From Centrifugal Casting to Metallurgy MetalTek offers a glossary providing a comprehensive list of engineering and metal working definition of terms. METALLURGICAL AND MATERIAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT. JADAVPUR UNIVERSITY. First Year: First Semester. SUBJECT CODE. NAME OF THE. Metallurgy Made Simple – Metal Identification .. Glossary. Aluminum - light weight, good strength, high electrical conductivity, excellent heat transfer, corrosion.
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Download Citation on ResearchGate | Dictionary of Metallurgy | 1. Publ. The intention here is to describe the metallurgy, surface modification, wear resistance The term `smelting' has broad and narrow definitions. In the broadest. Steel log - A Metallurgical Dictionary SteeLog is a metallurgical and forging dictionary of more than terms used in the metals and metalworking indust.
Mushy Stage The state between solid and liquid in alloys, which freeze over a wide range of temperatures. Patternmaker A craftsman engaged in production of foundry patterns from wood, plastic, or metals, such as aluminum, brass, etc. Small shrinkage cavities dispersed through the casting, which are not necessarily cause for rejection. Glossary terms and definitions provided courtesy of the Steel Founders' Society of America. Core Density 1 Permeability of core or 2 weight per unit volume. Padding The process of adding metal to a cross section of a casting wall, usually extending from a riser, to ensure adequate feed to a localized area where a shrink would occur if the added metal were not present. Search for books, journals or webpages
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A heat treatment to reduce residual stresses, followed by sufficiently slow cooling to minimize development of new residual stresses. Those stresses set up in a metal as a result of nonuniform plastic deformation, or the unequal cooling of a casting. Spontaneous failure of metals by cracking under combined conditions of corrosion and stress, either residual or applied. An alloy developed for very high temperature use, where relatively high stresses are encountered, and where oxidation resistance is needed.
Any increment of temperature above the melting point of a metal; sometimes construed to be any increment of temperature above normal casting temperatures introduced for the purpose of refining, alloying, or improving fluidity.
Metastable solution in which the dissolved material exceeds the amount the solvent can hold in normal equilibrium at the temperature and under the other conditions that prevail. Depositing a filer metal on a metal surface by any method to obtain certain desired properties or dimensions. A casting defect consisting of an increase in metal section due to the displacement of sand by metal pressure.
Brittleness that results when certain steels are held within or cooled slowly through a certain range of temperature below the transformation range.
The brittleness is revealed by notched-bar impact tests at room temperature or lower temperatures. Degree of warmth or coldness in relation to an arbitrary zero measured on one or more of accepted scales, as Centigrade, Fahrenheit, etc. The maximum stress in uniaxial tension testing, which a material will withstand prior to fracture.
The ultimate tensile strength is calculated from the maximum load applied during the test, divided by the original cross-sectional area. The property of matter by which heat energy is transmitted through particles in contact. The decrease in a linear dimension and volume of a material accompanying a change of temperature.
The increase in a linear dimension and volume of a material accompanying a change of temperature. The permissible deviation of a dimension from the nominal or desired value.
Minimum clearance between mating parts. Any high-carbon or alloy steel used to make a cutting tool for machining metals and for metal-casting dies.
The ability of the metal to absorb energy and to deform plastically during fracture. Toughness values obtained in testing depend upon the test temperature, the rate of loading, the size of the test specimen, as well as the presence of a notch and its acuity.
A ladle that may be supported on a monorail or carried in a shank and used to transfer metal from the melting furnace to the holding furnace, or from furnace to pouring ladles. The critical temperature at which a change in phase occurs. To distinguish between the critical points in heating and cooling those in heating are referred to as the Ac points c for Chauffage or heating and those in cooling, Ar.
A nondestructive method of testing metal for flaws based on the fact that ultrasonic waves are reflected and refracted at the boundaries of a solid medium.
In castings, the removal and repair of discontinuities to raise the quality level of the casting beyond that which can be economically achieved by good foundry practice. Denoted in yield point phenomenon as a distinct break from the elastic region accompanied by a drop in load, yet prior to plastic deformation in the stress-strain curve in a low-carbon steel.
A casting in which metal is melted and poured under very low atmospheric pressure; a form of permanent mold casting where the mold is inserted into liquid metal, vacuum is applied, and metal drawn up into the cavity. Melting in a vacuum, usually by electrical induction, to remove gaseous contaminants from the metal. Perforation with a vent wire of the sand over and around a mold cavity to assist in the escape of the gases.
The resistance of fluid substance to flowing, quantitatively characteristic for an individual substance at a given temperature and under other definite external conditions. Deformation other than contraction that develops in a casting between solidification and room temperature; also, distortion occurring during annealing, stress relieving, and high-temperature service. The built-up portion of a fusion weld, formed either from the filler metal or the melting of the parent metal.
A process used to join metals by the application of heat. Fusion welding, which includes gas, arc, and resistance welding, requires that the parent metals be melted. A metal or alloy in rod or wire forms used in electric arc welding to maintain the arc, and at the same time supply molten metal or alloy at the point where the weld is to be accomplished.
Electric-arc welding in which the molten weld metal is protected from the atmosphere. An inert gaseous atmosphere or fluxcoated electrode may be employed.
Welding accomplished by using an electric arc that can be formed between a metal or carbon electrode and the metal being welded; between two separate electrodes, as in atomic hydrogen welding or between the two separate pieces being welded, as in flash welding. Method of uniting two pieces of metal by melting their edges together without solder or any added welding metal, as by the thermite process that employs a medium of finely divided aluminum powder and oxide, or iron by which a temperature of some Form of radiant energy with wavelength shorter than that of visible light, and with the ability to penetrate materials that absorb or reflect ordinary light.
X-rays are usually produced by bombarding a metallic target with electrons in a high vacuum. In nuclear reactions it is customary to refer to photons originating in the nucleus as gamma rays and to those originating in the extranuclear part of the atom as x-rays.
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Error message Deprecated function: Deprecated function: Once you have the terminology down, learn more about various casting processess such: Abrasion Resistance Degree of resistance of a material to abrasion or wear. Acid Embrittlement Embrittlement during pickling due to absorption of hydrogen.
Age Hardening Hardening by aging, usually after rapid cooling or cold working. Aging A change in properties of metals and alloys which occurs slowly at room temperature and will proceed rapidly at higher temperatures. Air Quenching Accelerated cooling of alloy in an air stream from temperatures above the Ac3 temperature. Air Scale Scale left on ferrous metal in processing, usually from heating in presence of air. Allowance Tolerance In a foundry, the clearance specified; difference in limiting sizes, as minimum clearance or maximum interference between mating parts, as computed arithmetically.
Alloy A substance having metallic properties and composed of two or more chemical elements of which at least one is metal. Alloy Steel Steel containing significant quantities of alloying elements other than carbon and the commonly accepted amounts of manganese, silicon, sulfur, and phosphorus.
Alpha Martensite A form or stage of martensite of somewhat arbitrary distinction, probably representing the least developed and most distorted stage in the transformation of austenite to martensite at ordinary temperatures.
Ambient Temperature Temperature of the surrounding air. Annealing Heating to and holding at a suitable temperature, followed by cooling at a suitable rate to lower the hardness or alter other mechanical or physical properties. Anticarburizing Compounds Compounds applied to metallic surfaces to prevent surface carbonization.
Argon Oxygen Decarburization AOD A secondary refining process in which argon, oxygen and nitrogen are injected into a molten bath of steel. Artificial Aging An aging treatment above room temperature. As Cast as-cast, u.
Austenite The face-centered-cubic phase of iron and steel, also referred to as gamma iron. Austenite Steel Any steel containing sufficient alloy to produce a stable austenitic gamma iron crystalline structure at ambient temperatures. Bake Heat in an oven to a low controlled temperature to remove gases or to harden a binder.
Batch Amount or quantity of core or mold sand or other material prepared at one time. Batch Oven Oven use to bake a number of cores at one time.
Bead 1 Half-round cavity in a mold, or half-round projection or molding on a casting, 2 a single deposit of weld metal produced by fusion. Bimetal Casting, usually centrifugal, made of two different metals, fused together. Blacking Carbon Carbonaceous materials such as plumbago, graphite or powdered coke usually mixed with a binder and frequently carried in suspension in water or other liquid; used as thin facing applied to surfaces of molds or cores to improved casting finish.
Blasting Blast Cleaning A process for cleaning or finishing metal objects by use of an air blast or centrifugal wheel that throws abrasive particles against the surface of the work pieces. Blister A shallow blow with a thin film of the metal over it appearing on the surface of a casting. Blow Holes 1 Holes in the head plate or blow plate of a core-blowing machine through which sand is blown from the reservoir into the core box.
Boil Agitation of a bath of metal caused by the liberation of a gas beneath its surface. Bond 1 Bonding substance or bonding agents - any material other than water, which, when added to foundry sands, imparts bond strength, 2 the overlapping of brick so as to give both longitudinal and transverse strength. Bond Strength Property of a foundry sand to offer resistance to deformation. Boring A machining method using single point tools on internal surfaces of revolution.
Boss Pad A projection of circular cross-section on a casting. Bottom Running or Pouring Filling of the mold cavity from the bottom by means of gates from the runner. Bright Annealing A process carried out usually in a controlled furnace atmosphere, so surface does not oxidize, remaining bright.
Brittle Fracture Fracture with little or no plastic deformation. Bulk Density The ratio of the weight of a material to its over-all volume including any inherent porosity. Burned-On-Sand A misnomer usually indicating metal penetration into sand resulting in a mixture of sand and metal adhering to the surface of a casting.
Burnishing Developing a smooth finish on a metal by tumbling or rubbing with a polished hand tool. Carbide A compound of carbon with one or more metallic elements. Carbon Element occurring as diamond and as graphite. Carbonitriding Nicarbing A process in which a ferrous alloy is case hardened by first being heated in a gaseous atmosphere of such composition that the alloy absorbs carbon and nitrogen simultaneously, and then being cooled at a rate that will produce desired properties.
Carburizing A form of case hardening that produces a carbon gradient inward from the surface, enabling the surface layer to be hardened by either quenching directly from the carbonizing temperature or by cooling to room temperature, then reaustenitizing and quenching.
Case Hardening A process of hardening a ferrous alloy so that the surface layer or case is made substantially harder than the interior or core. Cavitation The formation and collapse of cavities or bubbles within a liquid. Cementite A compound of iron and carbon commonly known as iron carbide and having the approximate chemical structure, Fe3C.
Centrifugal Casting Casting made in molds which are rotating so as to produce a centrifugal force in the molten metal. Charpy Impact Test A pendulum-type single-blow impact test in which the specimen, usually notched, is supported at both ends as a simple beam and broken by a falling pendulum. Chill External Metal, graphite or carbon blocks that are incorporated into the mold or core to locally increase the rate of heat removal during solidification and reduce shrinkage defects.
Cohesion The force by which like particles are held together.
Coining 1 A process of straightening and sizing casting by die pressing, 2 a process for shaping metal. Cold Cracking Cracks in cold or nearly cold metal due to excessive internal stress caused by contraction. Cold Lap Wrinkled markings on the surface of an ingot or casting from incipient freezing of the surface. Cold Shot Small globule of metal embedded in but not entirely fused with the casting.
Cold Shut Casting defect caused by imperfect fusing or discontinuity of molten metal coming together from opposite directions in a mold, or due to folding of the surface. Cold Work Plastic deformation of a metal at room temperature.
Cold-Box Process 1 Any core binder process that uses a gas or vaporized catalyst to cure a coated sand while it is in contact with the core box at room temperature. Collapsibility The requirement that a sand mixture break down under the pressure and temperatures developed during casting, in order to avoid hot tears or facilitate the separation of the sand and the casting.
Color Etching A micro-etch resulting from the formation of a thin film of a definite compound of the metal. Columnar Structure A coarse structure of parallel columns of grains, which is caused by highly directional solidification. Compression Test Imposing a dead load on a small cylindrical test piece to determine compressive strength, expressed in pounds per sq. Compressive Strength Yield The maximum stress in compression that can be withstood without plastic deformation or failure.
Conduction The transmission of heat, sound, etc. Conductivity Thermal The quantity of heat that flows through a material measured in heat units per unit time per unit of cross-sectioned area per unit of length, electrical the quantity of electricity that is transferred through a material of know cross-section and length.
Constituent A micrographically distinguishable part of an alloy or mixture. Contamination 1 Radioactive deposition of radioactive material in any place where it is not desired, and particularly in any place where its presence may be harmful.
Contraction The volume change occurring in metals except antimony and bismuth and alloys on solidification and cooling to room temperature. Contraction Cracks Cracks formed by restriction of the metal while contracting in the mold; may occur just after solidification called a hot tear or a short time after the casting has been removed from the mold. Controlled Atmosphere Any gas or mixture of gases that prevents or retards oxidation and decarburization.
Convection The motion resulting in a fluid from the differences in density. Converter A furnace in which a gas, usually air, is blown through the molten bath or crude metal for the purpose of oxidizing impurities. Conveyor, Vibratory A materials-handling device used usually with shakeout operations, to help clean sand from the castings as they are moved from one place to another in the foundry and as a feeding device to regulate materials flow.
Cooling Curve A curve showing the relationship between time and temperature during the solidification and cooling of a metal sample. Cooling, Controlled A process of cooling from an elevated temperature in a predetermined manner used to produce a desired microstructure to avoid hardening, cracking or internal damage. Cope Upper or topmost section of a flask, mold or pattern. Core A performed sand aggregate inserted in a mold to shape the interior or that part of a casting which cannot be shaped by the pattern.
Core Binder Any material used to hold the grains of core sand together. Core Blow A gas pocket in a casting adjacent to a core cavity caused by entrapping gases from the core. Core Box, Combination Core box and core dryers from the same pattern. Core Compound A commercial mixture used as a binder in core sand.
Core Density 1 Permeability of core or 2 weight per unit volume. Core Hardness The ability of a core to resist scratching or abrasion. Core Sand Sand for making cores to which a binding material has been added to obtain good cohesion and permeability after drying. Core Shift A variation from specified dimensions of a cored section due to a change in position of the core or misalignment of cores in assembling. Core Vents 1 holes made in the core for escape of gas.
Coring Metallurgical Variable composition due to the solidification characteristics of an alloy. Corrosion 1 Gradual chemical or electrochemical attack on a metal by atmosphere, moisture or other agents, 2 chemical attack of furnace linings by gases, slags, ashes or other fluxes occurring in various melting practices.
Corrosion Index A number expressing the maximum depth in mils to which corrosion would penetrate in one year on the basis of a linear extrapolation of the penetration occurring during the lifetime of a given test or service. Corrosion Wear Wear in which chemical or electrochemical reaction with the environment is significant.
Cover A protective blanket laid on a melt to exclude oxidizing atmosphere and in the case of magnesium to prevent its igniting. Cover Core A core set in place during the ramming of a mold to cover and complete a cavity partly formed by the withdrawal of a loose part of the pattern. Crack, Hot Tear A rupture occurring in a casting at or just below the solidifying temperature by a pulling apart of the soft metal, caused by thermal contraction stresses. Cracking Strip A fin of metal molded on the surface of a casting to prevent cracking.
Creep The flow or plastic deformation of metals held for long periods of time at stresses lower than the normal yield strength.
Creep Limit The maximum stress that will result in creep at a rate lower than an assigned rate. Critical Cooling Rate The minimum rate of continuous cooling just enough to prevent undesired transformations.
Cross Section A view of the interior of an object that is represented as being cut in two, the cut surface presenting the cross section of the object. Crucible A ceramic pot or receptacle made of materials such as graphite or silicon carbide, with relatively high thermal conductivity, bonded with clay or carbon, and used in melting metals; sometimes applied to pots made of cast iron, steel, or wrought steel.
Crucible Furnace A furnace fired with coke, oil, gas, or electricity in which metals are melted in a refractory crucible. Crystal A physically homogeneous solid in which the atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in a three-dimensional repetitive pattern.
Crystal Lattice The way atoms are arranged in a crystal. Spacewise, there are only 14 different lattices.
Crystalline Fracture Fracture of a brittle metal, showing definite crystal faces in the fractured surface. Curing Time No Bake That period of time needed before a sand mass reaches maximum hardness.
Cutoff Machine, Abrasive A device using a thin abrasive wheel rotating at high speed to cut off gates and risers from castings, or in similar operations. Datum Points In layout and machining operations the reference points on a datum plane from which dimensions are measured.
Decant 1 Pour from one vessel to another, 2 pour off molten metal without disturbing the sludge. Decarburization Loss of carbon from the surface of a ferrous alloy as a result of heating in a medium, usually oxygen, that reacts with carbon. Deep Etching Macroetching; etching for examination at a low less than 10X magnification, in a reagent that attacks the metal to a much greater extent than normal for microscopic examination.
Defect A discontinuity in the product whose severity is judged unacceptable in accordance with the applicable product specification. Deformation Test An AGS test using an instrument, such as the Dietert Universal Sand-Strength Testing machine with deformation accessory , to determine the amount in inches that the sand specimen is compressed before it ruptures. Degasser A material employed for removing gases from molten metals and alloys. Degassing Usually a chemical reaction resulting from a compound added to molten metal to remove gases from the metal.
Degassing Flux A flux for removing gas from the melt. Dendrite A crystal of branched appearance, formed during solidification of alloys, the branching habit being controlled by specific crystallographic directions. Density The mass per unit volume of a substance, usually expressed in grams per cubic centimeter or in pounds per cubic foot.
Deoxidation Removal of excess oxygen from molten metal, usually accomplished by adding materials with a high affinity for oxygen, the oxides of which are either gaseous or readily form slags. Dephosphorization Elimination of phosphorus from molten steel. Descale Remove the fire scale from the surface of casting. Desulfurization Removal of sulfur from the molten metal by addition of suitable compounds.
Diameters In microscopy, an indication of the amount of magnification. Die A metal block used in forming materials by casting, molding, stamping, threading, or extruding. Die Assembly The parts of a die stamp or press that hold the die and locate it for the punches. Die Casting Brit. Pressure Die Casting A rapid, water-cooled permanent mold casting process limited to nonferrous metals. Differential Heat Treatment A heating process by which the temperature is varied within the object so that, after cooling, various parts may have different properties as desired.
Diffuser X-ray equipment, a portion of the condensing and focusing system that permits even distribution of energy. Dimensional Tolerance Grades A system of classifying the tightness of tolerances for the purpose of defining accurately the tolerances involved, and for simplifying the communication process between customer and producer regarding what is wanted, and what is possible, respectively.
Dip Coat In solid and shell mold investment casting, a fine ceramic coating applied as a slurry to the pattern to produce maximum surface smoothness, followed by a cheaper conventional investment. Direct Casting Teeming from the ladle into the casting mold without the use of a tundish. Direct-Arc Furnace An electric arc furnace in which the metal being melted is one of the poles. Dispersed Shrinkage Small shrinkage cavities dispersed through the casting, which are not necessarily cause for rejection.
Disruptive Strength Maximum strength of a metal when subjected to three principal tensile stresses at right angles to one another and of equal magnitude. Dissolved Carbon Carbon in solution in steel in either the liquid or solid state. Double Annealing As applied to hypoeutectoid steel, a process of heating to above the upper critical point AC3 and holding at that temperature until complete solution of the carbide has been achieved then cooling rapidly and reheating immediately to above A3 and slowly cooling.
Double Tempering A retempering operation sometimes necessary for steel containing retained austenite which breaks down during cooling from the first tempering to form a new, and hence, untempered martensite.
Drag Lower or bottom section of a mold or pattern. Draw A term used for 1 to temper, 2 to remove pattern from mold, 3 an external contraction defect on surface of mold. Drier Dryer A material, as alcohol ammonium nitrate, sodium perborate and manganese oleate, added to a core or mold mixture to remove or reduce the water content. Dry Sand Mold A mold from which the moisture has been removed by heating.
Dual Metal Centrifugal Casting Centrifugal castings produced by pouring a different metal into the rotating mold after the first metal poured. Eddy Current Testing The detection of discontinuities by observation of the interaction between electromagnetic fields and metals. Elastic Limit Maximum stress that a material will withstand without permanent deformation.
Elasticity The property of recovering original shape and dimensions upon removal of a deforming force. Electrode Compressed graphite or carbon cylinder or rod used to conduct electric current in electric arc furnaces, arc lamps, carbon arc welding, etc. Elongation Amount of permanent extension in the vicinity of the fractures in the tensile test; usually expressed as percentage of original gage length.
Embrittlement Loss of ductility of a metal due to chemical or physical change. End-Quench Hardenability Test A standardized method for comparing the hardenability of different steels. Endothermic Reaction The reaction which occurs with absorption of heat. Engineering Strain e The average linear strain, obtained by dividing the elongation of the length of the specimen by the original gage length.
Engineering Stress s The load divided by the original area. Equilibrium A dynamic condition of balance between atomic movements, where the resultant is zero and the condition appears to be one of rest rather than change.
Eutectic 1 An isothermal reversible reaction in which a liquid solution decomposes, on cooling, into two or more intimately mixed solids.
Eutectoid 1 An isothermal reversible reaction in which a solid solution on cooling is converted into two or more intimately mixed solids. Exothermic Formed by or characterized by heat reaction as in oxidation. Fabrication The joining, usually by welding, of two or more parts to produce a finished assembly.
Facing Sand Specially prepared molding sand mixture used in the mold adjacent to the pattern to produce a smooth casting surface. Fatigue The loss of load-bearing ability of a material under repeated load application, as opposed to a single load. Fatigue Crack or Failure A fracture starting from a nucleus where there is an abnormal concentration of cyclic stress.
Fatigue Limit Endurance Limit Maximum stress that a material will endure without failure for an infinite number of load cycles. Fatigue Strength Maximum stress that a material will endure without failure for a specified number of load cycles. Feeding The process of supplying molten metal to compensate for volume shrinkage while the casting is solidifying. Ferrite A solid solution of one or more elements in the body-center-cubic phase of iron or steel.
Ferritic Steels Steels in which ferrite is the predominant phase. These steels are magnetic. Fillet A concave corner piece used on foundry patterns, a radius joint replacing sharp inside corners.
Finish Allowance The amount of stock left on the surface of a casting for machining. Finish Welding Production welding carried out in order to ensure the agreed quality of the casting. Finite Element Analysis FEA A computerized numerical analysis technique used for solving differential equations to primarily solve mechanical engineering problems relating to stress analysis.
Flash A thin section of metal formed at the mold, core, or die joint or parting in a casting due to the cope and drag not matching completely, or where core and coreprint do not match. Flask A metal frame used for making or holding a sand mold. Fluidity The ability of molten metal to flow. Fluidize To impart fluid like properties to powders or sands e. Foundry Returns Metal in the form of sprues, gates, runners, risers and scrapped castings, with known chemical composition that are returned to the furnace for remelting.
Gate The end of a runner in a mold where molten metal enters the mold cavity. Gating System The complete assembly of sprues, runners and gates in a mold through which steel flows before entering the casting cavity. Granular Fracture Crystalline Fracture A type of irregular surface produced when metal is broken.
Green Sand A naturally bonded sand, or a compounded molding sand mixture which has been tempered with water for use while still in the damp or wet condition. Green Sand Core A sand core used in the unbaked condition, also a core made from green sand and used as rammed. Hardenability In a ferrous alloy, the property that determines the depth and distribution of hardness induced by quenching.
Hardness Resistance of a material to indentation as measured by such methods as Brinell, Rockwell, and Vickers. Heat The total amount of metal produced which can be represented by one analysis sample and one set of mechanical tests.
Heat Treatment A combination of heating and cooling operations applied to a metal or alloy to produce desired properties and microstructures. High-Alloy Steel Ferrous alloy with more than 12 weight percent of noncarbon additions. Hollow Drill Test Trepanning Removing a cylindrical sample from a metal section or structure to determine soundness of the section. Homogenizing A process of heat treatment at high temperature intended to eliminate or decrease chemical segregation by diffusion.
Horizontal Axis Casting Machine A centrifugal casting machine in which the axis of rotation of the mold is horizontal. Hot Tear A crack or fracture formed prior to completion of metal solidification as a result of hindered contraction.
Hydrogen Embrittlement A condition of low ductility resulting from the absorption of hydrogen. ID Grinding Term for internal dimension grinding. Impact Strength The resistance to impact loads; usually expressed as the foot pounds of energy absorbed in breaking a standard specimen. Impact Value Total energy needed to break a standard specimen by a single blow under standard conditions; e. Impregnation The treatment of castings with a sealing medium to stop pressure leaks, such as soaking under pressure with or without prior evacuation, and either with hot or cold application.
Impurity An element unintentionally allowed in a metal or alloy. Inclusions Nonmetallic materials in a metal matrix. Indentation Hardness The resistance of a material to indentation. Induction Furnace An AC melting furnace which utilizes the heat of electrical induction. Induction Hardening A surface hardening process involving the localized use of pulsating magnetic currents to achieve heating above the austenite transformation temperature, Ac3, followed by quenching.
Induction Heating Process of heating by electrical resistance and hysteresis losses induced by subjecting a metal to the varying magnetic field surrounding a coil carrying an alternating current. Inert Gas A gas that will not support combustion or sustain any chemical reaction; e.
Ingot A mass of metal cast to a convenient size and shape for remelting or hot working. Insert A part usually formed from metal, which is placed in a mold and may become an integral part of the casting.
Insulating Pads and Sleeves As opposed to chills, insulating material, such as gypsum, diatomaceous earth, etc. Intergranular Corrosion Corrosion in a metal taking place preferentially along the grain boundaries. Internal Shrinkage A void or network of voids within a casting caused by inadequate feeding of that section during solidification. Internal Stresses or Thermal Stresses Generally stresses which occur during the cooling of a part. Interrupted Quench Removing the casting from a quenching bath before it has reached the temperature of the bath.
Investment Casting Casting produced in a mold obtained by investing an expendable pattern with a refractory to produce a shell. Iron, Malleable A mixture of iron and carbon, including smaller amounts of silicon, manganese, phosphorus, and sulfur, which after being cast white iron, carbon in combined form as carbides is converted structurally by heat treatment into a matrix of ferrite containing nodules of temper carbon graphite. Isocure Proprietary name for a binder system developed for use in Ashland Cold Box Process, itself a proprietary process.
Isothermal Pertaining to changes or other phenomena occurring at a constant temperature. Isothermal Annealing A process in which a ferrous alloy is heated to produce a structure partly or wholly austenitic, and is then cooled to and held at a temperature that causes transformation of the Austenite to a relatively soft ferric-carbide aggregate.
Isothermal Transformation 1 The process of transforming Austenite in a ferrous ally to Ferrite or a ferrite-carbide aggregate at any constant temperature within the transformation range, 2 transformation of one phase in an alloy system to another phase at any constant temperature.
Jobbing Foundry A foundry engaged in the manufacture of numerous types of castings. Joint Welding Production welding used to weld cast components together to obtain an integral unit. K Factor Tensile strength in pounds per square inch divided by the Brinell Hardness number. Kayser Hardness Test A method for determining the true hardness of metals at high temperatures. Kerf The width of a cut. Keyhole Specimen A type of notched impact test specimen which has a hole-and-slot notch shaped like a keyhole.
Knockout Pins Ejector Pins Small diameter pins affixed to a pattern back-up plate for removing cured mold in the shell-molding process. Ladle Metal receptacle frequently lined with refractories used for transporting and pouring molten metal.
Ladle, Bottom-Pour Ladle from which metal flows through a nozzle in the bottom. Untechnical addresses on technical subjects [technical progress - 19th c; development of Amer. The Hydro-metallurgy of Copper: Practical Metallurgy:: C M Phillips.
Html Txt. A career in Mining Chemicals: Electro-deposition of Iron, with Notes on the use of Anthracite in the Manufacture of Iron. With some remarks on its evaporating power.