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Share Your Materials at [email protected] Share this post to the needy aspirants. Shankar IAS Environment PDF Click To Download · Click Here for. Share Your Materials at [email protected] Share this post to the needy aspirants. Shankar IAS Environment 3rd Edition PDF Click To Download. Environment By Shankar IAS Academy – To help students in acquiring the essentials of the topic 'Environment' during preparation for Civil services examination.

Reptiles and amphibians are almost absent. Sand gorgonians. July Hence the pyramid is always upward. In order to survive. Functions of Wetlands. An Introduction to Indian Art Part 1:

Which one of the Which one among the following States has all the following could be this? Arunachal Pradesh b. Assam c. Himachal Pradesh d.

It deals with the ways in which organisms are moulded by their environment, how they make use of envfronmental resources including energy flow and mine. The term ecology was coined only as late as Literally it is the study of the home of nature. Since early history, man has indulged in ecology in a practical sort of way, knowingly and unknowingly. Our ancient Indian texts have references to ecological principles.

The classical texts of the Vedic period such as the Vedas, the Samhitas, the Brahmanas and the Aranyakas-Upanishads contain many references to ecological concepts. The Indian treatise on medicine, the CarakaSamhita and the surgical text Susruta-Samhita, show that people during this period had a good understanding of plant and animal ecology.

These texts contain classification of animals on the basis of habit and habitat, land in terms of nature of soil, climate and vegetation; and description of plants typical to various localities. Car aka- Samhita contains information that air, land, water and seasons were indispensable for life and that polluted air and water were injurious for health. All organisms from virus to man are obligatorily dependent on the environment for food, energy, water, oxygen, shelter and for other needs.

The environment is defined as 'the sum total of living, non-living components; influences and events, surrounding an organism. Concept of environment The relationship and interaction between'. No organism can live alone without interacting with other organisms. So each organism has other organisms as a part of its environment. Each and everything with which we interact or which we need for our sustenance forms our environment. The environment is not static. Population density is the relation between the number of individuals of a population and the area they occupy.

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Population growth rate is the percentage variation between the number of individuals in a population at two different times. For example. The main factors that make population decrease are death and emigration.

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It is a body made up of organs. For eg: Animals require plants for food and trees for shelter. Individual Organism is an individual living being that has the ability to act or function independently. Therefore the population growth rate can be positive or negative.

Community If we look around ourself. Plants require animals for pollination.. JEM"r' For instance: The reason for this is quite obvious. Population Population is a group of organisms usually of the same species. The main factors that make population grow are birth and immigration.

A community is not fixed or rigid. For example: A grassland community is dominated by grasses. It may be plant. In order to survive. The main limiting factors for the growth of a population are abiotic and biotic components. Ecological Organisation 1. Components of Ecosystem The components of the ecosystem is categorised into abiotic of non-living and biotic of living components. They depend only on the sun's energy from outside and are independent of the inputs and outputs from adjacent communities.

Since animals cannot use solar energy directly they obtain it indirectly by eating. Water helps to regulate body temperature. If one part of an ecosystem is damaged or disappears. The environmental factors determine the characteristic of the community as well as the pattern of organisation of the members in the community. Ecosystems vary greatly in size and elements but each is a functioning unit of nature. Majority of biochemical reactions take place in an aqueous medium.

Abiotic factors are the most important determinants of where and how well an organism exists in its environment. Organisms can tolerate only a certain range of temperature and humidity. Structure of a community In a community the number of species and size of their population vary greatly.

Although these factors interact with each other. It also mvolves a. The characteristic pattern of the community is termed as structure which is reflected in the roles played by various population.. When an ecosystem is healthy i. Ecosystem can be as small as a single tree or as large as entire forest. Energy from the sun is essential for maintenance of life. They are secondary aggregations within a major community and are not therefore completely independent units as far as energy and nutrient dynamics are concerned.

Both the components of ecosystem and environment are same.. It includes-plants. Let's say that ecology would be the scientific study of student's relationship with theShankarIASAcademy as a whole. Eco-System An ecosystem is defined as a structural and functional unit of biosphere consisting of community of living beings and the physical environment. A mat of lichen on a cow dung pad. An Ecosystem is a complex set of relationship among the living resources.

Energy determines the. A community may have one or several species. Abiotic Components Abiot.. As the altitude increases. These climates determine different natural biomes.

They depend on organic food derived from plants. Terrestrial animals live on land. Organisms can be terrestrial or aquatic. Saprotrophs decomposers or osmotrophs. Roots of plants pierce through the soil to tap water and nutrients. They are bacteria and fungi which obtain energy and nutrients by decomposing dead organic substances detritus of plant and animal origin. They synthesise carbohydrate from simple inorganic raw materials like carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight by the process of photosynthesis for themselves.

Neon etc. Aquatic plants.

From sea level to highest peaks. Herbivores are primary consumers which feed mainly on plants e. Earthworm and certain soil organisms such as nematodes.

Some microbes live even in hot water vents under the sea. The climate determines the boundaries of biome and abundance of plants and animals found in each one of them. A riiche is the unique functional role or place of a species in an ecosystem.

In the terrestrial ecosystems edge effect is especially applicable to birds. If we have to conserve species in its native habitat we should have knowledge about the niche requirements of the species and should ensure that all requirements of its niche are fulfilled. Reproductiveniche-how and whenitreproduces. For example the density of birds is greater in the mixed habitat of the ecotone between the forest and the desert.

The organisms which occur primarily or most abundantly in this zone are known as edge species. Niche plays an important role in conservation of organisms. Habitat niche.. A niche is unique for a species. No two biomes are alike. Other examples are grassland. Biome The terrestrial part of the biosphere is divisible into enormous regions called biomes.

Hence it is a zone of tension. The most important climatic factors are temperature and precipitation. For e. This is called edge effect. It is a description of all the biological. Types of Niche 1. Generation and renewal of soil fertility. Mammals and birds. Siberian tiger. New Zealand etc. Most animals are the familiar vertebrates and invertebrates. Reptiles and amphibians are almost absent. Grasses dominate the vegetation. Savannah Grasses with scattered trees and fire resisting is most extensive in Africa.

Most animals and epiphytic plants are concentrated in the canopy or tree top zones. Temperate conditions with rather low rainfall. Moderate temperature than tundra. Western China. These are generally the most productive agricultural areas of the earth The flora includes trees like beech. The fauna include large herbivores like bison. Continental interiors with The flora is drought resistance vegetation very low and sporadic such as cactus.

Multiple storey of broad-leafed evergreen tree species are in abundance.

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Taiga Northern Europe. Eastern North America. The fauna consists of small seed eating birds. Also known as boreal forest.

The dominating vegetation is coniferous evergreen mostly spruce. Dominated by grasses. Asia and North America. The fauna include a great diversity of grazers and browsers such as antelopes. The days are very hot but nights are cold. The energy required for the life within the biosphere comes from the sun.

Theyvary considerably in physical. Estuaries are highly productive as compared to the adjacent river or sea. Biosphere represents a highly integrated and interacting zone comprising of atmosphere air.

Occasionally spores of fungi and bacteria do occur at great height beyond 8. Lotic water system includes freshwater streams. Life in the biosphere is abundant between metres feet below the surface of the ocean and about 6. The nutrients necessary for living organisms come from air. The same chemicals are recycled over and over again for life to continue. Biosphere Aquatic systems are not called biomes.

Hydrosphere Biosphere Biosphere is absent at extremes of the North and South poles.

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Lentic water bodies include pools. The major differences between the various aquatic zones are due to salinity. Living organisms are not uniformly distributed throughout the biosphere. Marine Nearly three quarter of earth's surface is Ecosystem covered by ocean with an average depth of 3. If we visualise the earth to be the size of an apple the biosphere would be as thick as its skin.

Biosphere is a part of the earth where life can exist. In estuaries. Only a few organisms live in the polar regions. Estuaries Coastal bays. It is a narrow layer around the surface of the earth. Trophic levels are numbered according to the steps an organism is away from the source of food or energy.

Food Chain 2. The plant converts solar energy into protoplasm by photosynthesis. A food chain starts with producers and ends with top carnivores. The flow of energy from producer to top consumers is called energy flow which is unidirectional.. Energy flow Nutrient cycling biogeochemical cycles Ecological succession or ecosystem development It never flows in the reverse direction that is from carnivores to herbivores to producers.

T he function of an ecosystem is abroad. Small herbivores consume the vegetable matter and convert them into animal matter. Trophic level interaction Trophic level interaction deals with how the members of an ecosystem are connected based on nutritional needs. There is a loss of some energy in the form of unusable heat at each trophic level so that energy level decreases from the first trophic level upwards..

A sequence of organisms that feed on one another. Food Web 3. The study of Trophic level interaction in an ecosystem gives an idea about the energy flow through the ecosystem. The trophic level interaction involves three concepts namely: The sequence of eaten and being eaten. Ecological Pyramids 2. These herbivores are eaten by large carnivores. It can be studied under the following three heads.

Also food availability and. In terestrial ecosystem. In Aquatic ecosystem phytoplanktons primary producers is eaten by zoo planktons which is eaten by fishes and fishes are eaten by pelicans. Grazing food chain 2. The initial energy source for detritus food cham is the waste materials and dead organic matter from the grazing food chain.

If any of the intermediate food chain is removed. This food chain begins from green plants at the base and the primary consumer is herbivore. In the grazing food chain the primary source of energy is living plant biomass while in the detritus food chain the source of energy is dead organic matter or detritus. Similarly a herbivore may be food source for many different calllivorous species. An ecosystem may consist of 8everal interrelated food chains.

The food web provides more than one alternative for food to most of the organisms in an ecosystem and therefore increases their chance of survival. More typically. A food chain represents only one part of the food or energy flow through an ecosystem and implies a simple.

Thus there are interconnected netjvorks of feeding that take the form of food webs. Types of Food Chains In nature. The two food chains are linked. With each higher trophic level. It is a graphic representation of the total number of individuals of different species. The food producer forms the base of the pyrrurtld and the top carnivore forms the tip.

Parasites a Pyramid of numbers. Hyperporasttes This deals with the relationship between the numbers of primary producers and consumers of different levels. Birds in the next higher trophic level and it is followed by parasites in the next trophic level.

The next higher trophic level is the top carnivore. This type of pyramid can be seen in grassland ecosystem. The next energy level is primary carnivore example rat. Pyramid of Numbers. Hyper parasites being at higher trophic level represents higher in number. This is because the tree primary producer being few in number and would represent the base of the pyramid and the dependent herbivores Example. And the resulting pyramid is in inverted shape.

The ecological pyramids are of three categories. Pyramid of numbers. The next higher trophic level is secondary carnivore example. A pyramid of numbers does not take into account the fact that the size of organisms being counted in each trophic level can vary. They feed on rats.. The pyramid consists of a number of horizontal bars depicting specific trophic levels which are arranged sequentially from primary producer level through herbivore.

Pyramid of energy or productivity. Inverted Pyramid. Other consumer trophic levels are in between. Pyramid of biomass. Depending upon the size and biomass. The number of rats are less than grasshopper. This overcomes the size difference problem because all kinds of organisms at a trophic level are weighed. The biomass of next trophic level i. In order to overcome the shortcomings of pyramid of numbers. Pyramid of Biomass.

To compare the functional roles of the trophic levels in an ecosystem. This gives us a pyramid of biomass. The biomass of producers autotrophs is at the. In this approach individuals in each trophic level are weighed instead of being counted. Hence the pyramid is always upward.

Let us explain this with an example. Most of the energy is not absorbed. Inverted Pyramid in a. Suppose an ecosystem receives calories of light energy in a given day. An energy pyramid. We are concerned about these phenomena because. In bioaccumulation there is an increase in concentration of a pollutant from the environment to the first organism in a food chain.

Pollutants that dissolve in fats. Ill Biomagnification In order for biomagnification to occur. Energy pyramid concept helps to explain the phenomenon of biological magnificationthe tendency for toxic substances to increase in concentration progressively at higher levels of the food chain.

A lion that eats the deer gets an even smaller amount of energy. In mammals. If the pollutant is soluble in water. Thus usable energy decreases from sunlight to producer to herbivore to carnivore. If a pollutant is not active biologically. The deer uses some of it for its own metabolism and stores only 10 cal as food energy. Magnlficati on of Co ncentratior Now suppose an animal. The interaction between the organisms is fundamental for its survival and functioning of ecosystem as a whole.

It is not clear how often this happens in nature. One species is harmed. Neutralism is also sometimes described as the. This movement of nutrients from the environment into plants and animals and again back to the environment is essential for life and it is the vital function ofthe ecology of any region.

Mutualism 2. In any particular environment. In addition to these about 15 to 25 other elements are needed in.

Biotic Interaction Type S. There is no net benefit or harm to either species. The small plant has no effect on the large tree. Both influence the abundance of organisms. The beetles have no effect on the cows. They can be recycled again and again indefinitely. A large tree shades a small plant. In this case. On the other hand. Energy flows through ecosystems enabling the organisms to perform various kinds of work and this energy is ultimately lost as heat forever in terms of the usefulness of the system.

They both. Nutrient Cycling The nutrient cycle is a concept that describes how nutrients move from the physical environment to the living organisms. In contrast sedimentary cycles are considered relatively imperfect. Both of these cycles make up an essential part of the overall soil nutrient cycle..

Cycling of all other nutrients is also dependent upon water as it provides their transportation during the various steps. Gaseous Cycles Let us first study some of the most important gaseous cycles.

There are many other nutrient cycles that are important in ecology. Water Cycle b The Carbon Cycle Carbon is a minor constituent of the atmosphere as compared to oxygen and nitrogen. Most gaseous cycles are generally considered as perfect cycles. A perfect nutrient cycle is one in which nutrients are replaced as fast as they are utilised.

Nutrient cycling Types of Nutrient Cycle. Among the most important nutrient cycles are the carbon nutrient cycle and the nitrogen nutrient cycle. It is the element that anchors all organic substances from coal and oil to DNA deoxyribonucleic acid: Based on the nature of the reservoir.

In deep oceans such carbon can remained buried for millions of years till geological movement may lift these rocks above sea level. These rocks may be exposed to erosion.. Carbon Cycle Some carbon also enters a long term cycle. It accumulates as un-decomposed organic matter in the peaty layers of marshy soil or as insoluble carbonates in bottom sediments of aquatic systems which take a long time to be released..

As a result Nitrogen has become a pollutant which can disrupt the bala. Nitrite is then further transformed into nitrate by the bacteria Nitrobacter. Carbon cycle involves a continuous exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and organisms. Rhizobium as well as blue green algae e.. Ammonium ions can be directly taken up as a source of nitrogen by some plants.

By process of respiration and decomposition of dead organic matter it returns back to atmosphere.. Eutrophication and HarmfulAlgal Blooms. Carbon from the atmosphere moves to green plants by the process of photosynthesis. These include free living nitrifying bacteria e. Nitrogen fixation on earth is accomplished in three different ways: It is usually a short term cycle. There is an inexhaustible supply of nitrogen in the atmosphere but the elemental form cannot be used directly by most of the living organisms.

Nitrosomonas bacteria promote transformation of ammonia into nitrite It may lead to Acid rain. Certain microorganisms are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen into ammonium ions. When they are burned the carbon stored in them is released back into the atmosphere as carbon-dioxide..

Nitrogen needs to be 'fixed'. This nitrogen escapes into the atmosphere. By the process of weathering and erosion phosphates enter rivers and streams that transport them to the ocean. The sulphur cycle is mostly sedimentary except two of its compounds hydrogen sulphide H2S and sulphur dioxide add a gaseous component to its normal sedimentary cycle.

On land phosphorus is usually found in the form of phosphates. The element involved in the sedimentary cycle normally does. After more time. During excretion and upon the death of all organisms nitrogen is returned to the soil in the form of ammonia. The main storage for phosphorus is in the earth's crust.

In the soil as well as oceans there are special denitrifying bacteria e. Sedimentary Cycle Phosphorus. Certain quantity of soil nitrates. Unlike carbon and nitrogen. Atmospheric hydrogen sulphide also gets oxidised into sulphur dioxide. It is released by weathering of rocks.

Atmospheric sulphur dioxide is carried back to the earth after being dissolved in rainwater as weak sulphuric acid. Sulphur enters the atmosphere from several sources like volcanic eruptions. These then go through higher trophic levels of the ecosystem. This is the nutrient considered to be the main cause of excessive growth of rooted and free-floating microscopic plants in lakes. The periodic thunderstorms convert the gaseous nitrogen in the atmosphere to ammonia and nitrates which eventually reach the earth's surface through precipitation and then into the soil to be utilized by plants.

After millions of years. In the ocean once the phosphorus accumulates on continental shelves in the form of insoluble deposits. The stage leading to the climax community are called successional stages or seres Whatever the source. Succession is a progressive series of changes Succession is characterised by the following: Succession occurs when a series of communities place one another due to large scale destruction ther natural or marunade. It then passes through.

Ecological Succession Pines Hardwood Trees Time The pioneers through their death any decay leave patches of organic matter in which small animals can live.. Organic debris accumulates in pockets and crevices. These new conditions may be conducive to the establishment of additional organisms that may subsequently arrive at the site. Which leads to the establishment of a relatively stable 'ff"i'fr..

The pioneer species disappear as the habitat conditions change and invasion of new species progresses. These cycles usually do not operate j'. The final stage of succession is called the climax community. Primary Succession In primary succession on a terrestrial site the new site is first colonized by a few hardy pioneer species that are often microbes. The pioneers over a few generations alter the habitat conditions by their growth and development.

The organic matter produced by these pioneer species produce organic adds during decomposition that dissolve and etch the substratum releasing nutrients to the substratum. As the community of organisms continues to develop.

This process continues community replacing another community.. A mature or intermediate community may be destroyed by natural events such as floods.

This is because. Succession would occur faster in area existing in the middle of the large continent. JEMT' 2. These dominate the ecosystem for some years along with mice. These grasses may be soon joined by tall grasses and herbaceous piants. Secondary Succession Secondary succession occurs when plants recognize an area in which the climax community has been disturbed. And over the years. Secondary succession is the sequential development of biotic communities after thP complete or partial destruction of the existing community.

Siberia and island group of Arctic Ocean. Due to varied climate. On the south pole. They are protected from chillness by the presence of thick cuticle and epidermal hair. It occupies the northern fringe of Canada.

Insects have short life cycles which are completed during favourable period of the year. The body is covered with fur for insulation. Arctic tundra extends as a continuous belt below the polar ice cap and above the tree line in the northern hemisphere.

All these forest biomes are generally arranged on a gradient from north to south latitude or from high to lower altitude. Alpine tundra occurs at high moll! Altitudinal and latitudinal variations cause shifts and differences in the climatic patterns.

The most important limiting factors of the terrestrial ecosystems are moisture and temperature. Forests may be evergreen or deciduous. Salix arctica i. Most of them have long life e.. Animals of tundra are reindeer. European Russia. The forest ecosystems have been classified into three major categories: There are two types of tundra. These differences are reflected in both the material and biotic diversities.

The nature of soil.

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Mammals of the tundra region have large body size and small tail and ear to avoid the loss of heat from the surface. Optimum conditions such as temperature and ground moisture are responsible for the establishment of forest communities. They are distinguished on. Coniferous forest boreal forest: Typical vegetation of arctic tundra is cotton grass. Due to variation in the topographic features of valleys. Temperate rain forests: Tropical rain forests: This kind of forest is found in South East Asia.

Temperate deciduous forest: Fire is an important hazardous factor in this ecosystem and the adaptation of the plants enable them to regenerate quickly after being burnt. Soil of tropical rainforests are red latosols. The flora is highly diversified The extreme dense vegetation of the tropical rain forests remains vertically stratified with tall trees often covered with vines.

The biotic diversity of temperate rain forests is high as compared to other temperate forest. Temperate evergreen forest: Soils of temperate forests are podozolic and fairly deep. It is the important source of water th'.. The annual rainfall exceeds cm and is generally distributed throughout the year. The lowest layer is an understory of trees. The productivity and community stability of a boreal forest are lower than those of any other forest ecosystem.

These soils are acidic and are mineral deficient. This is due to movement of large amount of water through the soil. The high rate of leaching makes these soils virtually useless for agricultural purposes. These are commonly inhabitated by low broad leafed evergreen trees. This process leaves no alkaline oriented cations to encounter the organic acids of the accumulating litter. Undergrowth is restricted in many areas by the lack of sunlight at ground level.

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Tropical seasonal forests: Both temperature and humidity remain high and more or less uniform. The precipitation is fairly uniform throughout. Both because. Tropical rain forests are among the most diverse and rich communities on the earth. It is also found in Madhya Pradesh. Forest types in India are classified by Champion and Seth into sixteen types.

Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Such forests have a mi. Tropical Thom forests This type is found in areas with black soil: There are oak. It is mainly hard-leaved evergreen trees with fragrant flowers.

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Beautiful fem of various colours and different varieties of orchids grow on the trunks of the trees. Andhra Pradesh. There is a marked difference in the form of vegetation in the two areas. Some of the taller trees shed their leaves in the dry season. Subtropical rain forests: The trees do not grow beyond 10 metres. It is characterized by tall. They have roots that consist of soft tissue so that the plant can breathe in the water. Forests varied according to their nature and composition.

In the Silent Valley. In the Eastern Himalayas. These forests are dominated by sal and teak.. The trees in this forest form a tier pattern: The forest is dense and is filled with a large variety of trees of both types.

Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka coast. There is a layer of shorter trees and evergreen shrubs in the undergrowth. Animal life of subtropical forest is very similar to that of tropical rainforests.

The canopy. Tropical Dry deciduous forest Dry deciduous forests are found throughout the northern part of the country except in the North-East.

The more common trees that are found here are the jackfruit. These wet forests consist mainly of evergreen trees with a sprinkling of deciduous here and there.

The trees are tall. Tropical Semi-evergreen forests Semi-evergreen forests are found in the Western Ghats. Tropical Wet evergreen forests Wet evergreen forests are found along the Western Ghats.

There are a large variety of orchids. Moist Alpine scrub 3. Sub alpine forest In the North. Himalayan Moist temperate Forest From air we breathe. It generally has evergreen trees with shining leaves that have a varnished look. Mosses and fern5.

In the eastern parts. Moist alpines are found all along the Himalayas arid on the higher hills near the Myanmar border. It has a low scrub. Dry alpine scrub Dry alpines are found from about metres to about metres.

In the North. Sub tropical Pine forests Rhododendron of many species covers the hills in these parts. This type is found in Lahul. At higher elevation. The trees found in the western section are broad-leaved oak. Due to heavy rainfall and high humidity the timberline in this part is higher than that in the West. Montane wet temperate forests are found in the region to the east of Nepal into Arunachal Pradesh.

Rhododendrons arid a variety of ground flora can be found here. Montane Wet temperate forests 3. There are predominantly coniferous trees. Sub tropical Dry evergreen forests Sub alpine forests extend from Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh between to metres. In the South. Dwarf plants predominate. Coniferous trees are also found here. Importance of Forest 3. Western and Central Himalayas. The trees predominantly found in these areas are the chir. There are a large variety of broad-leaved trees.

In the Western Himalayas. The forests in the northern region are denser than in the South. Dry evergreen forests normally have a prolonged hot and dry season and a cold winter.

Development projects like the hydroelectric projects. This patch of land is used for raising crops for. Many of these projects require immense deforestation. How it affects? All that is required for this method of cultivation is a set of simple tools. The obvious result is deforestation and erosion. Then this area is abandoned and is left to recover its fertility.!

Calotropis gigantia. Zizyphus ber and sometimes fleshy Euphorbia. The thorny bushes are Acacia catechu. Rajasthan excluding Aravallis. The grass layer is sparse and consists mainly of annual grass species. Delhi and Punjab. Cassia auriculata. Soymida febrifuga and other deciduous species. The major difference between steppes and savannas is that all the forage in the steppe is provided only during the brief wet season whereas in the savannas forage is largely from grasses that not only grow during the wet season but also from the smaller amount of regrowth in the dry season.

Types of Grasslands 2 dry sub humid zone The Dichanthiumcenchrus-lasitrrus type Based on climatic conditions there are six types of grasslands found in the different regions of the Indian subcontinent. Forage is available only during the brief wet season. The topography is broken up by hill spurs and sand dunes. Prosopis cineraria. Steppe formations occupy large areas of sandy and saline soil.

The light shade cast by the sparse population of trees like khetri Prosopis cineraria favours the growth of the grasses.. In the central and eastern parts of Rajasthan..

The rest of India's grasslands are mainly composed of steppes and savannas. The savanna is derived from the humid forests on account of shifting cultivation and sheep grazing.: Cypodon dactylon and Dichanthium annulatum are found in transition zones. Due to absence of humus cover. West Bengal. Atmgit' altifudes'ahd at greater distance-from the equator.. It results in a breakdown of the biogwch'. Phoenic sylvestris and Zizyphus nummularia. Cynodon daotylon.

Only about 13 million hectares in the country are classified as permanent grazing lands. On top of it. Butea m6nosperma. The livestock wealth plays a crucial role in Indian life. Sote bush. It is a major source of fuel. Some of these are replaced by Borassus sp in the palm savannas especially near Sunderbans. Uttar Pradesh. Under moist conditions fire favours grass-over trees. This huge mass of livestock needs fodder for sustenance but there is nqt enough of it.

Jhansi and Central Arid Zone Research institute. Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir. The common trees and shrubs are Acacia arabica. Leaves are absent or reduced in. Thar desert hot The climate of this region is characterised by excessive drought. Follow Us on Twitter. Join Us On Telegram. Email Address. Sign Up. You should Satisfy for what you got.. New version is not available anywhere.. If Available in future..

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