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Ông Hồ Hoàng Kha, HTX Bưởi da xanh Sông Xoài, Bà Rịa-Vũng Tàu Phạm Thị Sến, Viện Khoa học kỹ thuật nông lâm nghiệp Miền núi Phía Bắc (NOMAFSI). Chè: khoảng ha; sản lượng chè búp tươi trên tấn/năm. 14 Tháng Ba PDF | An analysis of taxa used and that are salient to Vietnamese in Hawai'i compared búp (SV). lettuce (round cv.) laitue. diếp (NV). cv. xà lách gài (SV) lettuce (long cv.) . Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek đậu đậu xanh mung bean haricot mung . Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. củ củ sen lotus root rhizomes. Bau Sen Bridge. 19 Embankment xanh/. Bluestone. 4. Khác/ Others. Qui mô ảnh hưởng. Degree of impacts Nguyễn Thị Búp (CM: ).


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hoa sen xanh ebook. Quote. Postby Just» Sat Mar 2, am. Looking for hoa sen xanh ebook. Will be grateful for any help! Top. chồi, nụ, búp budding /bʌdiη/ sự nảy chồi, sự nảy mầm bulk /bʌlk/ khối, đống, mactit, chất gắn centrifugal /sen'trifjugl/ sự li tâm centrifuge /sentrifju:dz/ máy li .. /gri:ni∫/ hơi xanh grief /gri:f/ tai họa, đau khổ grind (ground, ground) /graind. Access vs equity is an issue in willingness to take risks, patience, sen- general, (middle and high school), and Bup Sen Xanh Kindergar- The World View ten.

Improving Access and within the walls of the public university, with many interna- tional and local examples to justify moving in this direction. Is the term solution restricted only to liquid solutions? The Analysis of Results section following each experimental procedure in this book describes the preparation of graphs and tables. Vietnamese Higher Educa- tional Institutions Corporate Level Strategy Many institutions have been implementing a strategy of Do Minh Ngoc cooperation at the corporate level by developing joint aca- demic programs with foreign counterparts. Kingdom, six each in Australia and Canada, and nine in eight other countries. What these initiatives essentially through line-item budgets, which means that funds al- did was provide conditions for development. The impure liquid substance is cooled until part of it has crystallized, and the remaining liquid, which usually contains most of the impurities, is then poured off, leaving the purified crystals.

For example, when a drop of a solution of potassium permanganate is added to a solution containing hydrogen peroxide and sulfuric acid no detectable reaction may occur for several minutes. The reaction speeds up, and finally the rate may become so great as to decolorize a steady steam of permanganate solution as rapidly as it is poured into the reducing solution.

This effect of the speeding up of the reaction is due to the vigorous catalytic action of the products of permanganate ion reduction: Read and translate into Vietnamese require, completion, oxidation, extremely, neutralization, base, presumably, nearly, hydronium ions, collide, collision, delay, formation, chloride, permit, diffuse, crystalline, reduction, oxidation, stannous, transfer, manifold, depend, intimacy, concentration, reactant, circumstances, irradiation, ultraviolet, neutron, affect, effect, catalyst, evolved, absorbed, permanganate, detectable, decolorize, reduce, vigorous, product.

What is meant by the rate of a chemical reaction? Name some factors affecting the rate of a chemical reaction. What is the effect of temperature and pressure on reaction rate? What is the function of catalysts? What is the rate of complicated chemical processes?

Say a few sentences about the rate of chemical reactions. UNIT 8: The simplest hydrocarbon is methane, CH4. Its molecules are tetrahedral, the four hydrogen atoms lying at the corners of a regular tetrahedron around the carbon atom, and connected with the carbon atom with single bonds. Methane is a gas, which occurs in natural gas, and is used as a fuel.

It is also used in large quantities for the manufacture of carbon black, by combustion with a limited supply of air. The hydrogen burn to water, and the carbon is deposited as very finely divided carbon, which finds extensive use as filler for rubber for automobile tires. The compounds of this series are not very reactive chemically.

They occur in complex mixtures called petroleum. The molecules heavier than ethane are characterized by containing carbon atoms attached to one another by single bonds.

The lighter members of the paraffin series are gases, the intermediate members are liquids, and the heavier members are solid or semi-solid substances. Gasoline is the heptane-nonane mixture, and kerosene the decane-hexadecane mixture.

Heavy fuel oil is a mixture of paraffins containing twenty or more atoms per molecule. The lubricating oils and solid paraffin are mixtures of still larger paraffin molecules. The substance ethylene, C2H4, consists of molecules in which there is a double bond between the two carbon atoms. This double bond confers upon the molecule the property of much greater chemical reactivity than is possessed by the paraffins.

Because of this property of readily combining with other substances, ethylene and related hydrocarbons are said to be unsaturated.

Acetylene is the first member of a series of hydrocarbons containing triple bonds. Aside from acetylene, these substances have not found wide use, except for the manufacture of other chemicals.

The hydrocarbons, the molecules of which contain a ring of carbon atoms, are called cyclic hydrocarbons. Cyclohexane, C6H12, is representative of this class of substances. It is a volatile liquid, closely similar to normal hexane in its properties. Another important hydrocarbon is benzene, having the formula C6H6. For many years there was discussion about the structure of the benzene molecule. August Kekule suggested that the six carbon atoms are in the form of a ring, and this has been verified: Kekule suggested that, in order for a carbon atom to show its normal quadrivalence, the ring contains three single bonds and three double bonds in alternate positions.

Other hydrocarbons, derivatives of benzene, can be obtained by replacing the hydrogen atoms by methyl groups or similar groups. Benzene and its derivatives are used in the manufacture of drugs, explosives, photographic developers, plastics, synthetic dyes, and many other substances.

Read and translate into Vietnamese methane, tetrahedral, tetrahedron, bond, nature, natural, fuel, combustion, supply, deposited, extensive, series, formula, petroleum, ethane, intermediate, gasoline, kerosene, lubricating, ethylene, double, confer, reactivity, paraffin, unsaturated, acetylene, triple, cyclic, representative, hexane, benzene, aromatic, odor, discussion, structure, suggest, ring, verify, diffraction, planar, hexagon, quadrivalence, alternate, position, derivative, replace, methyl, explosives, developer, plastics, synthetic, dye.

What kinds of substances are hydrocarbons? What is methane and what are its uses? What is the difference between petroleum and petrol? What is ethylene? What is acetylene?

Which hydrocarbons are called cyclic hydrocarbons? What is the representative of cyclic hydrocarbon class of substances? What is benzene? What did August Kekule suggest? What are the uses of benzene? UNIT 9: The equipment of a chemical laboratory varies according to the nature of the work, which is to be carried out. Every chemical laboratory should be provided with running water, gas and electricity. The water supply is conducted from the mains by means of pipes, the piping terminating in taps under, which there are sinks to take away waste water and other non-objectionable liquids.

When one needs water one turns the tap on and stops it flowing by turning the tap off. Similarly a system of pipes is attached to the gas main from where gas reaches the various kinds of burners. They serve for producing flames of different intensity, the Bunsen burner being the most common type used.

Apart from a gas supply there is electricity which serves for lighting and as a driving power. For operating electricity, switches or switch buttons are employed. That is why we talk about switching on the light or switching it off. One of them, a desiccator, is used for drying materials. Ovens, furnaces or kilns serve for generating high temperatures.

Where harmful vapors and undesirable odorous develop during the operation, a hood with suitable ventilation has to be provided for their escape. Of primary importance are glass and porcelain vessels. Glass vessels for chemical processes are made of special materials. They have to resist sudden changes in temperature, to withstand very high temperature: The necessary assortment of laboratory glassware includes test tubes, beakers, various flasks, watch glasses, funnels, bottles, and cylinders.

Porcelain articles consist of various kinds of dishes, basins and crucibles of various diameters. A grinding mortar with a pestle, desiccating dishes and stirrers are also generally made of porcelain.

Containers made of them are especially suitable for storing stock solutions. The analytical balance, which is used for accurate weighing of samples, is usually kept in a separate room. Read and translate into Vietnamese indispensable, research, institute, confirm, demonstrate, phenomena, industry, application, science, equipment, vary, theoretical, technician, technologist, verify, employ, scientist, scientific, electricity, terminate, attached, burner, intensity, power, powder, equipped, variety, desiccator, oven, furnaces, generate, porcelain, refractory, assortment, cylinder, basin, crucible, pestle, stirrer, increase, resistant, unbreakable, analytical, balance, polyethylene.

What is the task of laboratory work? Why is it important and necessary for you as students of chemistry to make experiments in your school laboratories? Describe the general equipment of chemical laboratories. Which properties should the glass be used for making chemical vessels possess? What does the necessary assortment of laboratory glassware include? What do porcelain articles usually consist of? What are the advantages of polyethylene bottles? What are containers made of plastic materials especially suitable for?

What do burners serve for? What is the analytical balance used for? Elements already known retained their old names, e. The names of compounds are formed from those of their components so as to indicate their composition. When a metal forms two compounds with oxygen, the two oxides are distinguished by adding -ous and -ic to the Latin name of the metal, signifying the lower and higher oxidation states respectively, e. The salts corresponding to cuprous oxide are called cuprous salts, e.

Another way of distinguishing between different compounds of the same element is by the use of the Greek prefixes to the names of the elements. These prefixes are as follows: To these we may add the Latin hemi-, meaning one half, and sesqui-, meaning one and a half, and per-.

By the use of these prefixes we can designate the compounds more precisely than by means of the prefixes -ous and -ic, especially when more than two compounds exist. Oxides, which form salts with acids, are known as basic oxides; by combination with water, basic oxides form bases. H2O are ferrous hydroxide and ferric hydroxide, respectively. The endings -ous, -ic are also applied to acids, the -ous acid containing less oxygen than the -ic acid, e.

Salts are named in relation to the acids from which they are derived according to the following rules: Accordingly, salts of sulfurous acid are called sulfites, those of sulfuric acid, sulfates.

Salts of phosphorous acid are phosphites, of phosphoric acid, phosphates, etc. Read and translate into Vietnamese nomenclature, devised, binary, sodium chloride, respectively, designate, basic, bases, hydroxyl, formulas, salt, corresponding, sodium chlorite, cuprous oxide, cupric oxide, sodium chlorate, involve.

When was the systematic chemical Nomenclature devised and what is the difference between the names of elements already known at that time and the names of newly discovered elements? How are the names of compounds formed? What are the endings -ous, -ic used for and what is the difference between them? When are the Greek prefixes mono-, di-, tri-, etc.

What are the rules for forming the names of salts? Certainly, all our natural rivers and lakes and even the water stored in most reservoirs may be subjected to pollution, and generally cannot be considered safe for drinking purposes without some forms of treatment.

The type and extent of treatment will vary from city to city, depending upon the conditions of the raw water. Treatment may comprise various processes used separately or in combinations, such as storage, aeration, sedimentation, coagulation, rapid or slow sand filtration, and chlorination, or other accepted forms of disinfection. When surface waters serve as a municipal water supply, it is generally necessary to remove suspended solid, which can be accomplished either by plain sedimentation or sedimentation following the addition of coagulating chemicals.

In the water from most streams that are suitable as a source of supply, the sediment is principally inorganic, consisting of particles of sand and clay and small amount of organic matter. In this water there will also be varying numbers of bacteria, depending upon the amount of bacteria nutrients, coming from sewage or other sources of organic matter, and upon the prevailing temperature. Many of the bacteria may have come from the soil and, as a result, during a season of high turbidity when there is a large amount of eroded soil in the water, the bacterial count from this source may be relatively high.

If the organisms are derived from sewage pollution, the number will be highest during periods of low flow when there is less dilution, and at this time the turbidity will, in general, be low. The amount of sediment may vary a great deal from one river to another, depending upon the geological character of the various parts of the drainage system.

The size of the suspended particles can also vary greatly. In some waters the clay particles may be extremely fine, in fact, they may be smaller than bacteria. The time required for satisfactory sedimentation differs for different waters, and generally must be established by actual experiments. Some waters can be clarified satisfactorily in a few days, while others may require weeks or months. As far as total weight of sediment is concerned, the bulk of it is probably removed in a few days, but this may not bring about a corresponding change in the appearance of the water, since the smaller particles may have greater influence than the large ones upon the apparent color and turbidity.

When plain sedimentation is used primarily as a preliminary treatment, a high degree of clarification is not needed and, as a result, shorter periods of settling are adequate. After flocculation treatment, water is passed through beds of sand with diatomaceous earth to accomplish sand filtration.

As we mentioned previously, some protozoan cysts, such as those of G. The microorganisms are trapped mostly by surface adsorption in the sand beds. They do not penetrate the tortuous routing of the sand beds, even through the openings might be larger than the organisms that are filtered out. These sand filters are periodically backflushed to clear them of accumulations.

Water systems of cities that have an exceptional concern for toxic chemicals supplement sand filtration with filters of activated charcoal carbon. Charcoal has the advantage of removing not only particulate matter but also some dissolved organic chemical pollutants. Before entering the municipal distribution system, the filtered water is chlorinated.

Because organic matter neutralized chlorine, the plant operators must pay constant attention to maintaining effective levels of chlorine.

There has been some concern that chlorine itself might be a health hazard, that it might react with organic contaminants of the water to form carcinogenic compounds.

At present, this possibility is considered minor when compared with the proven usefulness of chlorination of water. One substitute for chlorination is ozone treatment. Ozone O3 is a highly reactive form of oxygen that is formed by electrical spark discharges and ultraviolet light. The fresh odor of air following an electrical storm or around an ultraviolet light bulb is from ozone.

Ozone for water treatment is generated electrically at the site of treatment. Use of ultraviolet light is also a possible alternative to chemical disinfection. Arrays of ultraviolet tube lamps are arranged in quartz tubes so that water flows close to the lamps.

This is necessary because of the low penetrating power of ultraviolet radiation. Read and translate into Vietnamese treatment, combination, storage, aeration, sedimentation, coagulation, chlorination, disinfection, bacterium, nutrients, sewage, pollution, beds of sand, drainage, influence, turbidity, diatomaceous earth, accumulation, activated carbon.

What are the various processes for water treatment? What is the method for removing the suspended solids from surface waters? What are the principal sediments from water of streams? What are the methods for trapping the microorganisms from various kinds of water?

What is the purpose of chlorination of water? What is the substitute for chlorination of water? What is the kind of physical agent for water treatment of microorganisms in Vietnam? Say a few words about the water treatment in Vietnam. UNIT It should have a number of accessories in order to operate satisfactorily. First of all it generally must be closed, except for a vent, in order to prevent loss of material and danger to the operating personnel. For reactions carried out under pressure the vent is replaced by a safety valve.

High-pressure conditions frequently introduce complications in the design and greatly increase the initial cost. For example, the top closure must be able to withstand the same maximum pressure as the rest of the autoclave.

At medium pressures a satisfactory closure can be assembled. It is usually necessary to agitate the reaction mixture in batch systems. This can be done mechanically with stirrers operated by a shaft extending through the reactor wall.

Provision for heating or cooling the reaction contents is often required. This may be accomplished by circulating a fluid through a jacket surrounding the reactor. Where heat effects are large enough to require the most rapid heat transfer, the jacket may be augmented by heating or cooling coils immersed in the reaction mixture.

Flow reactors. Flow reactors may be constructed in a number of ways. The conventional thermal- cracking units in the petroleum industry are examples of a noncatalytic type.

The gas oil or other petroleum fraction is passed through a number of alloy-steel tubes placed in a series on the walls and roof of the furnace. On the other hand, flow reactors may consist of a tank or kettle, much like a batch reactor, with provision for continuously adding reactants and withdraw product. From a design viewpoint the essential difference between tubular and tank reactors lies in the degree of mixing obtained.

In the tubular type, where the length is generally large with respect to the tube diameter, the forced velocity in the direction of flow is sufficient to retard mixing in the axial direction. On the other hand, in tank reactors, it is possible to obtain essentially complete mixing by mechanical agitation.

Under these conditions the composition, temperature and pressure are uniform through the vessel. Read and translate into Vietnamese kettle, tank, accessories, autoclave, agitate, mixture, stirrers, circulating, jacket, coils, petroleum, roof, furnace, endothermic, batch reactor, tubular, velocity http: What are the various kind of batch reactors?

Why must the batch reactors be closed? Why does the top closure of batch reactors have to be installed with the vent or the safety valve? What is the purpose of a jacket surrounding the reactor? Tell something about the flow reactor? It is common practice, however, to regard it as consisting of two parts: Chemicals of this type are chiefly used in the manufacture of other products and do not ordinarily take the form of familiar household products or articles of commerce.

The chemical-process industry is even more dependent upon classifications of an arbitrary nature, and hence its scope is correspondingly more open to differences of opinion. According to the most widely accepted definition, the chemical-process industry consist of the companies which manufacture such products as drug, soap, paint, fertilizers, vegetable and animal oils, and a number of various related products.

Contrary to more technically based definitions, however, this classification excludes companies engaged in the production of iron and steel, in petroleum refining, and in the manufacture of pulp and paper, rubber products, leather products and glass.

Their exclusion has probably been due primarily to the combination of their origin, large size, simple product structure, and well-defined markets. Hence, it has long been the custom of economists and statisticians to regard them as independent industries. As matter of fact, both the oil industry and the steel industry were, until comparatively recently, much larger in size than the chemical industry as officially defined.

Regardless of the arbitrary limitations of its official definition, however, the chemical industry has been steadily expanding. It has ignored industrial boundaries in the application of new manufacturing processes and in the development of new products.

The already existing chemical companies have entered new industries, such as textiles, building materials, and drugs. And industries not recognized as chemical in nature have begun the manufacture of chemical products by new methods from new materials. A recent and conspicuous example of this latter type of chemical expansion has been the development of the so-called "petrochemical industry", in which chemical products are manufactured from petroleum raw materials.

Read and translate into Vietnamese http: Is there any sharply defined frontier between the chemical industry and many other industries? Can you give some concepts about the chemical-product industry?

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Can you tell something about the chemical-process industry? Has the chemical industry been steadily expanding and how? Can you give some concepts of "petro-chemical industry"? This illustrates the fact that a raw materials referred to here are those which become a part of the finished product itself or are used directly in manufacturing operations. As has been indicated, this classification includes 1. In the chemical industry the segregation between semifinished and finished product is particularly difficult, since many chemical products are not only sold as such but are also consumed in the manufacture of other end products.

However, a material cannot be classified in two categories within a company, and one or the other must be selected.

Usually, decision is influenced by the fact that more of the material is sold than consumed, or vice versa. If more is consumed, and then the material becomes a semifinished product; if more is sold, the material is classified as finished product.

Read and translate into Vietnamese inventory, materials, semifinished, products, raw materials, salable, prefabrication, illustrate, manufacture, perform, segregation, selected, category, influenced, consumed. What are the inventories? Can you tell something about inventories?

What are raw materials? Give an example. What are processed materials? Can you tell the difference between semifinished and finished products? All scientists have the obligation to prepare written reports of the results of experimental work. Since this record may be studied by many individuals, it must be completed in a clear, concise and accurate manner.

This means that procedural detail, observations and results must be recorded in a laboratory notebook while the experiment is being performed. The notebook should be hardbound with quadrille-ruled gridded pages and used only for the biochemistry laboratory.

This provides a durable, permanent record and the potential for construction of graphs, charts, etc. It is recommended that the first one or two pages of the notebook be used for a constantly updated table of contents. Although your instructor may have his or her own rules for preparation of the notebook, the most readable notebooks are those in which only the right - hand pages are used for record keeping. The left - hand pages may be used for your own notes, reminders and calculations.

If a new technique or instrumental method is introduced, give a brief description of the method. Include chemical or biochemical reactions when appropriate.

Experimental Begin this section with a list of all reagents and materials used in the experiment. The sources of all chemical and the concentrations of solutions should be listed. Instrumentation is listed with reference to company name and model number. A flowchart to describe the stepwise procedure for the experiment should be included after the list of equipment. Experimental a Table of materials and reagents b List of equipment c Flowchart d Record of procedure Data and Calculations a Record of all raw data b Method of calculation with statistical analysis c Enter data in tables, graphs or figures when appropriate For the early experiments, a flowchart is provided.

Flowcharts for later experiments should be designed by the student. The write-up to this point is to be completed as a Prelab assignment. The experimental procedure followed is then recorded in your notebook as you proceed through the experiment.

The detail should be sufficient so that a fellow student can use your notebook as a guide. You should include observations, such as color changes or gas evolution, made during the experiment. Data and Calculations All raw data from the experiment are to be recorded directly in your notebook, not on separate sheets of paper.

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Calculations involving the data must be included for at least one series of measurements. Proper statistical analysis must be included in this section. The Analysis of Results section following each experimental procedure in this book describes the preparation of graphs and tables.

These must all be included in your notebook. Results and Discussion This is the most important section of your write-up, because it answers the questions:. Any conclusion that you make must be supported by experimental results. It is often possible to compare your data with known values and results from the literature.

If this is feasible, calculate percentage error and explain any differences. Note if any problems were encountered in the experiments. All library references books and journal articles that were used to write up the experiment should be listed at the end. The standard format to follow for a book or journal listing is shown at the end of this chapter in the reference section. Everyone has his or her own writing style, some better than others. It is imperative that you continually try to improve your writing skills.

When your instructor reviews your write-up, he or she should include helpful writing tips in the grading. Read and translate into Vietnamese experience, obligation, observation, notebook, statement, goals, discussion, description, biochemistry, material, instrumentation, flowchart, stepwise, measurement, presentation, significance B. What is the laboratory notebook?

How many steps are there in experimental write-up? What is the first section of experimental write-up?

Tell something about it? Say a few words about calculations of experimental works? Why should we need discussion of experimental results? The interaction of atoms and molecules is called chemistry. The metabolic activities of microorganisms involve complex chemical reactions. Nutrients are broken down by microbes to obtain energy and to make new cells.

Structure of Atoms 1. Atoms are the smallest units of chemical elements that enter into chemical reactions. Atoms consist of a nucleus, which contains protons and neutrons and electrons that move around the nucleus.

The atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus: Chemical Elements 1. Atoms with the same atomic number and same chemical behavior are classified as the same chemical element.

Chemical elements are designated by letter abbreviations called chemical symbols. There are about 26 elements commonly found in living cells.

Atoms that have the same atomic number are of the same element but different atomic weights are called isotopes. In an atom, electrons are arranged around the nucleus in electron shells. Each shell can hold a characteristic maximum number of electrons. The chemical properties of an atom are largely due to the number of electrons in its outermost shell. Molecules are made up of two or more atoms; molecules consisting of at least two different kinds of atoms are called compounds.

Atoms form molecules in order to fill their outermost electron shells. Attractive forces that bind the atomic nuclei of two atoms together are called chemical bonds. The combining capacity of an atom - the number of chemical bonds the atom can form with other atoms - is its valence.

Ionic Bonds 1. A positively or negatively charged atom or group of atoms is called an ion. A chemical attraction between ions of opposite charge is called an ionic bond. To form an ionic bond, one ion is an electron donor; the other ion is an electron acceptor.

Covalent Bonds 1. In a covalent bond, atoms share pairs of electrons. Covalent bonds are stronger than ionic bonds and are far more common in organisms. Hydrogen Bonds 1. A hydrogen bond exists when a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to one oxygen or nitrogen atom is attracted to another oxygen or nitrogen atom.

Hydrogen bonds form weak links between different molecules or between parts of the same large molecule. Molecular Weight and Moles 1. The molecular weight is the sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in a molecule. A mole of an atom, ion, or molecule is equal to its atomic or molecular weight expressed in grams.

The number of moles of a substance equals its mass in grams divided by its molecular weight. Chemical Reactions Chemical reactions are the making or breaking of chemical bonds between atoms.

Energy of Chemical Reactions 1. A change of energy occurs during chemical reactions. Endergonic reactions require energy, exergonic reactions release energy. In a synthesis reaction, atoms, ions, or molecules are combined to form a large molecule. In a decomposition reaction, a large molecule is broken down into its component molecules, atoms, and ions. In an exchange reaction, two molecules are decomposed, and their subunits are used to synthesize two new molecules.

The products of reversible reactions can readily revert back to form the original reactants.

How Chemical Reactions Occur 1. For a chemical reaction to take place, the reactants must collide with each other. The minimum energy of collision that can produce a chemical reaction is called its activation energy. Specialized proteins called enzymes accelerate chemical reactions in living systems by lowering the activation energy.

Read and translate into Vietnamese interaction, metabolic, microorganisms, complex, nutrients, microbes, cells, behavior, symbol, properties, valence, covalent, attractive, attraction, express, subunits, collide, collision, activation energy, protein, enzymes B.

What is the atom? Say some words about chemical elements. Say something about chemical bonds. How do the chemical reactions occur? How many kinds of chemical reactions do you know? What are they?

Sewage includes all the water from a household that is used for washing as well as toilet wastes. Rainwater flowing into street drains and some industrial wastes enter the sewage systems in some cities.

Sewage is mostly water and contains little particulate matter perhaps only about 0. Even so, in large cities, this solid portion of sewage can total more than tons of solid material per day. Until environmental awareness intensified, a surprising number of large cities in which had only rudimentary sewage treatment systems or no system at all. Raw sewage, untreated or nearly so, was simply discharged into rivers or oceans. A flowing, well-aerated stream is capable of considerable self- purification.

Therefore, until increases in populations and their wastes exceeded this capability, casual treatment of municipal wastes caused little complaint. In the United States, most methods of simple discharge have been improved. Primary Treatment The usual first step in sewage treatment is called primary treatment. In this process, incoming sewage receives preliminary treatment - large floating materials are screened out, the sewage is allowed to flow through settling chambers so that sand and similarly gritty material can be removed, skimmers remove floating oil and grease, and floating debris are shredded and ground.

After this step, the sewage passes through sedimentation tanks, where solid matter settles out. The design of these primaries settling - tanks varies.

Sewage solids collecting on the bottom are called sludge; sludge at this stage is called primary sludge. Biological activity is not particularly important in primary treatment, although some digestion of sludge and dissolved organic matter can occur during long holding times.

The sludge is removed on either a continuous or an intermittent basis, and the effluent the liquid flowing out then undergoes secondary treatment. An important concept in sewage treatment and in the general ecology of waste treatment, BOD is a measure of the biologically degradable organic matter in water.

BOD is determined by the amount of oxygen required by bacteria to metabolize the organic matter.

The classic method of measurement is to use special bottles with airtight stoppers. Each bottle is first filled with the test water or dilutions of the test water. The water is initially aerated to provide a relatively high level of dissolved oxygen and is seeded with bacteria if necessary. The filled bottles are then incubated in the dark for five days at 20oC, and the decrease in dissolved oxygen is determined by a chemical or electronic testing method.

The more oxygen that is used up as the bacteria degrade the organic matter in the sample, the greater the BOD - which is usually expressed in milligrams of oxygen per liter of water.

Typical BOD values of waste water may be twenty times this amount. If this waste water enters a lake, for example, bacteria in the lake begin to consume the organic matter responsible for the high BOD, rapidly depleting the oxygen in the lake water.

Secondary Treatment After primary treatment, the great part of the BOD remaining in the sewage is in the form of dissolved organic matter.

Secondary treatment, which is primarily biological, is designed to remove most of this organic matter and reduce the BOD. In this process, the sewage undergoes strong aeration to encourage the growth of aerobic bacteria and other microorganisms that oxidize the dissolved organic matter to carbon dioxide and water.

Two commonly used methods of secondary treatment are activated sludge systems and trickling filters. In the aeration tanks of the activated sludge system, air or pure oxygen is added to the effluent from primary treatment.

The sludge in the effluent contains large numbers of metabolizing bacteria, together with yeasts, molds, and protozoans. An especially important ingredient of the sludge are species of Zoogloans and bacteria, which form flocculent masses flocs in the aeration tanks.

The activity of these aerobic microorganisms oxidizes much of the effluent's organic matter into carbon dioxide and water. When the aeration phase is completed, the floc secondary sludge is allowed to settle to the bottom, just as the primary sludge settles in primary treatment.

Soluble organic matter in the sewage is adsorbed onto the floc and is incorporated into microorganisms in the floc. As the floc settles out, this organic matter is removed with the floc and is subsequently treated in an anaerobic sludge digester. More organic matter is probably removed by this process than by the relatively short-term aerobic oxidation. Most of the settled sludge is removed from the digester; some of the sludge is recycled to the activated sludge tanks as a starter culture for the next sewage batch.

The effluent water is sent on for final treatment. Occasionally, when aeration is stopped, the sludge will float rather than settle out; this phenomenon is called bulking. When this happens, the organic matter in the floc flows out with the discharged effluent and often causes serious problems of local pollution.

A considerable amount of research has been devoted to the causes of bulking and its possible prevention. It is apparently caused by the growth of filamentous bacteria of various types; the sheathed bacteria Sphaerotilus natans is often mentioned as the primary offender.

Activated sludge systems are quite efficient: Read and translate into Vietnamese sewage, treatment, environment, awareness, rudimentary, discharge, self-purification, settling chambers, gritty, skimmer, grease, debris, shred, sludge, flocculation, biochemical oxygen demand BOD , ecology, bacteria, metabolize, incubation B.

Give the definition of sewage. Why does the sewage have to be treated? Tell something of primary treatment of sewage? What is BOD? Why does the sewage have to carry out secondary treatment after primary treatment? In actual practice the chemical engineer is principally concerned either with physical operations entirely or with the purely physical effects of chemical reactions, such as the transport of solids, fluid flow, mixing and agitation, heat transfer, etc.

To obtain the product of a chemical reaction in a marketable form further operations may be involved, such as filtration, crystallization, distillation, evaporation, drying, and grinding. These, in fact, are also physical operations, and the indicating appliances used to control them are usually based on physical rather than on chemical principles.

One of the most important contributions of the chemical engineer is to guide industry in the choice of materials for the construction of plant. The chemical engineer can select materials suitable for each particular part of the plant, with consequent improvement in the life of the apparatus and general economy in working.

Examples may be found in the development of metals capable of resisting corrosion, chemical reagents, heat and creep at high temperatures. New processes call for new technique in plant design. Today there is much talk of the production of motor spirit and other oils by high-pressure reactions. Such developments would still be at the laboratory stage had it not been for the work of the chemical engineer in taking advantage of the development of high-tensile steel and then applying his special knowledge to the design of new kinds of plant in which hydrogen and other gases and vapors are handled at high pressure and temperatures.

Thus, commercial success in translating a laboratory method of a preparation into a full-scale manufacturing process depends as much upon the careful plant design as upon consideration of the precise chemical reactions to be employed; in short, industrial efficiency and the profits expected to accompany this can only be realized by sound chemical engineering.

Read and translate into Vietnamese engineering, branches, physical operations, agitation, heat transfer, marketable form, grinding, drying, evaporation, crystallization, construction, reagents, creep, motospirit, full-scale, sound chemical engineering B. What is the chemical engineering concerned? What is the most important contribution of the chemical engineer?

Can you tell some main operations involved in the industrial process? What is the commercial success of scientific research of chemical reaction? How can you get the industrial efficiency? A typical bituminous coal has the following composition: The series of operations involved in gas manufacture includes the processes of distillation, condensation of the products of distillation which are liquid or solid at atmospheric temperature, exhaustion of the uncondensed gas from the retorts, wet purification, by washing with water, dry purification, estimation of the volume of the purified gas, and distribution to the mains from which the customer draws his supply.

The distillation of coal is carried out by the following systems: Horizontal retorts 2. Continuously operated vertical retorts 3. Intermittent vertical retorts of chambers 4.

Coke ovens: Most of the town gas supplied by the gas industry is made in horizontal or vertical retorts. Vertical Retorts - Carbonization in vertical retorts may be continuous or intermittent. In the case of the former coal is fed continuously into the top of a retort by means of gravity, and is carbonized in its passage through the retort, coke being extracted by a slowly moving extractor at the base. As the coal is carbonized it swells considerably, and in consequence the retorts are wider in both dimensions at the bottoms than at the top.

The retorts in cross-section are either rectangular or oval and are of various sizes to carbonize from 3 to 12 tons per day. The actual amount of coal passing through the retort depends upon the class of coal being carbonized and the calorific value of the gas produced.

Steam is introduced at the base of the retort for the primary purpose of cooling the coke before it is discharge, but in so doing it produces water gas, thus increasing the gaseous yield. With continuous vertical retorts there is great possibility of flexibility in output and calorific value through variations in the rate at which coal is carbonized and in the amount of steaming.

Steam is generated in waste-heat boilers in which the heat of the waste gases in utilized. From the retort the gas passes to the hydraulic main. It leaves the main at a temperature of about C, and is reduced to the temperature of the air by condensers which are air-cooled or water-cooled, or both. It is then subjected to purification and passed to the gas holder where it is stored. Read and translate into Vietnamese gas manufacture, condensation, atmospheric temperature, exhaustion, retorts, wet purification, estimation, distribution, horizontal retorts, vertical retorts, coke oven, extractor, carbonize, cross-section, rectangular or oval form, flexibility, hydraulic main, calorific value B.

What are the main composition of a typical bituminous coal? Can you tell the systems for the distillation of coal in the gas manufacture? What is the vertical retort? What is the difference between the vertical retort and continuous vertical one? What is concept of air-cooled or water-cooled apparatus? It is a heavy, oily liquid, density 1. This is the ordinary concentrated sulfuric acid of commerce.

Concentrated sulfuric acid is very corrosive. It has a strong affinity for water, and a large amount of heat is liberated when it is mixed with water, as the result of the formation of hydronium ion: The Manufacture of Sulfuric Acid Sulfuric acid is made by two processes, the contact process and the lead-chamber process, which are now about equally important.

The gas containing sulfur trioxide is bubbled through sulfuric acid, which absorbs the sulfur trioxide. The principle of the lead-chamber process is shown by the following experiment. A large flask is fitted with four inlet tubes and a small outlet tube. Three of the tubes come from wash bottles, and the fourth from a flask in which water may be boiled. When steam is sent into the flask by boiling the water in the small flask, the crystals react to form drops of sulfuric acid, liberating oxides of nitrogen, which serve to catalyze the oxidation of sulfur dioxide by oxygen.

In practice the reactions take place in large lead-lined chambers. The Uses of Sulfuric Acid Sulfuric acid is used for the manufacture of soluble phosphate fertilizers and in the manufacture of many chemicals and drugs. It is also used as the electrolyte in ordinary storage cells, and hot concentrated sulfuric acid is an effective oxidizing agent.

Read and translate into Vietnamese sulfuric acid, density, droplet, yield, sulfur trioxide, affinity, hydronium ion, pour, apt to, sputter, container, catalytic oxidation, bubble, fertilizer, electrolyte, drug B. What is the sulfuric acid? What is the b. Can you describe the method for the manufacture of sulfuric acid?

What is the main principle of the lead-chamber process? Give examples of some usages of sulfuric acid.

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GLASS Glass is generally a mixture of several silicates, produced by melting together silica, an alkali and lime or lead. There are two general kinds of glass: The former is the more common, is cheaper, harder, more resistive and less fusible than lead glass. The latter has greater luster and brilliancy and is used chiefly for cut-ware and optical purposes. In general, the higher the percentage of silica the harder, less fusible, and more brittle the glass.

Fusibility is decreased and hardness increased by increasing the lime. In colored glass a part of the lime and lead is replaced by oxides of iron, manganese, cobalt, etc. The addition of borates and phosphates improves glass for various optical and chemical purposes, as do also zinc and barium. German optical glass contains both zinc and barium.

Practically all glass is decolorized in manufacture by the addition of manganese dioxide. Window glass is generally a soda-lime glass and, formerly, was always blown. Plate glass is usually soda-lime glass cast on large iron plates and subsequently ground and polished. Ground plate glass is extensively used for flooring. Pressed glass is made by forming heat-softened glass to shape in dies under pressure. It is fairly inexpensive.

Wire glass is glass having an iron wire screen thoroughly embedded in it. It is used for flooring, fireproof doors, etc. Pyrex glass is a low-expansion boro- silicate containing no metals of the magnesia-lime-zinc group and no heavy metals. Principal uses are chemical ware, baking ware, high-tension insulators, sight glasses for chemical apparatus, glass pipe lines for chemical plants, etc.

Owing to the low coefficient of expansion Pyrex glass withstands sudden changes of temperature without breaking. Safety glass consist of two layers of plate glass firmly held by an intermediate layer of celluloid, attached to the glass by a suitable adhesive.

It can be struck by a sharp hammer blow without shattering, and when sufficiently thick is practically bulletproof. Read and translate into Vietnamese glass, silicate, silica, lime-glass, lead-glass, resistive, fusible, luster, brilliance, cut-ware, optical purposes, brittle, feasibility, soda-lime, cast, wire glass, embed, resistance, fireproof, insulator, adhesive, shattering, bulletproof B. What is the glass? How many kinds of glass do you know? And what are they? What are the difference of lime glass and lead glass?

Can you tell something about the safety glass? Say few words about the production of glass? The method is based on the use of a high-frequency generator which offers the possibility of heating the reactants to high temps. The mineral sample is ground to particle sizes of 0. Then 0. Then 1. CaCl2 is added. The crucible is heated in a furnace at for 20 min. To remove H2O absorbed during weighing. After this the crucible is lowered into a dry quartz tube which is closed with a rubber stopper. The quartz tube is placed in a cooling jacket of running H2O.

The temp. As a result all the alk. This reaction is completed after several min. Later complete dissolving of the salts from the crucible requires about 3 hrs. The soln. One difficulty encountered was the masking of the emission from K by an excess of Ca. An expt. Microcline was used as the mineral. It was found that complete extn. A study of reproducibility of results was made by using Microcline, muscovite and biotite.

In comparing the rapid new method with the usual methods for detg. K in minerals, It was found that the K content obtained was higher with the new method. Preliminary studies on using the new method in rock analysis have given entirely satisfactory results. A sketch of the app. Read and translate into Vietnamese detn. What is the rapid method for determination of potassium? What are the particle size of mineral sample after grinding? Tell some steps of preliminary studies on using a new method in rock analysis?

Write and read all words in abbreviations in the lesson. By the use of these isotopes an element can be observed in the presence of large quantities of the same element. For example, one of the earliest uses of tracers was the experimental determination of the rate at which lead atoms move around through a crystalline sample of the metal lead. This phenomenon is called self-diffusion. If some radioactive lead is placed as a surface layer on a sheet of lead, and sample is allowed to stand for a while, it can then be cut up into thin sections parallel to the original surface layer, and the radioactivity present in each section can be measured.

The presence of radioactivity in layers other than the original surface layer shows that lead atoms from the surface layer have diffused through the metal.

Perhaps the greatest use for isotopes as tracers will be in the field of biology and medicine. The human body contains such large amounts of the elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, etc.

An organic compound containing a radioactive isotope, however, can be traced through the body. An especially useful radioactive isotope for these purposes is carbon This isotope of carbon has a half-life of about years. It undergoes slow decomposition with emission of beta rays, and the amount of the isotope in a sample can be followed by measuring the beta activity.

Large quantities of C14 can be readily made in a uranium pile, by the action of slow neutrons on nitrogen. The process can be carried out by running a solution of ammonium nitrate into the uranium pile, where it is exposed to neutrons.

The carbon which is made in this way is in the form of bicarbonate ion, and can be precipitated as barium carbonate by adding http: Read and translate into Vietnamese radioactive, non-radioactive, isotope, traces, phenomenon, self-diffusion, determination, surface layer, sheet, parallel, radioactivity, biology, medicine, pile, expose to, bicarbonate B. What is an extremely valuable technique for research in recent years?

What is the phenomenon called self-diffusion? Can you cite some usage of isotopes as tracers in the body? How many elements are there in the body? Is it difficult to determine the state of the organic material in the body.

It is a colorless, mobile, flammable liquid with a mildly pungent and somewhat aromatic odor. It is miscible in all proportions with water and with organic solvents such as ether, methanol, ethyl alcohol, and esters. Acetone is used chiefly as a solvent and as a raw material for the synthesis of organic compounds. Acetone is not easily oxidized; it is unaffected by nitric acid at room temperature and is stable to neutral permanganate.

The more powerful oxidizing agents, such as alkaline permanganate and chromic acid, break it down to acetic and formic acid, and the latter decomposes further to carbon dioxide and water. Acetone does not reduce ammoniacal silver or Fehling's solution. The flash point of acetone is C. Acetone occurs in small quantities in human blood and urine. It is also formed by thermal decomposition of coal peat, acetic acid salts, formates, and citric acid, and by the dry distillation of sugars with lime.

The largest use of acetone is in the production of acetic anhydride, which in turn is chiefly consumed in making cellulose acetate for acetate rayon, photographic film, and plastics. Acetone is also an excellent solvent for nitrocellulose and is used in making films, cements, artificial leather, and other similar products. By far the largest production of acetone is from petroleum-derived propylene by way of isopropyl alcohol. The production of acetone from isopropyl alcohol may be conducted either by catalytic dehydrogenation or by catalytic oxidation.

The oxidation, being exothermic, is difficult to control; typical catalysts are copper, copper alloys, silver, and metal oxides, and temperatures are in the range to C. The availability of high-quality acetone in large quantities from the petroleum chemical industry has been a major factor in the expansion of rayon production and other acetone-consuming industries in recent years.

Read and translate into Vietnamese acetone, ketone, pungent, aromatic odor, organic solvents, ether, methanol, ethyl alcohol, ester, synthesis, unaffect, permanganate, flash point, coal peat, lime, cellulose acetate, photographic film, plastics, dehydrogenation, promoters, exothermic, petroleum B. What is acetone? What is acetone chiefly used for? While the overall results cor- women holding a vice-presidential position in Ireland over respond with a study by the National Union of Students the last 20 years, I can attest to the slow pace of change.

NUS , the latter focused its attention on power relations In fact, as women progress through a typical academic ca- within the academy, and particularly on staff—student sexu- reer path, they become increasingly underrepresented com- al misconduct. The data is indisputable. It has since been expanded was similar for both sexes, however the percentage of fe- to all disciplines and adopted in Ireland.

There are three male graduates has since grown by almost twice the rate. Most significantly, education, exceeded men by 9. Only 20 percent of heads of European higher education As a result, all HEIs are actively engaged in appoint- institutions are women. In , women were 21 percent ing a vice-president for equality, diversity, and inclusion, of top-level researchers, having made very limited progress and busy making appointments at the senior level.

Train- since Among scientific and administrative board ing is being introduced to address unconscious bias, and leaders, women constitute only 22 percent, and 28 percent is required for senior management.

But progress is very of board members. The greatest variability is at professorial slow.

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It could take decades to reach the recommended gen- level, with most EU countries having institutions with no der balance of 40 percent. Hence, there is talk of quotas. The take-away is that nothing moves institutions faster than money. I am getting over my frustration with women being appointed simply to meet new regulations—but have we Bullying and harassment, including sex- not had that experience with men for decades.

The gender pay gap recently made headlines in the United Kingdom when figures were published. Higher Education While it may not tell us anything we did not already know— that men dominate top earning positions—the results are Ayenachew A. Woldegiyorgis striking. The median pay gap is 9. Women in two universi- Ayenachew A.

Woldegiyorgis is a doctoral candidate and graduate as- ties are paid There has never been a female president two month-long investigation that shook the whole insti- since the first university was established ca.

A closer look at the situation in Ethiopia can help and there are currently only two female presidents in the understand the nature and extent of the problem. The figures are particularly acute by discipline, with the greatest discrepancy in science, An Institutional Example technology, engineering, maths, and medicine STEMM.

On January 18, , she Equality Tribunal in , on the grounds of gender dis- received a letter of dismissal from her position for unstated crimination. Tefera said her removal was sudden and she did Yet, Ireland is also an example of what can happen not know anything as to why. Meanwhile, Addis Standard when policy and funding drive behavior. Last December, she wrote a letter to the presi- taboos inhibit students from coming forward to seek help, dent of the university reporting a sexual assault committed in cases when they actually do, support services are often ill against a female student and demanding an immediate in- prepared and understaffed.

The psychological aspect of the quiry into the matter. The letter stated that the student had learning environment is largely underemphasized. Referencing relevant provisions of the The Bigger Issue: Gender Bias constitution and the regulations of the university, Tefera Over the past decade, progress has been made in narrow- condemned the crime.

She underlined that, if a dormitory ing the gender gap both in student enrollment from Following political instability in percent in and in faculty composition from Nonetheless, women universities to control potential protests and disruptions. In her letter, Tefera further expressed her concern about Despite benefits at the entry level, gender bias and sexual multiple cases of sexual harassment reported to her office, and demanded that the university take serious measures.

It is reported that Tefera was fired following a direct Owing to deep-rooted, patriarchal tradi- order from a board member of the university, who was also tions in Ethiopia, society is plagued by a senior officer in the National Defense Forces. This case gender bias, inequality, and sexual vio- symbolizes the overall situation and the indifference of the university leadership. In such circumstances, how can a lence. What can student services professionals do to miti- gate the situation?

Female students Magnitude of the Problem are also largely concentrated in the fields of social sciences Owing to deep-rooted, patriarchal traditions in Ethiopia, and humanities. It has even been reported that institutions society is plagued by gender bias, inequality, and sexual vio- actively discourage female students from choosing fields in lence.

Higher education is no exception. Another study at Madawalabu Uni- cent less likely to hold the rank of assistant professor or versity found that out of female students in its sample, above. This staggering difference is explained by a number Exploring why female students drop out, a study at Jimma University found that Studies at other a viable alternative, though by no means the only one.

At- universities have also reported similar, prevalent sexual titudinal change in the university community is crucial to violence. Sexual violence is reported to have been commit- prevent sexual violence from happening and give victims ted by fellow students, faculty, and university employees, the confidence to speak out and seek help.

Decades of so- as well as other people unrelated to the universities. Combined with insufficient counseling standing of the violence and the skills needed to engage in and support services, this makes it very difficult for them to prosocial behavior without compromising their own safety. To- tinuous awareness programs. In doing so, it is important to consider a few points.

First, the program should reach ward a Reconfiguration of the entire university community. Engaging with those who are thought to have less awareness or those who are natu- the European Higher Educa- rally drawn to the issue is not enough. Second, consider- ing that certain aspects of gender bias and sexual violence tion Sector? Cognizant of resource constraints and limited quali- fied personnel, a possible remedy is the use of volunteer training of trainers, with standardized materials and quality control, that multiplies through a pyramid scheme to reach I n a referendum, Once that are still largely unknown—was officially triggered in May is achieved, offering mandatory training to all new students Brexit may have serious implications for higher edu- and employees can be a possible further step in order to cation in the United Kingdom and beyond.

At present, the United Kingdom is the second largest This peer-based approach is not a substitute for other recipient of competitive research funding from the Euro- strategies, nor is it sufficient on its own.

It has to be used as pean Union after Germany. UK researchers are more likely an integrated component of broad-based approaches, both to be chosen as leaders in collaborative funding bids, and top-down and bottom-up.

It is worth noting that the explicit the United Kingdom is a favorite destination of individual commitment of university and system-level leadership is a recipients of research fellowships. Six percent of students crucial force for success. Promoting a safe and supportive and a staggering 17 percent of staff at UK universities are working environment for women in senior management from other EU countries.

However, the perceivable absence of also. A significant proportion of these jointly authored papers arise from research collaborations funded by the European Union. Free movement, which is guaranteed under the rules of EU membership at present, is essential for these research fa- International Higher Education would like to thank the Carnegie Cor- cilities to be used to their full potential.

In this context, the Centre for Global Higher Education Overall, it was felt that the United Kingdom had a lot CGHE set out to investigate the potential impact of Brexit to lose in terms of attractiveness and reputation. UK par- on higher education and research across Europe. We were ticipants were particularly concerned about the risk of los- able to gather researchers from 10 research centers on ing funding in the humanities and social sciences, doubt- higher education in Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, ing that the UK government would replace the funding for the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, and Switzer- these sectors in a context of the growing marketization of land, as well as the United Kingdom.

Over the following higher education. Fears were also expressed by staff on tem- few months, interviews were conducted across these porary research contracts interviewed in Switzerland that countries with key individuals at the national level as well nonpermanent academics would suffer most. Research participants were A Reconfiguration of the Higher Education and Re- encouraged to reflect on the impact of Brexit on their insti- search Landscape tutions and their respective national systems.

While cooperation is a key principle of the current system, not all countries are equal partners. The Erasmus program Between Risk and Opportunity: An Uneven Impact was designed as a reciprocal student exchange scheme.

The research revealed contrasting attitudes from one coun- However, some countries receive a lot more students than try to another. Strikingly, participants in Eastern European they send: Suc- not valued collaborators of the United Kingdom in the first cess rates in European Research Council applications vary place, and that the impact of Brexit would therefore be rela- widely from one country to another, and networks of affini- tively limited.

On the one hand, some participants—in particular academics—were eager to continue collaborating with their The bigger countries in our study, such as Germany, UK colleagues no matter what shape Brexit would take. On may in fact benefit from a possible reallocation of funds. On the one hand, cost of Brexit to their own national systems and institu- given their performance in terms of grant capture and tions; and these often implied partially excluding UK part- research productivity, and also given the fact they tend to ners from collaborations.

In this EU membership has played a significant role in the success sense, it was felt that the departure of the United Kingdom of the United Kingdom, but the research productivity and would compound the negative impact of political changes reputation of UK institutions have also helped the region in in the United States on future collaborations with valued achieving great visibility in the global higher education and partners.

Dutch and Danish participants also made it clear research landscape. Regional reputation would system. On the other hand, largely dependent on the UK system in many ways.

The fate favorable terms and a more positive outcome for the United of students and expatriates in the United Kingdom was also Kingdom might encourage anti-EU movements elsewhere. In spite of the fact that English is pean project at risk. Brexit is thus a matter of concern on the language of instruction at most Indian HEIs, they have many different levels for the whole region.

India has not made any such major reform to attract international students. Two Major scholarships to international students to study in China. This council also offers scholarships to Chinese students Higher Education Hubs in for study abroad. Lavakare attract international students or to encourage Indian stu- dents to get international exposure. Clearly, the Chinese P. Lavakare is the former secretary of the Science Advisory Council, educational infrastructure is significantly more favorable to government of India, and the former executive director to the US—India international education and international students.

Education Foundation, New Delhi, India. Student Mobility in India and China The mobility of both inbound and outbound students has I ndia and China are considered to be potential major hubs in Asia for international students.

Both have large and diverse higher education systems. Students from both become an important dimension of internationalization programs. In , there were , Indian students studying abroad, while during the same period, , countries are keen to enter the global employment market. Chinese students were studying abroad. While India has demonstrated steady level, high-quality, diverse, and international educational growth, China has shown sizable upward and downward backgrounds needed on the global market.

International variations. But the trend is clear: China is keen to expose its higher education also involves having a diverse interna- students to study abroad and has taken concrete steps to pro- tional student population enrolled in local higher education vide them with national scholarships.

In India, a few elite institutions HEI. Both countries are trying to attract large institutions like the Indian Institutes of Technology IITs numbers of international students into their systems. This have recently started some internship abroad programs for article briefly reviews the international education status of their engineering students, with some scholarship support India and China and highlights some crucial parameters and the help of partner institutions.

In the long run, the governing the two systems. The Chinese are catching up on their India has universities and nearly 38, mainly un- English language skills, which for many years have been a dergraduate affiliated colleges; China has 2, universi- great advantage for Indian students.

Their respective national enrollments are Both systems encourage the establish- programs of India and China is in the area of receiving in- ment of private HEIs. China has made major efforts to im- ternational students. In , India attracted only 42, prove more than of its universities, and seven of them international students, while, that same year, China was are now ranked in the top by the Times Higher Educa- able to attract , international students. This was a tion THE world university ranking.

India has yet to set up such a centrally coordinated agency. Higher education is a means for economic development. The impact of this initiative is that 10 percent of globally The ministry of human resource development and the min- mobile students are now studying in China. China has even istry of commerce in India must join efforts to develop a been successful in attracting Indian students, with the In- new plan to ensure economic development through higher dian student population in China growing from 8, in education.

Interestingly, 80 percent of these DOI: This imbalance clearly shows that, within Asia, China is a more Abroad in Japan: A Dramatic attractive education hub. Increase Yukiko Shimmi The mobility of both inbound and out- Yukiko Shimmi is assistant professor at the Graduate School of Law bound students has become an impor- and the Center for Global Education, Hitotsubashi University, Tokyo, tant dimension of internationalization Japan.

As a result, not a single foreign institution has ticipated in such super-short-term programs more than been attracted to set up a campus on Indian soil. This reflects a growing global trend among col- Conclusion lege students, especially in developed countries. This article Both India and China have very large and comparable high- discusses the background of this trend in Japan as well as er education infrastructures. In a globalized world, both emerging challenges. China has recognized the importance of Abroad undertaking reforms to internationalize its higher educa- During the postwar period, the central focus of the Japanese tion.

Howev- more international students than India, and it is also ensur- er, with the decline, from the late s, of the number of ing that a significant portion of its own student population Japanese students studying abroad, the government under is exposed to education abroad. India has made no such the Abe administration started prioritizing the promotion efforts.

As a result, Chinese students studying abroad out- of outbound mobility in order to foster a globally-minded number Indian students and enter the global employment workforce for Japanese companies. Until that point, study- market with an advantage. China has opened its doors to ing abroad had been mainly considered as a private choice, quality foreign university campuses attracting foreign as and governmental support for Japanese students to study well as local students.

Unless India takes very aggressive abroad had been limited. First, the short duration of the program universities to develop support systems in order to broaden prevents time conflicts with other activities, such as looking the range of study abroad options.

Currently, Second, super-short-term programs tend to require lower this scholarship can be granted to students who participate participation fees than longer programs. The number of recipi- ing at the basic level are popular among Japanese students ents dramatically increased from in to 22, in because many students do not have sufficient foreign lan- The recent government support has been effective in in- creasing the number of students studying abroad for at least super-short-term programs; in comparison, the number of In order to leverage the current increase participants in longer-term programs has not increased in the numbers of super-short-term as much.

Similar observations have been made in the United States and other countries. By to provide opportunities for students to continue develop- , about 3, university students had studied abroad ing their global competencies after returning home. Through this scheme, by and developing mechanisms to allow students to easily the number of Japanese students who had studied abroad transfer credits earned abroad.

Opportunities for interna- reached 14,, while the number of international students tional exchange on home campuses should be increased who had studied in Japan reached 15, In addition, from both in curricular activities, e.

In addition, in order to respond to the current skep- The aim of recipient universities was to send 58, stu- ticism about the effect of super-short-term study-abroad dents abroad through this project.

Collecting and assess- Unexpected Consequences and Challenges ing evidence on the value of the short-term study-abroad Although these scholarships and grants were not meant for experience to develop global competencies is necessary to this in particular, universities specifically increased oppor- build support.

Developing an environment for ties, had an affiliation with at least one pathway college. As students to utilize and build on their experiences during pathway colleges are a new institutional model in Canada, super-short-term study abroad programs will be key to mak- there are significant variations in the form they take. Ownership We noted two forms of ownership within Canadian pathway Pathway Colleges: A New In- colleges: Of the 69 universities that have an affilia- stitutional Form in Canada tion with a pathway program, 22 32 percent of them have affiliations with pathway colleges that are private, for-profit Dale M.

McCartney and Amy Scott Metcalfe institutions. These private pathway colleges are usually Dale M. McCartney is a PhD candidate and Amy Scott Metcalfe is as- owned by large international educational companies, such sociate professor in higher education at the Department of Educational as Navitas or Study Group, and operate separately from the Studies, University of British Columbia, Canada.

These privately owned pathway colleges ney alumni.

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The remaining pathway colleges 68 percent are owned by the host institutions. These hosted pathway colleges are demarcated from the partner institu- austerity-focused governments. In an effort to increase tion, however, with their own admissions criteria, and with international undergraduate recruitment, Canadian uni- students attending most or all of their classes separate from versities are creating partnerships with or directly hosting the rest of the student body.

Of the 69 pathway colleges in linguistic credentials to allow direct entry to undergraduate our sample, 44 64 percent offer a mixed academic and degree programs at the university level. Whereas pathway linguistic program of study. In some cases, the academic colleges exist in other countries, the format is relatively new element of these programs represents a year or more of a in Canada, where they have gone largely unexamined to this four-year undergraduate degree, while in others it is a small point.

What little has been written on the topic has drawn number of courses. A smaller number of pathway be misled by the marketing materials regarding the like- colleges, 25 36 percent , offer language-only or English lihood of transfer to an established Canadian university. In these cases, Considering these concerns, we call for increased attention students are offered English or in Francophone regions, to the policies and practices of pathway colleges.

Drawing French language upgrading programs that promise to pre- on Canadian data, we offer a brief typology of these institu- pare them for the linguistic requirements of the partner tions, identify some possible concerns about their impact institution. Pathway colleges that are owned and operated on public higher education systems, and suggest some di- by a public university are slightly more likely to be EAP pro- rections for future research.

Within Canada, one concern is ing institutional form is the type of pathway, or transfer that pathway colleges may incentivize institutions to accept mechanism, that is offered to international students. A students who are unlikely to succeed in the partner institu- small number of pathway colleges 8 of 69, or 12 percent tion.

Another is that pathway college students will not re- require students to reapply to the partner institution after ceive the same academic or student services as those at the completing the pathway program. But the vast majority of parent institution, potentially isolating them from counsel- pathway colleges in Canada 88 percent promise students ling, ombudspersons, or other support systems.

Similarly, direct entry to the partner university once they have suc- preliminary examinations suggest that the pathway college cessfully completed the pathway program.

All of the corpo- emphasis on revenue generation and in some cases prof- rately owned pathway colleges offer direct entry to one or it means that instructors and staff are more likely to be more institutions. Direct entry is a valuable recruiting tool non-union and precarious. The need for more research is that corporate partners may require before entering formal pressing, as the influence of pathway colleges on the public relationships with universities.

Perhaps even more important is to examine these pathway colleges in the international context. Many of The pathway college relationship is be- the corporate partners operate in several countries, invit- coming commonplace among public ing questions about how different policy regimes shape Canadian universities: We question how—or if— these multinational companies standardize their pathways vealed that 69 of the 96 institutions, or across the world, which would have implications not only 72 percent of Canadian universities, had for how we perceive the flows of international students, but an affiliation with at least one pathway also for the extent of global corporatization of this mobility, beyond what is typically understood as a matter of recruit- college.

However, we DOI: Improving Access and within the walls of the public university, with many interna- tional and local examples to justify moving in this direction. Equity This effect is already visible in the similarities in form be- Hans de Wit and Elspeth Jones tween private pathway colleges and those owned by partner institutions.

This is unsurprising, considering that pathway Hans de Wit is director of the Center for International Higher Edu- programs represent significant income generation for insti- cation, Boston College, US.

Elspeth Jones is tutions, both by expanding their full fee paying internation- emerita professor, internationalisation of higher education, Leeds Beck- al student population, and by adding an additional year of ett University, UK.

At a systems level, these pathways potentially usurp international student tuition dollars from This article is an updated version of a contribution by the au- community colleges, which also actively seek to recruit stu- thors to University World News, 8 December , Issue In these ways, pathway colleges are al- ready changing the higher education landscape. Elitism, commer- can accrue from even short-term mobility work placement, study, or volunteering abroad , including transferable em- ployability skills, e.

Short-term mobility can and vice versa. An inclusive approach must take into ac- also develop intercultural competence skills such as will- count the varied sociopolitical, economic, and demographic ingness to take risks, patience, sensitivity, flexibility, open- contexts in different parts of the world, and must address mindedness, humility, respect, and creativity.

Yet, even Two Main Paradoxes reaching these targets means that the majority of students, In higher education, we are faced with two main paradoxes.

In First, while we may be striving to increase internationaliza- emerging and developing countries, that percentage is clos- tion and global engagement, in many countries isolationist er to 99 percent.

Mobility may be important and necessary, and nationalist trends result in a disconnect between local but it is insufficient to deliver inclusive internationalization. Short-term mobility can also develop Although still in its early stages throughout the emerg- intercultural competence skills such as ing and developing world, massification has increased ac- cess to higher education. Access vs equity is an issue in willingness to take risks, patience, sen- general, but represents an even greater challenge for in- sitivity, flexibility, open-mindedness, hu- ternational education.

We know the many benefits of in- mility, respect, and creativity. Yet, in some emerging and developing economies, degree mobility is only for 1—2 percent of students and may have negative connotations, being seen as draining talent from the home Integrating Mobility into the Curriculum country perspective.

Inviting students to of credit-mobile students is even lower than those seeking reflect on their study abroad helps consolidate their own degrees. In other words, although mobility gets most atten- learning outcomes and contributes diversity of perspective tion in terms of internationalization policy and practice, for others.

The same applies to actively engaging students only a very small number of students take part. Universities from diverse geographical, national, linguistic, and cultural UK recently found students from higher managerial and backgrounds in the classroom. This is an approach various professional backgrounds almost five times more likely to commentators suggest we have still to fully utilize.

It will be mobile than students from long-term unemployment not, in itself, internationalize the curriculum: Furthermore, mobile students earn higher mental review of program content, pedagogy, assessment, university grades and higher salaries than their nonmobile and learning outcomes is needed to achieve that. However, counterparts, meaning greater advantage to those already it supports the incorporation of alternative perspectives into privileged.

There is in addition a lack of representation in learning, teaching, and assessment processes. Toward a More Inclusive Approach Increasing Short-Term Mobility We believe internationalization policies fail to address all Increasing access to mobility is not easy, with funding a ma- of those for whom they are intended and that there should jor constraint.

One attempt to increase numbers is through be a renewed focus on students and staff who do not travel. As remark- the kind of elitism we try to fight. It excludes the large majority of students, and con- thing. While any increase in student access to higher educa- firms the nationalist-populist argument that it is, in fact, tion is a cause for celebration, massification has given rise intellectual elitism.

Inclusive and comprehensive internationalization re- To begin with, it needs to be recognized that growth in quires us to reframe our thinking, regardless of the context GER in higher education often reflects an increasing level we live in. Internationalization for all should be the starting of economic prosperity and social and political confidence point for institutional strategies, reflecting an awareness within various countries.

As they become integrated into that all students must be engaged in this agenda for their the global economy, they inevitably consider the expansion future lives as citizens and as professionals. Not quires us to: We need to ask if the respective massifying systems of higher education have been able to cope with the pace of This is a revised version of a paper published in Higher Education change. To what extent has the drive toward massification in Southeast Asia and Beyond HESB , a publication of the Head been stimulated by demand rather than by proper consid- Foundation in Singapore.

S ince the beginning of this century, systems of higher education around the world have expanded rapidly. Higher education is experiencing an unprecedented resource allocation, and capacity building. Many gradu- many of whom come from families that lack traditions of ates, moreover, do not possess the knowledge and skills that higher learning?

The students are often private providers with varying degrees of commitment, ex- unable to secure a job in their area of study, therefore creat- pertise, and resources to provide quality higher education. Nor will these graduates be able to have been, at best, uneven. It is important to ask, moreover, make the kind of contribution to national economic devel- if government bureaucracies themselves have the expertise opment that governments hope from the massification of to develop and implement the mechanisms necessary to co- their systems of higher education.

What this shows is that ordinate the work of private HEIs. Much depends The use of technology has often been considered as a on its purposes and outcomes, the ways it is organized and viable option for meeting the growing demand for higher coordinated, and the contribution it is able to make to the education at a reasonable cost. Experience around the world development of the knowledge and skills needed in the has shown, however, that online learning can often be global economy.

It is a folly to assume that pedagogic expertise in and prosperity. What is required, additionally, are more this area can be developed cheaply and quickly without sac- comprehensive programs of higher education reform.

This rificing quality. The question of the forms in which massifica- shifts in the ways in which they are expected to operate, or tion is achieved should therefore lie at the heart of debates in the types of students they recruit. Many are grossly un- over the expansion of systems of higher education. At the same time, little is done to forge with respect to social and cultural development.

These im- systems designed to develop academic staff professionally. In this way, the task of capacity building should be regarded as Universal Access to Qual- central in any attempts at massification. For example, programs in busi- Office for International Linkages of the University of the Philippines. Sylvie Lomer is lec- tive and affordable to many new students, have in recent turer in education at the University of Manchester, UK. Millora uea.

The Act is meant to help those dropping out because T here is increasing attention worldwide on the debate regarding who pays university tuition fees. In contrast to other governments, the Philippine authorities have re- of a financial shortfall. This support would not primarily redistribute resources, but rather assist those who face dif- ficulties in the last phase of their studies. The Act is also cently introduced a subsidy to cover tuition fees for Philip- intended to enhance quality.

However, in the final education institutions. The Act also increases income-con- version of the Act, there is no longer a cap; SUCs will be tingent loans available to the poorest. There is a concern that the policy will lead to an exodus Stakeholders express three key criticisms. First, there of students from private to public providers. As a result of are already a number of programs in place to improve eq- a constitutional commitment to maintaining both public uitable access.

SUCs are already subsidized by the govern- and private institutions, the Act allows for a subsidy toward ment and tuition is significantly cheaper than in the private fees at private institutions at a rate equivalent to their near- sector. Second, the Act disproportionately benefits the middle-to-upper classes, because the bulk of SUC students come from mod- The Act aims principally to address erate to well-off backgrounds. Only 12 percent of SUC stu- dropout rates: Students can also benefit from support for books, their lack of control over tuition fee income.

These other supplies, transportation, accommodation, and other related fees are not automatically covered by the subsidy and could expenses. The Act counters a longstanding trend of increas- penalize the poorest students further tuition fees comprise ing fees in higher education. Philippine Senator Benjamin only between 20 to 30 percent of the total cost of a degree. Approximately 54 percent of students Filipinos, who value higher education qualifications. This comes in , although spending per capita remains relatively in conjunction with the move to extend compulsory educa- low.

The national tional year in secondary education. This has affected the economy is projected to expand at over 6 percent in the me- finances of higher education institutions, placing particu- dium term and the subsidy appears affordable. However, lar pressure on private institutions. The exodus of students while the measure is politically popular, it has been fiercely could also be mirrored by a migration of faculty, as salaries debated.

Support and Opposition The Act aims principally to address dropout rates: It sends a power- creased even further, doubling approximately every 12 ful signal, particularly to poor and struggling students, that years.

On the one hand, this growth can be seen as positive higher education is accessible to all. In principle, the Act allows all Fili- publications, which they find difficult to process, while sci- pinos to access quality tertiary education and commits to entists find it ever more difficult to keep on top of them. The Philippines has a young and growing tem, and the more difficult it is for scientists to tell what is population: Thus, scientists are increas- from Given the powerful hold of the outputs.

The absence of a cap on student numbers in the final ver- And, unsurprisingly, open-access jour- sion of the law confirms an intention to expand the sector, nals often charge significant publication incentivizing SUC leaders to raise revenue by increasing student numbers. This could exacerbate the projected flight fees.

Thanks to the expanding economy, the Act is affordable in the short-to-medium term. But concerns about a rapid ex- Scarcity of Publication Space in Top Journals pansion of student numbers call its long-term sustainability In my research funded by the British Academy, I investi- into question. For the country to compete with its regional rivals as a among journals? Unsurprisingly, I found that publishing knowledge economy, expanding access to higher education in the top-tier journals—Cell, Nature, or Science—appears would likely provide a competitive advantage.

With its large to be the Holy Grail of science as it guarantees academic service sector and rapid industrialization, the Philippines positions, grants, and membership on editorial boards. Addition- DOI: In the past, before the era of online jour- Science Publishing nals, print page limits were limited so the scarcity of publi- cation slots was justified; nowadays, however, it is harder to Sabine Siebert justify high rejection rates other than by the rationale that Sabina Siebert is professor of management, Adam Smith Business extremely low acceptance rates signal high status to suc- School, University of Glasgow, UK.

Between the late s and , the number of publications doubled approxi- So what happens to the papers rejected from these three top journals?

Some journals pass the rejected papers, with ture of this market is fighting for submissions. Just as the glasses in the tower are organized in tiers, rejected from the top journals. In between are various tiers of journals in or Science Signalling. The stated goal of this transfer mecha- decreasing order according to their impact factor.

When re- nism is to help authors find a place to publish their paper jected from the top tier journals, papers, like champagne, as quickly and smoothly as possible. Journal editors sometimes er than they would be otherwise. For the journal families, express a cynical view that everything will get published the practice of transfers also makes good business sense, somewhere, eventually.

So if lower-tier journals soak up because it allows publishers to capture a greater share of rejected papers, it is worth considering who owns these the market. If you can cascade it, … these arrangements, and who loses out?

Before accepting surprisingly, open-access journals often charge significant the practice uncritically, I argue that editors of social sci- publication fees. The con- cern expressed by some editors of the middle-tier, small, specialist journals was that the papers that used to be sub- mitted to their journals are now published in the journals owned by the three big families Cell, Nature, and Science. One journal editor commented on the power of the Na- Higher Education Journals: An Emerging Field People flock to these journals at all costs.

The name alone Malcolm Tight stands for prestige and quality and successes in research. And, indeed, this is what I found: Therefore, it is important—whether you are a ture, knowing that they will probably get it into Nature higher education researcher or someone with an interest in Communications.

However, the editors of smaller special- that research—to know something about them. How many ist journals worry about this trend, as they feel that they are they? What do they focus on? Who owns them? Where are being squeezed out by the big brands. While the big are they based? How old are they? How much do they pub- journals see increases in submissions, mid-tier, specialist lish? Which are the best? What does the future hold? The study is confined to peer-reviewed aca- nals.

A substantial minority, 54, were entirely composed demic journals published in the English language that fo- of academics based in one country; most of these, 47, were cus exclusively on higher education research. There are, of US based. A smaller number, 42, had international edito- course, many nonacademic higher education journals, and rial boards.

There are also many higher education journals pub- members based in one country and the remainder distrib- lished in Chinese, French, German, Portuguese, Russian, uted across the world.

Spanish, and other languages. While these are excluded from the present study, they are all worthy of investigation. There is no definitive list of academic in , and the first to be founded outside of the United journals. New journals are established every year; existing States, Higher Education Quarterly, in Higher educa- journals shut down, change their names, or amalgamate.

Twelve wholly focused on higher education, and some that are not more higher education journals were added in the s, academic in orientation. It should not be few years by noting down the title every time an unknown forgotten, however, that at least a dozen higher education journal was mentioned, and then searching online for fur- journals have discontinued publication over this period, ther details.

Based on this work, current academic jour- while others have amalgamated and lost their original iden- nals published in the English language and wholly focused tity. It would be foolish to claim that this list is wholly comprehensive: The majority of the journals identified 79 focus on cused on higher education have so far a specific topic, theme, or sector.

There are, for example, been identified. In all, 14 of the journals published more than 1, The journals are fairly evenly split between those that are pages of articles in At the other end of the scale, there owned by learned societies e. For several, mainly recently established specialized. The journals identified published between online journals, it was not possible to determine owner- them well over 40, pages of articles in alone.

If ship. In terms of country of origin, 56 of the journals were we assume an average of words per printed page, this initially established in the United States, 28 in the United amounts to around 16 million words in just one year! Kingdom, six each in Australia and Canada, and nine in eight other countries. Alternative journal ranking systems are available via the An indicator of the national or international focus of a SCImago Journal Rank Indicator, which compares a broad journal is provided by the make-up of their editorial board range of journals in terms of their relative citation rates.

It was followed by Academic Medicine 2. It reigned then three generic higher education journals which were in Africa, the Arab region, Eastern Europe, and parts of very similarly ranked: Research in Higher Education 1. To be sure, it had dis- Higher Education 1. Eight other journals had rankings in excess of 1. In mid-century, however, Com- both the oldest established journals and some relatively munism brought a dramatic increase in public monopoly.

American, and three that have split editorial boards. It is to be expected that the number of higher educa- Vanishing Public Monopoly tion journals and their output of articles will continue to But there is no mistaking the global erosion of public mo- increase, as higher education continues to expand and in- nopoly in recent decades.

The singular sudden tumbling terest in researching it grows. And quite beyond that, access online. The trend toward free, open access for an in- each decade since has continued to see the number of creasing number of journals and articles will continue, but single-sector systems decline notably. Monopoly showed only 39 countries with no private sector; by , Daniel C. Levy This is 24 out of countries with available sectoral Daniel C.

Algeria, Bhu- albany. Communist China abandoned public monopo- T he spectacular expansion of private higher education PHE over now more than a half century is most often quantitatively depicted by rising raw enrollment, as well as ly in the early s, Communist Vietnam following suit thereafter, each now with roughly 15 percent private shares. North Korea is not in the country database but even by the rising private share of total enrollment.

Like China and Vietnam, Turkey allows PHE Private growth can be seen as largely complementary even while not allowing religious higher education.

None of to public growth, as public enrollment growth has itself the populist-left regimes rising in Latin America since the been unprecedented in its raw magnitude. But it is likewise s Bolivia, Ecuador, Nicaragua, Venezuela has even valid to recognize a distinct casualty of private expansion— threatened to close PHE. By public mo- Furthermore, even the list of only 10 understates how nopoly we mean simply the absence of private institutions, limited public monopoly now is.

First, three of the 10 sys- whether they are proscribed by law or simply de facto non- tems have fewer than 10, total enrollments, and an ad- existent. The private institutions that break public monopo- ditional three systems fewer than , Second, several of the countries Greece, vate sectors of higher education spread from one to several Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan allow an international or cross- to almost all parts of individual countries.

But whether or border presence that is basically private. PHE registers there not the days of public monopoly are numbered, or whether as zero enrollments simply because there is no state-recog- they are ever to return, the main point here is not predic- nized degree. Similarly, isolated domestic PHE programs tion. For one thing, prediction in private—public matters is exist without culminating in officially recognized degrees.

The main point here is to highlight Moreover, several of the 10 countries e. Dual sectors are the dominant new norm, ready have active public discussion about private creation. The PHE surge is Enabling legislation has sometimes been drafted. In Alge- notable not just for its aggregate size but also very much for ria, the largest of the systems, concrete proposals for private its near ubiquity.

Public monopoly has become rare. Licensing applica- DOI: One salient political observation illuminates the pres- ent list, with implications for its persistence. The political regimes are markedly inclined to the left however nebu- lous this term. True, we have seen that leftist orientation is no guarantee of public monopoly; the compatibility of left- Reconsidering Private ist regimes with PHE is a striking sign of our times, of the contemporary precariousness of public monopoly.

Cuba is the clearest illustration. Like Uruguay in its region, Greece long stood out in Europe for an atypically strong norm of statism in social welfare fields. Myanmar is politically best char- sifying this sector as the fuel of Brazilian economic growth. The fact that ter analysis.

Broadly speaking, the contem- thropic higher education institutions HEIs , and playing a porary era has a notable inclination toward privatization on role complementary to that of the public sector.

Over time, various social fronts. With the legal- ogy than about organizational or world-system tendencies, ization of for-profit institutions, the system gained a new might simply highlight how forms, once established, tend dynamic, resulting in 2, HEIs in , among which to spread.