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Oracle sql fundamentals pdf

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Product 5 - 27 How This Course Is Organized. Oracle Database 10g: SQL Fundamentals I is an instructor-led course featuring lectures and hands-on exercises. oca-oracle-databasec-sql-fundamentals-i-exam-guide-exam-1zoracle- Oracle Database 11g: SQL Fundamentals I Volume I • Student Guide D Download free Oracle Database 11g: SQL Fundamentals course material and training, PDF file on pages.


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Product 6 - 33 Oracle Database 11g: SQL Fundamentals I is an instructor-led course featuring .. generated in multiple formats such as PDF, HTML, Excel. Product 6 - 33 Oracle Database 11g: SQL Fundamentals I Volume II • Student Guide m y d e c a e A c l r a O ly l & On DGC11 n a e Edition April Oracle Database 11g: SQL Fundamentals II is an instructor-led course featuring lectures and hands-on exercises. Online demonstrations and written practice.

It is important, however, to estimate how much space a table will use over time. By using this tab, you can browse database objects and users to which you have access. Table-level constraints are defined at the end of the table definition and must O ly refer to the column or columns on which the constraint pertains in a set of parentheses. Create a report for the HR department that displays employee last names, department numbers, and all employees who work in the same department as a given employee. Instead, enter only your username. Other Lex van der Werff y names may be trademarks of their respective owners.

Some employees earn commissions in addition to their salary. The company also tracks information about jobs within the organization. Each job has an identification code, job title, and a minimum and maximum salary range for the job.

Some employees have been with the company for a long time and have held different positions within the company. When an employee resigns, the duration the employee was working for, the job identification number, and the department are recorded. The sample company is regionally diverse, so it tracks the locations of its warehouses and departments. Each employee is assigned to a department, and each department is identified either by a unique department number or a short name.

Each department is associated with one location, and each location has a full address that includes the street name, postal code, city, state or province, and the country code. In places where the departments and warehouses are located, the company records details such as the country name, currency symbol, currency name, and the region where the country is located geographically. Oracle Join Syntax Oracle Database 11g: C - 2 Objectives After completing this appendix, you should be able to do the following: A join is used to view information from multiple tables.

Therefore, you can join tables together to view information from more than one table. In the example in the slide, the report displays data from two separate tables: Cartesian Products When a join condition is invalid or omitted completely, the result is a Cartesian product, in which all combinations of rows are displayed. In other words, all rows in the first table are joined to all rows in the second table. A Cartesian product tends to generate a large number of rows and the result is rarely useful.

Therefore, you should always include a valid join condition unless you have a specific need to combine all rows from all tables. However, Cartesian products are useful for some tests when you need to generate a large number of rows to simulate a reasonable amount of data.

C - 5 Generating a Cartesian Product Cartesian product: Before the Oracle9i release, the join syntax was proprietary. The SQL: Rows in one table can be joined to rows in another table according to common values that exist in the corresponding columns that is, usually primary and foreign key columns. For example, to join four tables, a minimum of three joins is required.

This rule may not apply if your table has a concatenated primary key, in which case more than one column is required to uniquely identify each row. Qualifying Ambiguous Column Names When joining two or more tables, you need to qualify the names of the columns with the table name to avoid ambiguity. Therefore, it is necessary to add the table prefix to execute your query. If there are no common column names between the two tables, there is no need to qualify the columns. However, using a table prefix improves performance, because you tell the Oracle server exactly where to find the columns.

Qualifying column names with table names can be very time consuming, particularly if table names are lengthy. Therefore, you can use table aliases instead of table names. Just as a column alias gives a column another name, a table alias gives a table another name. Table aliases help to keep SQL code smaller, thereby using less memory. The table name is specified in full, followed by a space and then the table alias.

Often, this type of join involves primary and foreign key complements. Equijoins are also called simple joins or inner joins. Other columns that are not present in both the tables need not be qualified by a table alias, but it is recommended for better performance.

Example Retrieving Records with Equijoins: Table aliases are used to qualify the columns and avoid ambiguity. The example in the slide limits the rows of output to those with a department ID equal to 20 or C - 13 Joining More than Two Tables To join n tables together, you need a minimum of n—1 join conditions.

For example, to join three tables, a minimum of two joins is required. Nonequijoins A nonequijoin is a join condition containing something other than an equality operator.

Therefore, each employee can be graded based on the salary. The salary must be between any pair of the low and high salary ranges. It is important to note that all employees appear exactly once when this query is executed.

Fundamentals pdf sql oracle

No employee is repeated in the list. There are two reasons for this: That is, the salary value for an employee can lie only between the low salary and high salary values of one of the rows in the salary grade table.

Table aliases have been specified in the example in the slide for performance reasons, not because of possible ambiguity. To return the department record that does not have any employees, or to return the employee record that does not belong to any department, you can use the outer join. C - 17 Outer Joins: Syntax Missing rows can be returned if an outer join operator is used in the join condition.

This operator has the effect of creating one or more null rows, to which one or more rows from the nondeficient table can be joined. The Contracting department does not have any employees. The empty value is shown in the output.

It returns those rows, from one table, that have no direct match in the other table. Another Example … Outer Join: In this process, you look in the table twice. C - 21 Self-Join: C - 22 Summary In this appendix, you should have learned how to use joins to display data from multiple tables by using Oracle-proprietary syntax. Summary There are multiple ways to join tables. C - 23 Practice C: Overview This practice is intended to give you practical experience in extracting data from more than one table using the Oracle join syntax.

Write a query for the HR department to produce the addresses of all the departments. Show the location ID, street address, city, state or province, and country in the output. Run the query. The HR department needs a report of all employees. Write a query to display the last name, department number, and department name for all employees.

The HR department needs a report of employees in Toronto. Display the last name, job, department number, and department name for all employees who work in Toronto.

Fundamentals oracle pdf sql

Label the columns Employee, Emp , Manager, and Mgr , respectively. Order the results by the employee number. Create a report for the HR department that displays employee last names, department numbers, and all employees who work in the same department as a given employee. Give each column an appropriate label. The HR department needs a report on job grades and salaries. Then create a query that displays the name, job, department name, salary, and grade for all employees.

The HR department wants to determine the names of all employees who were hired after Davies. Create a query to display the name and hire date of any employee hired after employee Davies. D - 2 Objectives After completing this appendix, you should be able to do the following: Oracle SQL contains many extensions. It contains its own command language. To log in from a Windows environment: Enter the username, password, and database name. To log in from a command-line environment: Log on to your machine.

Enter the sqlplus command shown in the slide. To ensure the integrity of your password, do not enter it at the operating system prompt. Instead, enter only your username. Enter your password at the password prompt. The result of the command is a display of column names and data types as well as an indication if a column must contain data. In the result: Displays the data type for a column Oracle Database 11g: The SQL prompt then appears.

Any edits that you made apply to the current line. The new current line is displayed. The newly edited line is displayed.

Verify the new contents of the buffer by using the LIST command. In this case, replace the employees table with the departments table. You can use the commands described in the following table: The default extension is. GET filename [. The default extension for the file name is. STA[RT] filename [. OFF closes the spool file. OUT closes the spool file and sends the file results to the printer.

In this way, you can store frequently used scripts for use in the future. You can also, alternatively, use the symbol to run a script. This opens an editor with the script file in it. The delimiter must be the first character of a new line immediately following the statement.

You can now append to, or replace an existing file, where previously you could only use SPOOL to create and replace a file. You must use quotes around file names containing white space. You can execute commands from the SQL prompt or from a script file. E - 2 Objectives After completing this appendix, you should be able to do the following: It assumes that you have already created a database connection and that you are ready to browse objects in the SQL Developer interface.

SQL Developer uses the left pane for navigation to find and select objects, and the right pane to display information about the selected objects.

You can customize many aspects of the appearance of SQL Developer by setting preferences. You can see the definition of the objects broken into tabs of information that is pulled out of the data dictionary.

For example, if you select a table in the Navigator, the details about columns, constraints, grants, statistics, triggers, and so on are displayed on an easy-to-read tabbed page. Expand the Connections node in the Connections Navigator. Expand Tables. By default, the Columns tab is selected. It shows the column description of the table. Expand Connections. Right-click Tables and select New Table.

Alternatively, you can create objects by using the context menus. When created, you can edit the objects using an edit dialog or one of the many context-sensitive menus. As new objects are created or existing objects are edited, the data definition language DDL for those adjustments is available for review.

The slide shows the creation of a table using the context menu. To open a dialog box for creating a new table, right-click Tables and select New Table. The dialog boxes for creating and editing the database objects have multiple tabs, each reflecting a logical grouping of properties for that type of object. E - 5 Creating a New Table: Click x to remove column. Select the Advanced check box to get all the options for defining tables.

Creating a New Table: Example In the Create Table dialog box, if you do not select the Advanced check box, you can create a table quickly by specifying the columns and some frequently used features. If you select the Advanced check box, the Create Table dialog box changes to one with multiple options, in which you can specify an extended set of features while creating the table. To create a new table, perform the following steps: In the Connections Navigator, right-click Tables.

In the Create Table dialog box, select Advanced. Specify column information. Although it is not required, you should also specify a primary key using the Primary Key tab in the dialog box. Sometimes, you may want to edit the table that you have created. To edit a table, right- click the table in the Connections Navigator and select Edit. Defining Constraints From the same Create Table dialog box, you can define all types of constraint on the table.

In the slide, the Primary Key option is selected. In the slide, ID is specified as the primary key. Similarly, click the Unique Constraints option to define a unique constraint, or click Foreign Keys to define a foreign key constraint. If you want to define constraints on an existing table, in the Connections Navigator, right-click the table, and select Edit. A similar dialog box as shown in the slide above will appear. You can also click the pencil icon to edit.

You can view the table structure and even modify the column definition of the table. In the Connections Navigator, click the table that you want to modify. On the right side, you get a set of tabs that gives you all the details about the table. With the Columns tab selected, perform the following: Click Actions…A sub menu appears.

Select Table and a set of menu options appears. If you want to rename the table, select Rename. Or if you want to delete all the rows from the table, select Truncate. To drop the table, select Drop. If you want to drop a column, select Column from the Actions submenu, and click Drop. You also get the same menu options when you right-click the table in the Connections Navigator. In the Connections Navigator, select the table that you want to add data into.

Click the Data tab. Click the Insert Row icon. Insert Row adds an empty row after the selected row for you to enter new data. Enter the field values for the record. To add another row, click the Insert Row icon again. To update data in a table, make the changes directly in the grid of data values in the Data tab.

When you enter a cell in the grid, you can directly edit the data for many data types, and for all data types, you can click the ellipsis Click Delete Selected Row s to mark the selected rows for deletion. The actual deletion does not occur until you commit the changes. Click the Rollback Changes icon to undo the transaction. Commit and Rollback After you have inserted new rows or updated any rows, you can either save the changes or undo the changes.

To save the changes, click the Commit Changes icon. Commit Changes ends the current transaction and makes permanent all changes performed in the transaction. To undo the changes, click the Rollback Changes icon. E - 11 Creating a View 1 2 3 Creating a View Views are virtual tables analogous to queries in some database products that select data from one or more underlying tables.

To create a view, perform the following: In the Create View dialog box, select the Advanced check box. If this option is checked, the dialog box changes to include a pane that provides an extended set of features for creating the view. Or you can expand the SQL Query node and use its options individually to define the view step by step.

The view gets added in the Views node in the Connections Navigator. In the Connections Navigator, expand Views. Select the view that you want to view the data of.

Click the Data tab to view its data. You can use sequences to automatically generate primary key values. To create a sequence, perform the following: In the Connections Navigator, expand Sequences.

Select New Sequence. In the Create Database Sequence dialog box, specify the schema name and the sequence name. In the Properties tab page, specify the increment value, the minimum value, the start with value, the maximum value, and so on. You can review and make changes to the code for this sequence by clicking the DDL tab.

You can edit, drop, or alter a sequence by using the menu options that appear when you right- click the sequence. E - 14 Creating Indexes 1 2 3 Creating Indexes An index is a database object that contains an entry for each value that appears in the indexed column s of the table or cluster, and provides direct, fast access to rows. Indexes are automatically created on primary key columns; however, you must create indexes on other columns to gain the benefits of indexing.

To create an index, perform the following: Right-click Indexes in the Connections Navigator. Select New Index.

Oracle Database 11g: SQL Fundamentals I

In the Create Index dialog box, select the schema that will own the index. Specify the name of the index. On the Properties tabbed page, specify the schema that owns the table that you want to index. Select the table that will be associated with the index. Select the type of index. Add a list of index expressions, that is, the table columns or column expressions in the index. You can also specify the order of the index.

You right-click an index and then use the menu options to edit, drop, rebuild, rename it. E - 15 Creating a Synonym 1 2 3 4 Creating a Synonym Synonyms provide alternative names for tables, views, sequences, or other synonyms.

The Connections Navigator has a Synonyms node for all synonyms public and private owned by the user associated with the specified connection, and a Public Synonyms node for all public synonyms on the database associated with the connection. To create a synonym, perform the following: In the Connections Navigator, right-click Synonyms. Select New Synonym. In the Create Database Synonym dialog box, select the Public check box if you want the synonym to be accessible to all users.

Private synonyms are accessible only within its schema. Enter the name of the synonym. On the Properties tabbed page, select the schema that contains the object for which this synonym is being defined. You can enter the name of the object directly if Name based is selected or, you can select Object based to get a drop-down list of all the objects in the schema. Select the object from the list. Public synonyms get added in a different node in the Connections Navigator.

So, look for your public synonyms in the Public Synonyms node. To drop a synonym, simply right-click the synonym and select Drop from the menu. E - 16 Using Snippets Snippets are code fragments that may be just syntax or examples.

When you place your mouse pointer here, it shows the Snippets window. From the drop- down list you can select the functions category you want.

SQL Developer has the feature called Snippets. You can drag snippets into the Editor window. The Snippets window is displayed on the right side. You can use the drop-down list to select a group. A Snippets button is placed in the right window margin, so that you can display the Snippets window if it becomes hidden. E - 17 Using Snippets: Example Inserting a snippet Editing the snippet Using Snippets: Exclude anyone whose manager is not known.

Sort the output in descending order of salary. Create a query that will display the total number of employees and, of that total, the number e l of employees hired in , , , and Create appropriate column headings. Create a matrix query to display the job, the salary for that job based on the department number, and the total salary for that job, for departments 20, 50, 80, and 90, giving each column an appropriate heading.

Displaying Data from Multiple Tables 1. Write a query for the HR department to produce the addresses of all the departments. Show the location ID, street address, city, state or province, and country in the output. The HR department needs a report of all employees. Write a query to display the last name, department number, and department name for all the employees. The HR department needs a report of employees in Toronto.

Display the last name, job, department number, and department name for all employees who work in Toronto. Label the columns Employee, Emp , Manager, and Mgr , respectively. Run e the query. Displaying Data from Multiple Tables continued 6. Create a report for the HR department that displays employee last names, department numbers, and all the employees who work in the same department as a given employee.

Give each column an appropriate label. The HR department needs a report on job grades and salaries. Then create a query that displays the name, job, department name, salary, and grade for all employees. The HR department wants to determine the names of all employees who were hired after Davies. Create a query to display the name and hire date of any employee hired after e employee Davies. Using Subqueries to Solve Queries 1. The HR department needs a query that prompts the user for an employee last name.

The query then displays the last name and hire date of any employee in the same department as the employee whose name they supply excluding that employee.

For example, if the user enters Zlotkey, find all employees who work with Zlotkey excluding Zlotkey. Create a report that displays the employee number, last name, and salary of all employees who earn more than the average salary.

Sort the results in order of ascending salary. The HR department needs a report that displays the last name, department number, and job ID of all employees whose department location ID is Using Subqueries to Solve Queries continued 5. Create a report for HR that displays the last name and salary of every employee who reports to King. Create a report for HR that displays the department number, last name, and job ID for every employee in the Executive department.

Using the Set Operators 1. Use the set operators to create this report. The HR department needs a list of countries that have no departments located in them. Display the country ID and the name of the countries. Produce a list of jobs for departments 10, 50, and 20, in that order.

Using the Set Operators continued 4. Create a report that lists the employee IDs and job IDs of those employees who currently have a job title that is the same as their job title when they were initially hired by the company that is, they changed jobs but have now gone back to doing their original job.

The HR department needs a report with the following specifications: This way you get to see the feedback messages on the Script Output tabbed page. From File menu, select Open. In the Open dialog box, navigate to D: You get a Create Table succeeeded message on the Script Output tabbed page.

Manipulating Data continued 4.

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Populate the table with the next two rows of sample data listed in step 3 by running the INSERT statement in the script that you created. Manipulating Data continued To confirm that the table was created and to view its structure, issue the following command: Include only those columns that you need.

To confirm that the table was created and to view its structure: Hence, you will not be allowed to insert any row into the table because it is assigned a read only status. Now try to insert the same row again.

Creating Other Schema Objects Part 1 1. Create a view named DEPT50 that contains the employee numbers, employee last names, and department numbers for all m y e employees in department They have requested that you label the view columns d reassigned to another department through the view.

Creating Other Schema Objects continued Part 2 7. You need a sequence that can be used with the primary key column of the DEPT table. Oracle Join Syntax 1. Write a query to display the last name, department number, and department name for all employees.

Order the results by the employee number. Oracle Join Syntax continued 6.

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The HR department wants to determine the names of all employees hired after Davies. Create a query to display the name and hire date of any employee hired after employee Davies. The company has three divisions: Tracks business statistics to facilitate business decisions Each of these divisions is represented by a schema. In this course, you have access to the objects in all the schemas.

However, the emphasis of the examples, demonstrations, and practices is on the Human Resources HR schema. Human Resources HR This is the schema that is used in this course. In the Human Resource HR records, each employee has an identification number, email address, job identification code, salary, and manager. Some employees earn commissions in addition to their salary. The company also tracks information about jobs within the organization. Each job has an identification code, job title, and a minimum and maximum salary range for the job.

Some employees have been with the company for a long time and have held different positions within the company. When an employee resigns, the duration the employee was working for, the job identification number, and the department are recorded. Each employee is assigned to a department, and each department is identified either by c a a unique department number or a short name. Each department is associated with one location, and the country code. A join is used to view information c table.

Therefore, you can join tables together to view information from more than one O ly Note: In the example in the slide, the report c displays data from two separate tables: In other words, all rows in the first table are joined to all rows in O ly A Cartesian product tends to generate a large number of rows and the result is rarely useful.

Before the Oracle9i release, the join syntax was proprietary. The SQL: Rows in one c r a table can be joined to rows in another table according to common values that exist in the corresponding columns that is, usually primary and foreign key columns.

For example, to join four O tables, a minimum of three joins is required. This rule may not apply if your table has a concatenated primary key, in which case more than one column is required to uniquely identify each row. Therefore, it is necessary O ly to add the table prefix to execute your query. However, using a table prefix improves performance, because you tell the Oracle server exactly where to find the columns.

Therefore, you can use table aliases instead of table names. Just as a column alias gives a column another name, a table alias gives a table another name. The table name is specified in full, followed by a space and then the table alias. Equijoins are also called simple joins or inner joins. Other columns that are not present in both the tables need not be qualified r a by a table alias, but it is recommended for better performance.

Table aliases are used to qualify the columns and avoid ambiguity. The example in the slide limits the rows of output to those with a department ID equal to 20 or For example, to join three tables, a minimum of two joins is required. The relationship is obtained using an operator other than the n a e t e r U s I n c l e r a O Oracle Database 11g: The salary c r a must be between any pair of the low and high salary ranges.

It is important to note that all employees appear exactly once when this query is executed. No O ly employee is repeated in the list. There are two reasons for this: That is, the salary value for an employee can lie only between the low salary and high salary values of one of the rows in the salary grade table.

I n Note: O Table aliases have been specified in the example in the slide for performance reasons, not because of possible ambiguity. To return the department record that does not have any employees, or to return the employee record that does not belong to any department, you can use the outer join.

Syntax e A l Missing rows can be returned if an outer join operator is used in the join condition. This operator has the effect of creating one or more null rows, to which one or more O ly rows from the nondeficient table can be joined.

The c Outer Join Restrictions r a Contracting department does not have any employees. The empty value is shown in the output. Overview e A l This practice is intended to give you practical experience in extracting data from more than one table c using the Oracle join syntax. Create a report for the HR department that displays employee last names, department numbers, and all employees who work in the same department as a given employee.

Give each column an l appropriate label. Oracle SQL contains many extensions. It contains its own command language. To log in from a Windows environment: Enter the username, password, and database name. To log in from a command-line environment: Log on to your machine.

Enter the sqlplus command shown in the slide. I n username Your database username password Your database password Your password is visible if you enter it here.

To ensure the integrity of your password, do not enter it at the operating system prompt. Instead, enter only your username. Enter your password at the password prompt. The result of c contain data. In c the result: O ly Type: The SQL prompt then appears. The new current line is displayed.

The newly edited line is displayed. U I n c l e r a O Oracle Database 11g: In this case, replace the employees table with the departments table. You can use the commands described in the following table: The default extension is. GET filename [. The default extension for the file name is. OFF closes the spool file. OUT closes the spool file and sends the file results to the printer.

In this way, you can store frequently used scripts for use in the future. You can also, alternatively, use the symbol l to run a script. This opens an editor with the script file in it. The delimiter must be the first character of a new line immediately following the statement.

You can now append to, or replace an existing file, where previously you could only use SPOOL to create and replace a file. O ly To spool output generated by commands in a script without displaying the output on the screen, use interactively.

SET parameters. You learn how r a to use SQL Developer for your database development tasks. With just a few clicks, you can easily create and debug stored procedures, test SQL statements, and view optimizer plans.

O ly SQL Developer, the visual tool for database development, simplifies the following tasks: When connected, you can perform operations on objects in the database.

The SQL Developer 1.

Therefore, it is a cross-platform tool. SQL Developer does not require an installer t e r U s and you need to simply unzip the downloaded file. I n SQL Developer can be downloaded with the following packaging options: To install SQL Developer, you need an unzip tool. Download the SQL Developer kit from http: Unzip the downloaded SQL Developer kit into the folder created in step 1.

SQL Developer 1. The installation kit for l e SQL Developer 1. You may use either version of SQL c Developer in this course. Instructions for installing SQL Developer version 1. By using this tab, you can run predefined reports or create and add your own reports. You can customize many aspects of the appearance n e r and behavior of SQL Developer by setting preferences.

The following menus contain standard s entries, plus entries for features specific to SQL Developer: To use SQL Developer, you must have at least one database connection, which may be existing, created, or imported.

O ly You can create and test connections for multiple databases and for multiple schemas. On Windows, if the tnsnames. You can export connections to an XML file so that you can reuse it later. On the Connections tabbed page, right-click Connections and select New Connection. Enter the O ly username and password of the schema that you want to connect to. You can select the connection type as: In this type, enter hostname and SID for the database you want to connect to. Port is already set to Or you can also choose to enter the Service name I n directly if you use a remote database connection.

You can select any one of the database aliases imported from the c l e tnsnames. Click Test to ensure that the connection has been set correctly. Click Connect. So, after you close the SQL Developer connection and open it again, you are not prompted for the password. The connection gets added in the Connections Navigator. You can expand the connection to view the database objects and view object definitions, for example, dependencies, details, statistics, and so on. However, these connections are read-only connections that enable you to browse objects and data in that data source.

You can customize many aspects of the appearance of SQL Developer by setting preferences. For example, if you select a table in the Navigator, the details about columns, t U constraints, grants, statistics, triggers, and so on are displayed on an easy-to-read tabbed page.

Expand the Connections node in the Connections Navigator. Expand Tables. By default, the Columns tab is selected. It shows the column O description of the table. Using the Data tab, you can view the table data and also enter new rows, update data, and commit these changes to the database. Alternatively, you can create objects using the context menus. When created, you can edit the objects using an edit dialog or one of the many context-sensitive menus.

O ly As new objects are created or existing objects are edited, the DDL for those adjustments is l one or more objects in the schema. To open a dialog box for creating e r s a new table, right-click Tables and select New Table. The dialog boxes to create and edit t U database objects have multiple tabs, each reflecting a logical grouping of properties for that type of object. Example e A c l In the Create Table dialog box, if you do not select the Advanced check box, you can create a r a table quickly by specifying columns and some frequently used features.

If you select the Advanced check box, the Create Table dialog box changes to one with multiple O ly options, in which you can specify an extended set of features while you create the table. In the Connections Navigator, right-click Tables.

In the Create Table dialog box, select Advanced. Specify column information. Sometimes, you may want to edit the table that you have created; to do so, right-click the table in the Connections Navigator and select Edit. You can use the SQL Worksheet toolbar that contains icons to perform the following tasks: Execute Statement: Executes the statement where the cursor is located in the Enter SQL variables.

You can use bind variables in the SQL statements, but not substitution a e 2. Run Script: You can use substitution variables in the SQL statements, but not bind variables. Writes any changes to the database and ends the transaction I n 4. Discards any changes to the database, without writing them to the database, and ends the transaction l e 5.

Stops the execution of any statements currently being executed c 6.

Oracle Database 11g SQL Fundamentals I (Vol2).pdf

SQL History: Displays a dialog box with information about SQL statements that you have r a executed O 7. Execute Explain Plan: Download the file. Alternative Links Oracle Database 11g: SQL Fundamentals pdf. Thank you all for this course, you are doing a great job Bilalkhoder at This is great!

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