Digital electronics: principles, devices, and applications / Anil Kumar Maini Digi. Analog and Digital Circuits for Electronic Control System Applications Analog. to circuits and electronics, in which the focus is on analog circuits alone.'' today's digital world requires a strong background in analog circuit principles as well. The experiment investigates how transistor devices are used to make various logic circuits. It is in two parts, each part having a value of one weight. Part I studies.
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PDF | On Jan 1, , D.K. Kaushik and others published Digital Electronics. This composite proposition can be shown by an electronic circuit as shown in. electronic circuits that handle information encoded in binary form (deal with signals that have only two values, 0 and 1). Digital . computers, watches. PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we Analog and Digital Circuits for Electronic Control System Applications Analog and Digital Circuit.
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Get New Updates Email Alerts Enter your email address to subscribe this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Join With us. Today Updates. Statics and Dynamics By R. Hibbeler Book April Punmia, Ashok Kumar Jain, Arun April 8. April 7. Popular Files. January June February 6. Jayakumar, Dr May 1. Trending on EasyEngineering. Since digital circuits are made from analog components, digital circuits calculate more slowly than low-precision analog circuits that use a similar amount of space and power.
However, the digital circuit will calculate more repeatably, because of its high noise immunity.
On the other hand, in the high-precision domain for example, where 14 or more bits of precision are needed , analog circuits require much more power and area than digital equivalents.
To save costly engineering effort, much of the effort of designing large logic machines has been automated. The computer programs are called " electronic design automation tools" or just "EDA. Simple truth table-style descriptions of logic are often optimized with EDA that automatically produces reduced systems of logic gates or smaller lookup tables that still produce the desired outputs.
The most common example of this kind of software is the Espresso heuristic logic minimizer. Most practical algorithms for optimizing large logic systems use algebraic manipulations or binary decision diagrams , and there are promising experiments with genetic algorithms and annealing optimizations.
To automate costly engineering processes, some EDA can take state tables that describe state machines and automatically produce a truth table or a function table for the combinational logic of a state machine. The state table is a piece of text that lists each state, together with the conditions controlling the transitions between them and the belonging output signals.
It is common for the function tables of such computer-generated state-machines to be optimized with logic-minimization software such as Minilog. Often, real logic systems are designed as a series of sub-projects, which are combined using a "tool flow. Tool flows for large logic systems such as microprocessors can be thousands of commands long, and combine the work of hundreds of engineers. Writing and debugging tool flows is an established engineering specialty in companies that produce digital designs.
The tool flow usually terminates in a detailed computer file or set of files that describe how to physically construct the logic. Often it consists of instructions to draw the transistors and wires on an integrated circuit or a printed circuit board. Parts of tool flows are "debugged" by verifying the outputs of simulated logic against expected inputs.
The test tools take computer files with sets of inputs and outputs, and highlight discrepancies between the simulated behavior and the expected behavior. Once the input data is believed correct, the design itself must still be verified for correctness. Some tool flows verify designs by first producing a design, and then scanning the design to produce compatible input data for the tool flow.
If the scanned data matches the input data, then the tool flow has probably not introduced errors. The functional verification data are usually called "test vectors".
The functional test vectors may be preserved and used in the factory to test that newly constructed logic works correctly. However, functional test patterns don't discover common fabrication faults. Production tests are often designed by software tools called " test pattern generators ". These generate test vectors by examining the structure of the logic and systematically generating tests for particular faults.
Once a design exists, and is verified and testable, it often needs to be processed to be manufacturable as well. Modern integrated circuits have features smaller than the wavelength of the light used to expose the photoresist.
Manufacturability software adds interference patterns to the exposure masks to eliminate open-circuits, and enhance the masks' contrast.
There are several reasons for testing a logic circuit. When the circuit is first developed, it is necessary to verify that the design circuit meets the required functional and timing specifications. When multiple copies of a correctly designed circuit are being manufactured, it is essential to test each copy to ensure that the manufacturing process has not introduced any flaws.
A large logic machine say, with more than a hundred logical variables can have an astronomical number of possible states. Obviously, in the factory, testing every state is impractical if testing each state takes a microsecond, and there are more states than the number of microseconds since the universe began. This ridiculous-sounding case is typical. Large logic machines are almost always designed as assemblies of smaller logic machines.
To save time, the smaller sub-machines are isolated by permanently installed "design for test" circuitry, and are tested independently. One common test scheme known as "scan design" moves test bits serially one after another from external test equipment through one or more serial shift registers known as "scan chains".
Serial scans have only one or two wires to carry the data, and minimize the physical size and expense of the infrequently used test logic. After all the test data bits are in place, the design is reconfigured to be in "normal mode" and one or more clock pulses are applied, to test for faults e. Finally, the result of the test is shifted out to the block boundary and compared against the predicted "good machine" result. In a board-test environment, serial to parallel testing has been formalized with a standard called " JTAG " named after the "Joint Test Action Group" that made it.
Another common testing scheme provides a test mode that forces some part of the logic machine to enter a "test cycle. Several numbers determine the practicality of a system of digital logic: Engineers explored numerous electronic devices to get a favourable combination of these personalities.
Since the bulk of a digital computer is simply an interconnected network of logic gates, the overall cost of building a computer correlates strongly with the price per logic gate. In the s, the earliest digital logic systems were constructed from telephone relays because these were inexpensive and relatively reliable. After that, electrical engineers always used the cheapest available electronic switches that could still fulfill the requirements.
The earliest integrated circuits were a happy accident. They were constructed not to save money, but to save weight, and permit the Apollo Guidance Computer to control an inertial guidance system for a spacecraft.
To everyone's surprise, by the time the circuits were mass-produced, they had become the least-expensive method of constructing digital logic. Improvements in this technology have driven all subsequent improvements in cost. With the rise of integrated circuits , reducing the absolute number of chips used represented another way to save costs. The goal of a designer is not just to make the simplest circuit, but to keep the component count down.
Sometimes this results in more complicated designs with respect to the underlying digital logic but nevertheless reduces the number of components, board size, and even power consumption. A major motive for reducing component count on printed circuit boards is to reduce the manufacturing defect rate and increase reliability, as every soldered connection is a potentially bad one, so the defect and failure rates tend to increase along with the total number of component pins.
For example, in some logic families, NAND gates are the simplest digital gate to build. All other logical operations can be implemented by NAND gates. If a circuit already required a single NAND gate, and a single chip normally carried four NAND gates, then the remaining gates could be used to implement other logical operations like logical and. This could eliminate the need for a separate chip containing those different types of gates. The "reliability" of a logic gate describes its mean time between failure MTBF.
Digital machines often have millions of logic gates. Also, most digital machines are "optimized" to reduce their cost. The result is that often, the failure of a single logic gate will cause a digital machine to stop working. It is possible to design machines to be more reliable by using redundant logic which will not malfunction as a result of the failure of any single gate or even any two, three, or four gates , but this necessarily entails using more components, which raises the financial cost and also usually increases the weight of the machine and may increase the power it consumes.
Digital machines first became useful when the MTBF for a switch got above a few hundred hours. Even so, many of these machines had complex, well-rehearsed repair procedures, and would be nonfunctional for hours because a tube burned-out, or a moth got stuck in a relay.
Modern transistorized integrated circuit logic gates have MTBFs greater than 82 billion hours 8. Fanout describes how many logic inputs can be controlled by a single logic output without exceeding the electrical current ratings of the gate outputs. Modern electronic logic gates using CMOS transistors for switches have fanouts near fifty, and can sometimes go much higher. The "switching speed" describes how many times per second an inverter an electronic representation of a "logical not" function can change from true to false and back.
Faster logic can accomplish more operations in less time. Design started with relays. Relay logic was relatively inexpensive and reliable, but slow. Occasionally a mechanical failure would occur. Fanouts were typically about 10, limited by the resistance of the coils and arcing on the contacts from high voltages. Later, vacuum tubes were used.
These were very fast, but generated heat, and were unreliable because the filaments would burn out. Fanouts were typically In the s, special "computer tubes" were developed with filaments that omitted volatile elements like silicon.
These ran for hundreds of thousands of hours. The first semiconductor logic family was resistor—transistor logic. This was a thousand times more reliable than tubes, ran cooler, and used less power, but had a very low fan-in of 3. Diode—transistor logic improved the fanout up to about 7, and reduced the power. Transistor—transistor logic TTL was a great improvement over these. In early devices, fanout improved to 10, and later variations reliably achieved TTL is still used in some designs.
Emitter coupled logic is very fast but uses a lot of power. It was extensively used for high-performance computers made up of many medium-scale components such as the Illiac IV. By far, the most common digital integrated circuits built today use CMOS logic , which is fast, offers high circuit density and low-power per gate. This is used even in large, fast computers, such as the IBM System z. In , researchers discovered that memristors can implement a boolean state storage similar to a flip flop , implication and logical inversion , providing a complete logic family with very small amounts of space and power, using familiar CMOS semiconductor processes.
The discovery of superconductivity has enabled the development of rapid single flux quantum RSFQ circuit technology, which uses Josephson junctions instead of transistors. Most recently, attempts are being made to construct purely optical computing systems capable of processing digital information using nonlinear optical elements. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Electronic circuits that utilize digital signals.
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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: Digital electronics. A digital signal has two or more distinguishable waveforms, in this example, high voltage and low voltages, each of which can be mapped onto a digit.
Main article: This section needs additional citations for verification. Digital electronics portal. Shannon Transparent latch Unconventional computing.
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