Taranath, Bungale S. Reinforced concrete design of tall buildings / by Bungale S. Taranath. .. Yield-Line Analysis of a Simply Supported. Square Slab. Download Structural Analysis and Design of Tall Buildings – Steel and Composite Construction written by Bungale S. Taranath, Ph.D., P.E., S.E., Corporate. High-rise buildings are exposed to both static and dynamic loads. Depending .. analysis of accelerations and overturning moment from wind-load were made and compared information about further studies on structural design of high- rise.
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Tall Building Structures, Analysis & caite.info - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or view presentation slides online. The main vehicle in this study was structural modeling and analysis of six Structural modeling and design of tall buildings composed of ultra-. is often minimized. Structural engineering, however, Structural Analysis and Design of Tall Buildings DownloadPDF MB.
Other Useful Links. Abstract Analysis and design of tall buildings. Such a reduction is unlikely to affect the skin friction based bearing capacity since the rule of thumb that indicate 2. In order to ensure that the whole building would behave as one unit, it is possible to combine the pile caps with ground beams or a somewhat thick ground slab. As far as earthquake resistance is concerned, it would be ideal to have some nominal shear reinforcement within the pile cap. Taranath Book Free Download. Get New Updates Email Alerts Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.
The continuation of large columns through apartment may lead to loss of valuable space of various rooms. Therefore, the selection of an appropriate reinforced concrete wall system that can serve the dual purpose of partition walls and load bearing walls would offer a better solution. Figure 2 indicates the arrangement at car parking floors. Since apartment would have many solid partition walls, it may be cost effective to use a beam and solid slab system than a flat slab system, since there may be a need to accommodate drops needed at bathrooms although not I essential with some new plumbing technologies.
Tran sfer of load on slab Majority of slabs in beam-slab construction would be of two way spanning nature. Therefore, it is important to consider a reliable load transfer mechanism on to the beams supporting them. One possible solution is to allocate the load using the coefficients given in Table 3.
Part 1: Alternatively, it would be possible to transfer the loads using the mesh facility available in SAP . However, the beams also would have to be divided to ensure connectivity between beams and slabs. The use of Table 3. It also follows the traditional method that was followed prior to computer era or in the early days of computer era.
The loads transferred on to frame elements can be indicated as in Figure 3. The thickness available for bending should be assigned a low value about 50 mm in order to ensure that the shell elements will not give unduly high stiffness at the slab levels that may not exist in the real structure and hence violate the normal load paths assumed in structural analysis and design.
It is considered that slabs will transfer loads on to beams and then beams will transfer loads on to the columns. This must be accurately represented in the Finite Element Model.
These shell elements are expected to indicate the exact location of mass that is important for determining the dynamic properties . Since the self weight of the slab is represented as a load on the beams, it is essential to ensure that the weight of the shell elements are made zero.
This can be achieved by defining a special concrete for slabs where a very low value could be allocated for density.
Representation of important structural elements 5. Generally beams and columns can be represented as shown in Figure 3 by using frame elements where each end would have 6 degree of freedom.
When columns are of rectangular shape as generally occur in apartment buildings, it is also possible to use shell element to represent the columns as shown in Figure 2. With shell elements, the designer would have to consider axial stresses than axial force and bending moment as the out put.
Modelling of transfer plates and pile caps The transfer plates are expected to connect the important members above it to those below. One important aspect that needs considerable attention is connectivity. For SAP , the ideal strategy is to connect them manually with a coarse mesh as shown in Figure 5. In order to improve the accuracy, a finer mesh can be subsequently created with the mesh generating facility available with software as shown in Figure 6. Since transfer plate is an important structural member, it would be important to ensure that it has sufficient ductility.
This can be ensured by providing shear reinforcement within the transfer plate. The same modelling technique can be used to for modelling of pile caps as shown in Figures 8 and 9 as used for the building shown in Figure 7.
Generally, the thickness of the pile cap should be at least 0. As far as earthquake resistance is concerned, it would be ideal to have some nominal shear reinforcement within the pile cap. When piles are represented as frame elements, they would not have a finite size. Thus, the moments induced in the pile caps would be of greater magnitude than the actual values. This can be rectified to a certain extent by providing additional inclined members of nominal dimensions of about mm x mm starting at a depth of about 2.
These should be connected to the pile cap shell element nodes to represent the actual dimension of the pile. For this connection, meshing of the pile cap should have already been carried out. Such members can reduce the deformation around the pile and hence can reduce the moment to be as close as possible to the actual moments that would occur in the pile cap.
If pile rafts are available, it is possible to use the same approach where the raft can be placed on springs of appropriate stiffness.
The factor of safety is generally considered as 2. Pile rafts can also be provided with some nominal shear links. These can also act as stools for supporting the reinforcement placed at the top level. It would be important to represent shear walls with some sub-division at the floor above the pile cap if it is necessary to represent the loads transfer on to the pile caps accurately. Interpretation of results The most important information that can be obtained from a three dimensional model is the dynamic characteristics of the building and the loads on the vertical members such as columns, walls and piles.
An accurate model can also give moments on beams, but - would not be accurate unless pattern loading has been carefully simulated.
The forces and moments on transfer plates and pile caps would be of reasonable accuracy. Design of structural elements - A tall building that is analyzed as above and detailed would be of sufficient safety. However, the safety of the structure can be enhanced by providing over-strength at some selected locations where the models may under-estimate the special effects that would not have been fully captured by the basic assumptions.
Such locations are where the columns and shear walls meeting the pile caps, transfer plates, raft foundation, etc. The general details for these locations can be coupled with earthquake resistant details to obtain a highly robust structure that will be able to withstand many unforeseen effects or adverse loads that would be difficult to estimate.
The earthquake detailing guidelines can be - obtained from many research papers specifically intended for Sri Lanka [I O] or from the Society of Structural Engineers publication on earthquake resistant detailing. It may be important pay some attention to blasts as well in the form of blast minimizing features that can be coupled with good planning practices and structural detailing  8.
Conclusions With the irregular shaped modern day tall buildings that have to satisfy the special needs that arise due to car parking, it is essential to use three dimensional finite element analysis for structural design. Since it is essential to produce optimum designs, it is of significant importance to ensure that the actual loads on floors are accurately taken into account with realistic load transfer mechanisms. Since large pile caps may be involved in these structures, sometimes, it would be useful to model the pile caps and piles along with the super-structure.
Various techniques that can be used in such situations have been shown with sufficient details in order to ensure wider use of such details and also to represent a situation as close as possible to the actual structure with the SAP based mathematical model.
Various important design details pertaining to tall buildings also have been presented. The slab loads transferred on to the beams within 0. A transfer plate created manually with shell elements to ensure proper connectivity of the walls above it with large columns below it Figure 6: Figure 7: Figure 8: Thank you.
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