are successors of the throne of SS.

Apostles Thaddeus and Bartholomew. John 8: II, Erewan , s. List do Rzymian 1: And may God, our Lord, bless You and adorn in spirit and body, [and bestow] with houses and households, family and offspring, sons and daughters, the beloved ones and friends, fortune and property, and make You rich in every kind. Paul; cf.

Romans 1: Psalm 1: O kampanii wojennej lat — zob. This desire is like craving for refreshment to a thirsty one. So — the redeemed ones by the blood17 of our Lord Jesus Christ — the faithful sons of Saint Gregory, our Illuminator, the sons of mine — [your] longing father, I ask You that you help each other in good deeds. Hence we hung our harps on the willows20 and we took on our shoulders [the holy things];21 [since that time] we have had no rest, no time for praying, no place to lay down our belongings, no [opportunity to perform] our glorious service.

Proverbs Psalm Numbers 7: Eczmiadzyna; zob. Although we had had worrying news about Your affairs already earlier, yet we thought that perhaps they [i. Then, having read [Your letters], while pondering this issue, we rose and set out for the royal court [i. Yet as neither a letter nor a man [i. And while we were condemned to hesitations concerning the real state of the matter, we heard of the approaching of an envoy23 so we stayed [at Isfahan to wait] 22 According to Arakel of Tabriz, the catholicos set out for Isfahan after the termination of the restoration works at Etchmiadzin.

Adam Olearius, the secretary of the embassy of the duke of Holstein-Gottorp to Shah Safi I, recorded a meeting with the Polish envoy when the latter was heading towards Isfahan, while the German embassy was returning home. The meeting took place on 9 January , at a caravanserai situated to the south of Qazvin, nineteenth days after the German embassy left Isfahan 21 December and two days before it reached Qazvin 11 January ; see Adam Olearius, Offt begehrte Beschreibung der newen orientalischen Reise Schleswig, , p.

Thus we may assume that Szemberg reached Isfahan in late January or early February For more information on Szemberg, see Historical Introduction. Londyn, British Library, Add. British Library, Add. Bournoutian, Costa Mesa , s. And when he arrived, he also said that the other churches had been returned, but the main church had not been returned and a man [i. He [i. Inspired by the example of Ottoman janissaries, the shah intended to recruit a formation of slaves, loyal exclusively to him and independent from the rivalries of old Turkmen aristocracy.

Yet, as in the case of janissaries, we know today that gholams never entirely detached themselves from their Christian relatives and soon entered the political rivalries with their own networks of loyalties and clients.

Apparently in the same embassy, Musa Bek also carried the letters of Shah Safi to the Russian tzar and the king of Spain, which are preserved in undated copies in a manuscript held at the British Library; see London, British Library, Add.

Contrary to the catalogue description, none of the letters copied in the manuscript is addressed to the king of Poland, although the letter to the tsar mentions explicitly that Musa Beg was also entrusted with an embassy to the Polish ruler.

The two brothers argued about the inheritance, which consisted of land and money. It has been eighteen years that the two have been fighting. They have gone to see the Shah twice and the beglerbegi six or seven times. Abdullah, syn Mohammad-chana, oraz Musa Bek, syn Isy-chana. W Diariuszu znajdujemy te informacje o inicjatywach budowlanych rodziny Musy Beka: IX, Erevan , s. And You should be prepared, after collecting Your letter, to deliver the letter of the king [i.

Moreover, when You hear about the destruction of these places [i. Hence by tearful implorations we ask the omnipotent Lord, along with the aforementioned [servants], by the intercession of the martyr of Christ, St. Abdullah, son of Mohammad-khan, and Musa Bek, son of Isa-khan. The diary narrates that the family was reconciled only in , after Isa-khan, who had been living in Isfahan for twenty years, appealed to the shah. In the subsequent period, Isa-khan continued to live in Isfahan while the administration of justice and the collection of provincial taxes were in the hands of his son Musa Bek.

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Thomas in Agulis, which was rebuilt after the earthquake of Agulis Antelias, , p. An Armenian writer Hakob Melik-Hakobyan better known under the penname Raffi records in turn the eighteen-century members of the Musabekian family: Gregory was earlier rendered as Grigor. XVII] The original document is missing. A copy in Armenian: In the inner circle are inscribed the letters.

Eczmia- dzyna; zob. Agathangelos, History of the Armenians, s. Apart from the catholicosate in Etchmiadzin, there also existed an anti-catholicosate at Akhtamar in the province of Vaspurakan, with the seat on an island on the Lake Van, today in Turkey that was founded in the twelfth century and existed in the years , and the catholicosate of the Great House of Cilicia, founded in Sis, in , that has survived until the present-day.

In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Etchmiadzin competed with the two remaining sees. The dis- putes, which intensified during the tenure of Catholicos Philip, focused on such issues as the range of jurisdiction, the right to consecrate higher clergymen, or the collection of donations.

In the present letter, the catholicos intended to stress the supremacy of the Holy Etchmiadzin. Gregory the Illuminator, whom Christ was to show the place and shape of the future cathedral of the Holy Etchmiadzin; see Agathangelos, History of the Armenians, s.

Bogurodzicy i w. Jana Chrzciciela [Karapetin, mian.

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Karapet]10, i w. I, , z.

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Mateusza Extending our hands and tearfully imploring, by the intercession of Mother of God, St. John the Baptist [Karapet]10, St. Stephen the martyr, and our holy ancestors: Gregory [Grigor] the great and Nerses the chosen,11 we ask 8 The title used in reference to the maternal see of Holy Etchmiadzin as well as the three remaining hierarchical sees in the Armenian Church: The term invokes a relevant fragment of the Gospel of St.

In yet another colophon from its copyist turns to Christ through the intercession of the saint: III, s. Marka May [He] push away from You and Your borders, and Your dwellings, Your beloved and friends the incessant chaos and destructive quarrels, also anger, punishment, heavenly and earthly calamity and any improper acts that occur in the world due to the sea of human sins.

And after [Your] transition from here [i. Kudian London, Matthew The relevant fragments of the New Testament foretell that the disciples of Christ will be brought before governors and kings during persecutions, though it is not obvious whether the author had in mind this specific context.

Nierzadko u ywano ju samej nazwy Isfahan, jak np.

Gregory, that after the departure of the western king [i. Although there were many reasons to go there, yet the most urgent and important reason was because of You,17 [for we have hoped] that perhaps a solution would come from there, from the king [i.

And when he was about to leave from there [i. We also orally entrusted him with many things so that he may recount them to the king, because he [i. In reliance on those efforts we hoped that perhaps Your case had [already] been solved through him.

Yet when I was going here with many expectations concerning this matter, my hopes were thwarted 15 A reference to the Safavid-Ottoman war in which the Ottoman sultan Murad IV conquered Yerevan in The city and fortress were recaptured by the troops of Shah Safi I in ; on this campaign, in which also Etchmiadzin suffered partial destruction, cf. In the seventeenth-century colophons both names were often recorded together, for instance in the entry: Po tym [zdarzeniu] niczego [ju ] nie byli my pewni.

List do Filipian 2: After this [event] we were no longer sure of anything. Yet we have devised that You should choose two or three men, laymen or clergymen, who would be clever and zealous confessors of our faith, enjoying trust of everybody.

Send [them] here to us so that they truly inform us about Your aims, actual circumstances and the state of affairs, also about the customs of the people of that [i.

Along with them, we will appoint a worthy doctor [vardapet] or bishop from among our local [clergymen] and send there, so that with their help [i. For it is God who works in us to will and to act,23 according to the apostle. Whereas Szem- berg was murdered by the Kumyks near the fortified village aul of Bojnak today Ullu- bij-Aul on the road from Derbent to Tarku cf.

Olearius, Offt begehrte Beschreibung, p. From the fact that the letter was returned to the ca- tholicos, we may conclude that Musa Bek was liberated. Philippians 2: O wieciciela. Return to me, and then I will return to you, says the Lord Almighty. And not just this, also — as the Lord knows — I would not spare to shed [my] blood in order to deliver You from this danger, if it were possible.

As we already said earlier, You should make sure that You choose two [B] or three [G] men from among the clever and the prudent, zealous confessors of our faith and followers of the rites of St. Perhaps with this plan the matter will be solved according to the will of our Lord. Gregory the Illuminator, the confessor of the faith of Christ, and would be beyond the canons of our Church, and [perhaps] because of that the matter that we initiated was prolonged and ended with failure.

For we are not unfamiliar with the holy verses that warn [from violating] the will of God. For [He] did not take offence at those who 24 Cf. Malachi 3: Inni natomiast nie obchodzili Go, kiedy odeszli od Niego I tyle wystarczy Marka 3: Jakuba 1: And the others were of no interest to Him when they departed from Him. Let there be no dissent in our holy faith that we have from the holy fathers. For says the Lord: And if they divide, they will not be able to remain in peace, for, according to the words of Christ, a house or a town divided against itself will not be able to stand.

One who causes dissent will receive just punishment [according to] the local laws. Likewise, one who brings about reconciliation should receive the crown of life. Daniel 9: Mark 3: James 1: Jerozolima ], s.

Jerusalem, ] , p. Hence 10 Navasard fell on 22 October Old Style , i. The latter order is correct since, as a rule, ciphers were ordered from the left to the right from the largest to the smallest one cf. In the case of the number 12 the contradiction might have been caused by the fact that it could be pronounced in two ways: Thus the present letter was issued either on 12 October, or 20 October, or 22 October 10 Navasard according to the Old Style.

In the heading, the editors resolved to put the last date. A nineteenth-century copy: Russian nineteenth-century translation in two versions: A comparison of the two editions shows that their errors are identical. And after the hither reign [i. Palean, Vienna And we, seeing their welfare and [their] being treated like sons by Your mighty Majesty, have taken pride and [still] boast before other nations, and incessantly raise prayers for Your mighty Majesty so that they may lead their quiet and peaceful life7 while keeping the rites and canons given by [their] ancestors.

Yet what can I say in regard to the present times? And if Your mighty Majesty had not gathered them under the wings of Your protection, the wicked one would have long devoured those unhappy ones. And we, on seeing Your unlimited mercy and compassion for those suffering ones, incessantly keep blessing Your Majesty bestowed by Christ, and, by the zeal of our heart, we wish to see Your justice-loving, autocratic Majesty [still] in this world,9 yet if there is no opportunity for that, we hope to see each other in the afterlife.

Gregory the Illuminator; see Agathangelos, History of the Armenians, p. In fact, according to that vision a herd of black goats turned into white sheep when crossing the water, and afterwards turned into wolves and attacked other sheep grazing on the other side of the water.

Palean Vienna, List katolikosa do chod y Jakuba opublikowany jest w: Karapet Amatuni przytacza list o. We also learn that Gregory arrived at Etchmiadzin and was then sent by Philip to Isfahan to fetch Piromalli. According to the letter, Piromalli had arrived at Etchmiadzin before Gregory. Therefore my request from You is the following: Nonetheless, apparently Gregory took with him another letter written by Philip, in which the latter recommended him to Jacob and which has not been preserved.

Z kolei ks. IV, Erevan , s. Hence 5 November fell in the year Morelli di Gregorio, P. Panvini, Biografia degli uomini illustri del regno di Napoli, ornata de loro rispettivi ritratti, t.

Selected studies, Bloom- ington , s. Natomiast wzmiankowany wy ej por. Tam [tj. Selected studies Bloomington, , pp. The catholicos writes: He wants to finalize his mischief by [obtaining] a royal order [i.

There is no sense to expatiate on his sly mischief. When writing on the sufferings of the Armenians in Poland he informed that the pope entrusted the king with solving the conflict [in the already mentioned letter to Urban VIII from cf. He said one thing to the king, another to the pope, and [yet] another to our people.

There [i. W pa dzierniku r. Masztoca, rkps , fol. These must have been some dogmatic issues: The document has been published in: A seventeenth-century copy of the document is held at the Matenadaran, ms. In fact it was apparently sent along with the present letter, in the summer of In addition to a clear reference contained in the letter, where the catholicos notifies the king of attaching a separate card with the confession, there are two additional sources that confirm this dating: XIV, vyp.

XIV, no. Petersburg, , pp. In such case the Gregorian date would be not 27 July, but 6 August T r is a title of a priest, also the form of addressing a clergyman. In that year Philip ascended to the post of catholicos. The whole thing is in the royal hands, either restoring or not restoring of the churches. Afshar I. Akinean N. Amatuni, K. Amirbekyan R. Mandalian, Warszawa Aslanian S. Sutudih, I. Afshar, Tehran Bajburtjan V. Balzer O.

Rybakov, Moskva Baranowski B. Bayani Kh. Brutean [Brutyan] G. Busse H. Casale S. Chardin J. Chick H. Chowaniec C. Cincadze J. Cutillas J. Savory, Boulder Esmaili S. Eszer A. Fekete L. Hazai, Budapest Ferrier R. Floor W. A Per- sia — En Per- sia — Floria [Florja] B. Fragner B. Geijer A. Genceli T. Ghobrial J. Ghougassian V. Golichnowski N. Gulbenkian R. Hulasat as-siyar. Kaempfer E. Hinz, Darmstadt Braun, Warszawa Khintibidze E. Koch E. A Bibliographi- cal History, vol.

Chesworth, Leiden-Boston International Diplo- macy on the European Periphery 15th—18th Century. Baykara, Ankara Kostikyan K. Kouymjian D. Stone, Album of Armenian Paleography, Aarhus Stone, Leiden-Boston Krzyszkowski J.

Lanz K. Lechicki C. Maeda H. Marcinkowski M. Matthee R. Essays in Honor of Iraj Afshar, Princeton Mattiesen H. Mawer C. Morton, Warminster Minorsky V. Mnatsakanyan P. Morelli di Gregorio N. Murphey R. Nagielski M. Olearius A. Kostikyan, Yerevan Petrowicz G. Przewo nik A. Reychman J. Richard F. Correspondance, Paris Rieu Ch. Rota G. Savory R. Sefatgol M. Scheel H. Kara, Budapest Selected studies, Bloomington Teutonic sources mention Fig. It is likely in this case that some war materi- als, including ammunition, had been prepared in advance 3 J.

Milewska, Zamek pucki w badaniach and transported to the selected objects. Kajzer, S. All these findings M. Milewska, op. Haftka, op. NN carum, Vol. II, ed. Toeppen, Leipzig , p. Szym- , project manager P. The distribution of analyzed missiles on the territory of Poland, by P. In subsequent records equipment in It is, therefore, likely that in addition to food, stones Rock materials in the studied cannonball assemblages for production of ammunition were also brought here.

The total of artefacts acquired here amounts and 6 from Chojnice were made of different types of grani- to 55 specimens, most found in a dig situated between the toids granitic rocks of Scandinavian origin erratics outer wall and the castle tower Fig. The projectiles — Tab. Granite gneisses were represented were found here in a cluster of 40 examples in a single much less frequently: One layer.

These represent calibres from 10 to 27 cm and weight ball from Chojnice was made of syenitoid syenitic rock between 1. This material is recorded in only one whether this assemblage can be connected to the siege, or description of medieval cannonballs This was probably should be rather treated as castle ammunition.

The latter mainly to its relatively low presence among glacial erratics option seems much more probable, and the missiles were of Central Europe and slightly less favourable technical simply stored in the space between the walls.

Equipment properties in comparison to granitoids. It is also possible that during initial field identification, syenitoids were often misdiagnosed as granites granitoids. Szymczak, op. Studium , p. Palaeozoic limestones outcrop on the island of Gotland, Photo P.

Hence, the lesser presence of feldspars, plagioclase feldspars, feldspathoids Among the which dragged them to the territory of Poland. This initial, granitoids Siljan Cz. Here, however, a dissonance Cz. A common feature of most medium crystalline granitoids with favourable technical of these rocks is primarily a fine and medium crystalline properties, the set from Chojnice is more of a random col- texture and low content of mica biotite.

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Some spherical shape. Rocks of an inequigranular texture, such as projectiles from Chojnice were also rather poorly treated, indicating haste in their preparation. The use of rocks of worse properties, such as coarse grained granites and gran- 11 Igneous rocks: Smed, Steine aus dem Norden: Czubla, D. It was carved only they were brought from a workshop situated on the island. Both aforementioned hasty work and petrographic differentiation is much higher than a one that use of inferior, unsorted material, suggest that the assem- would be possible in a single, even a fairly large erratic boul- blage in question was manufactured during the siege of der.

If the balls, which vary in material, were made of dif- Chojnice. This hypothesis also tion, it is most probable that they were produced and used by opens the question, why one would choose limestone, when the besiegers. Preparation of balls in place during the siege crystalline rocks were plenty available. A relatively precise was not uncommon in the Middle Ages. Large cannonballs carving is surely an argument against haste in production, produced logistical problems, therefore, masons tended to hence, there was no pressure to choose an inferior but participate in military expeditions in order to provide the easier to work with raw material.

The second hypothesis artillery with ammunition manufactured on the spot Whole of the island of Gotland Quite different in petrographic terms is the projec- is built of different varieties of limestone.

Crystalline rocks tile assemblage from Puck. Among the eleven exam- there occur only as a few scattered erratics. The small petro- ined artefacts, as much as ten were made of Palaeozoic graphic variation within the limestone as evidenced by the limestone, and only one PkZ. Six projectiles PkZ. Exploitation of local limestone on Gotland has been PkZ. In the form of different prod- the same raw material — the Silurian crinoidal limestone Another argument in favor of and only the two remaining from a different type of lime- this conception was the documented presence of numerous stone Fig.

Palaeozoic Silurian and Ordovi- and qualified stonemasons on Gotland. It seems only natu- cian limestones form extensive outcrops extending from ral to manufacture cannonballs from the material appear- southwest to northeast along the basin of the Baltic Sea If the second considered hypothesis is correct, the Gotland Fig. This present on almost all Polish territory. Limestone rarely has would confirm trade connections, as well as perhaps mili- been used for making cannonballs in Poland.

In this regard, tary connections of southern coast of the Baltic Sea with the the most preferred material were granitoids and other igne- Baltic islands, which is true to the political situation at the ous rocks, and sandstones in southern Poland Igneous time. From to Gotland had been held by the Teu- rock are much harder, more uniform and heavier than lime- tonic Knights, and was later sold to Sweden. King Charles stones: The only serious drawback of igneous —, before it was captured by the Order This missile is characterized by pre- this group.

In most of the Polish territories with a possible cise carving and an advantageous choice of raw material. In this situation, preference for the latter is hardly surprising. Martinsson, Nielsens Grund och Hoburgs Bank , pp.

Smed, op. Number of analyzed cannonballs from each site and their division based on the raw material used. Such features encourage precise the crystals grains, blasts , the harder it was to carve carving.

Excellent cleavage of some rock-forming minerals feldspar, amphi- Rocks as a raw material for making cannonballs bole led to the formation of numerous chips. Problems with Cannonballs were on most occassions a product used producing cannonballs of ideal shape and the manufacture only once.

In many cases, there was a need for an ad hoc technique of cannon barrels forced to leave a substancial production to replace the missing pieces of ammunition. As a result, range and a shortest possible distance. During military campaigns accuracy suffered, and the loading time was significantly and sieges, projectile shortages were replenished with pro- prolonged due to the need to use wooden wedges.

This influ- prone to cracking when hitting an obstacle, which on one enced the considerable variation of used rock materials. Sometimes the cannonballs much as hard Kentish Ragstone limestone missiles22, made of very soft rocks cracked in the bore bottom or at were exceptional.

Naval artillery operated on different the muzzle at the moment of gunpowder firing, bringing principles. Maritime units had to resupply cannonballs in no effect, if not a negative one. Such balls were sometimes port towns, which lead to the uniformity of material used. This increased both the workload and 10 projectiles were made from a material different than the the price, also due to the use of costly metal.

The feature mentioned Kentish Ragstone Physical proper- sions, cracks, joints, preferred orientation of crystals. The exceptions were cases lethality. Most useful for making missiles would be all hard where spliting allowed to break smaller pieces from the and heavy rocks with as homogeneous internal structure larger boulder for further carving. It is difficult to agree as possible. This would include basalts, diabases and fine with the suggestion from the expertise of a cannonball crystalline granitoids25, diorites and gabbroids.

There, an opinion appeared that making balls of basaltoids was 20 The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Mili- facilitated by the fact that many of them are occurring in tary Technology,, ed. Rogers, Oxford , Vol. Orna, V. The Armaments of the Mary Rose. Archaeology of the Mary Rose, Rose, ed.

Hildred, Vol.