materials and techniques used by seven different artists. By Mary M. Erbach. The visual power of an illustration lies in the combina- tion of its lines, colors, and. May I express here my appreciation of and gratitude for the valuable help given me in the preparation of this vol- ume by my beloved wife, Ethel O. Loomis. The art of illustration. byBlackburn, Henry, Publication date Topics Illustration of books. PublisherLondon: W. H. Allen. Collectionamericana.
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Art of caite.info Anis Zamir. UC-NRLF mmnf -- B 3 TEi 3Qc^ ENRY Blackburn. 4HIIUU caite.info University of California. (;i Ki- OK Received. iqa. Illustration, many of the world's leading In this book you'll discover the secrets The Artist's Guide to Illustration is your professional artists reveal the techniques of. please support this site by buying some nice books:), thanx (in association with caite.info). Creative Illustration by Andrew Loomis. caite.info jpg.
You can the image, changing some of the colour also experiment with the Transparency fills to add interest. Using the light source as confines of Illustrator. The folknving fcv. Nobody knows — nobody ever will know — how much the engraver has done for the artist in years past. S " There is the Priory.
In this chapter we shall consider the first, the practical part. In illustrated newspapers, it was argued, "there should be a clearer distinction between fact and fiction, between news and pictures. But our artistic skill has led us into temptation, and by degrees engendered a habit of making pictures when we ought to be recording facts. We have thus, through our cleverness, created a fashion and a demand from the public for something which is often elaborately untrue.
Pictorial records of events in the simplest and truest manner possible ; 2nd. Here are two methods of illustration which only require to be kept distinct, each in its proper place, and our interest in them would be doubled. We ask first for a record of news and then for a picture gallery ; and to kiiow, to use a common phrase, which is 2vhich.
At the time referred to, drawing on the wood- block and engraving were almost universal — instantaneous photography was in its infancy, "process blocks," that is to say, mechanical engraving, was very seldom employed, and for popular purposes American engraving and printing was considered the best. The system of producing illustrations in direct fac- simile of an artist's drawing, suitable for printing at a type press without the aid of the wood engraver, is ot such value for cheap and simple forms of illustration, and is, moreover, in such constant use, that it seems wonderful at first sight that it should not be better understood in England.
But the cause is not far to seek. We have not yet acquired the art of pictorial expression in black and white, nor do many of our artists excel in " illustration " in the true sense of the word. U has often been pointed out that thruLigh the pictorial system the mind receives impressions with the least effort and in the quickest way, and that the graphic method is the true way of imparting knowledge.
Are we then, in the matter of giving information or in imparting knowledge through the medium of illustrations, adopting the truest and simplest methods? We have pictures in abundance which delight the eye, which are artistically drawn and skilfully engraved, but in which, in nine cases out of ten, there is more thought given to effect as a picture than to illustrating the text.
It has often been suggested that the art of printing is, after all, but a questionable blessing on account of the error and the evil disseminated by it.
Without going into that question, I think that we may find that the art of printing with movable type has led to some neglect of the art of expressing ourselves pictorially, and that the apparently in- exorable necessity of running every word and thought into uniform lines, has cramped and limited our powers of expression, and of communicating ideas to each other. Let us begin at the lowest step of the artistic ladder, and consider some forms of illustration which are within the reach of nearly every writer for the press.
For example: Words are powerless to explain the position beyond the possibility of doubt or mis- construction ; and yet words are, and have been, used for such purposes for hundreds of years, because it is " the custom. This illustration which was written on the sheet of MS. Before exploring some of the possibilities of illustration, it may be interesting to glance at what has been done in this direction since the invention of producing blocks rapidly to print at the type press and the improvements in machinery.
In the spring of a Canadian company started a daily illustrated evening newspaper in New York, called The Daily Graphic, which was to eclipse all previous publications by the rapidity and excellence of its illustrations. It started with an attempt to give a daily record of news, and its conductors made every effort to bring about a system of rapid sketching and drawing in line. The paper was Hthographed, and survived until The report of the first year's working of the first daily illustrated newspaper in the world is worth recording.
The report ended with the following intcrestino- paragraph " Pictorial records of crime, executions, scenes involving misery, and the more unwholesome phases of social life, are a positive detriment to a daily illustrated newspaper. In fact, the higher the tone and the better the taste appealed to, the larger we have found our circulation to be.
But, in June, , the Times and all other news- papers in England were far distanced by the Ncio York Tribune in reporting the result of a shooting match in Dublin between an American Rifle Corps and some of our volunteers.
On the morning after the contest there were long verbal reports in the English papers, describing the shooting and the results ; but in the pages of the New York Tribuiic there appeared a series of targets with the shots of the successful competitors marked upon them, communicated by telegraph and printed in the paper in America on the following morning. Maps and plans have appeared from time to time in all the daily newspapers, but not systematically, or their interest and usefulness would have been much greater.
IMany instances might be given of the use of diagrams in newspapers ; a little dial showing the direction of the wind, is obviously better than words and figures, but it is only lately that printing difficulties have been overcome, and that the system can be widely extended. It remains to be seen how far the Daily Graphic, with experience and capital at command, will aid in a system of illustration which is one day to become general.
Thus far it would seem that the production of a large number of pictures more or less a-propos is the popular thing to do. We may be excused if we are disappointed in the result from a practical point of view ; for as the functions of a daily newspaper txxq.
Let me give one or two examples, out of many which come to mind. The transmission of form by telegraph. To realise the importance of this system in conveying news, we have only to consider going back nearly forty years what interest would have been added to Dr. It icas possible to do this in , but it is much more feasible now. The transmission of form by telegraph is of the utmost importance to jour- nalists and scientific men, and, as our electricians have not yet determined the best methods, it may be interesting to point out the simplest and most rudimentary means at hand.
The method is well known in the army and is used for field purposes, but hitherto newspapers have been strangely slow to avail themselves of it. This is for rough-and-ready use in time of war, when rapidity of communication is of the first importance ; but in time of peace a correspondent's letter continually requires elucidation.
Next is an example, which, for want of better words, I will call ''the shorthand of pictorial art. This is how he proceeds " We are shut in by mountains," he says, " but the blue lake seems as wide as the sea. On a rocky promontory on the left hand the trees grow down to the water's edge and the banks are precipitous, indicating the great depth of this part of the lake.
This method of description requires certain aptitude and training ; but not much, not more than many a journalist could acquire for himself with a little practice. The director of the Daily Graphic is reported to have said that " the ideal corre- spondent, who can sketch as well as write, is not yet born. There are, and will be, many moments when we want information, simply and solely, and care little how, or in what shape, it comes.
This kind of information, given pictorially, has no pretension to be artistic, but it is " illustration " in the true sense of the word, and its value when rightly applied is great. When the ;ilterations at Hyde Park Corner one of the most important of the London improvements of our day were first debated in Parliament, a daily newspaper, as if moved by some sudden flash of intelligence, printed a ground- plan of the proposed alterations with descriptive te.
As the war correspondent's occupation does not appear likely to cease in our time, it would seem worth while to make sure that he is fully equipped. The method of writing employed by corre- spondents on the field of battle seems unnecessarily clumsy and prolix ; we hear of letters written actually under fire, on a drum-head, or in the saddle, and on opening the packet as it arrives by the post we may find, if we take the trouble to measure it, that the point of the pen or pencil, has travelled over a distance of a hundred feet!
This is the actual as- certained measurement, taking into account all the ups and downs, crosses and dashes, as it arrives from abroad. No wonder the typewriter is resorted to in journalism wherever possible. What is he doing in ? In the imperfect, clumsy language which he possesses in common with every minister of state and public schoolboy, he proceeds to describe what he sees in a hundred lines, when with two or three strokes of the pen he might have expressed his meaning better pictorially.
I have used these words before, but they apply with redoubled force at the present time. The fact is, that with the means now at command for reproducing any lines drawn or written, the correspondent is not thoroughly equipped if he cannot send them as suggested, by telegraph or by letter. It is all a matter of education, and the newspaper reporter of the future will not be considered complete unless he is able to express himself to some extent, pictorially as well as verbally.
Then, and not till then, will our complicated language be rescued from many obscurities, by the aid of lines other than verbal. The Pall Mall Gazette has been the most active in this direction, but might do much more. This is seldom done, because the art of looking at things, and the power of putting them down simply in a few lines, has not been cultivated and is not given to many.
Point of Sight. Horizontal line. Vaniihing line; E. Point of distance. Vanishing lines of dist. Line of sight. The education of hand and eye and a know- ledge of perspective, to be imparted to every schoolbo ', no matter what his profession or occu- pation is likely to be. The education of the public to read aright this new language new to most people , the "short- hand of pictorial art.
The number of illustrations produced and consumed daily in the printing press is enormous ; but they are too much of one pattern, and, as a rule, too elaborate. In the illustration of books of all kinds there should be a more general use of diagrams and plans to elucidate the te. No new building of importance should be described anywhere without an indication of the elevation, if not also of the ground plan ; and, as a rule, no picture should be described without a sketch to indicate the composi- tion.
The following rough plan will illustrate one of the simplest ways of making a description clear to the reader. Take the verbal one first: From her point of vantage on the ' Place ' she commanded a view of the whole village, and could see down the four streets of which it was principally composed.
It may seem strange at first sight to occupy the pages of a book on art with diagrams and elementary oudines, but it must be remembered that plans and diagrams are at the basis of a system of illustration which will one day become general. Thus a new era, so to speak, in the art of expressing ourselves pictorially as well as verbally has commenced: The advance in scientific discovery by means of subtle instruments brings the surgeon sometimes to the knowledge of facts which, in the interests of science, he requires to demonstrate graphically, objects which it would often be impossible to have photogra[ hed.
At the University of Pennsylvania, in Philadelphia, where the majority of students are intended for the medical profession, this subject is considered of high im- portance, and the student in America is learning to express himself in a language that can be under- stood. Few architects can do this if called upon at a moment's notice in a Parliamentary committee room. And yet it is a necessary part of the language of an architect.
A curious experiment was made lately with some -students in an Art school, to prove the fallacy of the accepted system of describing landscapes, buildings, and the like in words. A page or two from one of the VVaverley novels a description of a castle and the heights of mountainous land, with a river winding in the valley towards the sea, and clusters of houses and trees on the right hand was read slowly and repeated belore a number of students, three of whom, standing apart from each other by pre-arrangement, proceeded to indicate on blackboards before an audience the leading lines of the i icture as the words had presented it to their minds.
Thus we describe day by day, and the pictures formed in the mind are erroneous, for the imagination of the reader is at work at once, and recjuires simple guidance. The exhibition was, I need hardly say, highly stimulating and suggestive. Many arguments might be used for the substitu- tion of pictorial for verbal methods of e. Two may be mentioned of a purely topical kind. In June, , when the strife of political parties ran high in England, and anything like a rapprochement between their leaders seemed im- possible, Mr.
Gladstone and Mr. Balfour were seen in apparently friendly conversation behind the Speaker's chair in the House of Commons. A newspaper reporter in t ne of the galleries, observing the interesting situation, does not say in so many words, that "Mr.
The picture required no translation into the languages of Europe. It may be said that there is nothing new here that the political cartoon is everywhere — that it has existed always, that it Hourished in Athens and Rome, that all history teems with it, that it comes down to us on English soil through Gillray, Row- landson, Hogarth, Blake, and many distinguished names. I draw attention to these things because the town is laden with newspapers and illustrated sheets. The tendency of the time seems to be to read less and less, and to depend more upon pictorial records of events.
The plateau of mountains on which we have been travelling here ends abruptly. It is the end of the upper world, but the plains seem illimitable. There is nothing between us and our homes in Berlin— nothing to impede the view which it is almost impossible to describe in words. The setting sun has pierced the veil of mist, and a map of Northern Germany seems unrolled before us, distant cities coming into view one by one.
First, we see Halberstadt with its spires, then Magdeburg, then another city, and another. This was all very well in word-painting, but what a veil is lifted from the reader's eyes by some such sketch as the one below. It should be mentioned that three photographic prints joined together would hardly have given the picture, owing to the vast extent of this inland view, and the varying atmospheric effects.
This is "The Art of Illustration" in the true sense of the word. It may seem strange at first sight to include " newspapers " in a chapter on art illustrations, but the fact is that the weekly newspapers, with their new appliances for printing, and in consequence of the cheapness of good paper, are now competing with books and magazines in the production of illustrations which a few years ago were only to be found in books.
The Post-office carries a volume of pages each 22 by 16 inches , weighing from two to three pounds, for a half-penny. It is called a "weekly newspaper," but it contains, sometimes, illustrations, and competes seriously with the production of illustrated books.
Further on we shall see how the illustrations of one number of a weekly newspaper are produced what part the original artist has in it, what part the engraver and the photographer.
These are things with which all students should be acquainted. The first stage of illustration, where little more than a plan or elevation of a building is aimed at as suggested in the last chapter , and where an author, with little artistic knowledge, is yet enabled to explain himself, is comparatively easy ; it is when we approach the hazardous domain of art that the real difficulties begin.
As matters stand at present, it is scarcely too much to say that the majority of art students and the younger school of draughtsmen in this country are " all abroad " in the matter of drawing for the press, lacking, not industry, not capacity, but method.
That they do good work in abundance is not denied, but it is not e. This example of pen-and-ink work has been reproduced by the gelatine rehef process. The drawing, which has been greatly reduced in repro- duction, was made by Mr. It is instructive as showing the possibilities and limitations of relief process-work in good hands.
The gradation of tone is all obtained in pure black, or dotted lines. Dawson has aided the effect by " rouletting " on the block on the more delicate parts ; but most of the examples in this book are untouched by the engraver. That greater skill and certainty of drawing can be attained by our younger draughtsmen is unquestionable, and, bearing in mind that nearly every book and nciuspapei- in tJie future will be illustrated, the importance of study in this direction is much greater than may appear at first sight.
Referring to the evident want of training amongst our younger draughtsmen, the question was put very bluntly in the Athcmcuni some years ago, thus: Why is not drawing in line with pen and ink taught in our own Government schools of art?
The present system in schools seems to render the art of drawing of as little use to the student as possible, for he has no sooner mastered the preliminary stage of drawing in outline from the flat with a lead pencil, than he has chalk put into his hand, a material which he will seldom or never use in turning his knowledge of drawing to practical account.
The readier method of pen and ink would be of great service as a preparatory stage to wood drawing, but unfortunately drawing is taught in most cases as though the student intended only to become a painter.
Since these lines were written, efforts have been made in some schools of art to give special training for illustrators, and instruction is also given in wood engraving, which every draughtsman should learn ; but up to the present time there has been no systematic teaching in drawing applicable to the various processes, for the reason that the majority of art masters do not understand them.
An example of line drawing and " the art of leaving out," by the well-known Royal Academician. Marks and Sir John Gilbert see frontispiece were the first painters to explain the composition and leading lines of their pictures in the Acadetny Notes in Marks suggests light and shade and the character of his picture in a few skilful lines.
Sir John Gilbert's pen-and-ink drawing is also full of force and individuality. These drawings reproduce well by any of the processes.
It is interesting to note here the firmness of hne and clearness of reproduction by the common process block ; the result being more satisfactory than many drawings by professional illustrators. The reason is not far to seek ; the painter knows his picture and how to give the effect of it in black and white, in a few lines ; and, in the case of Mr. Corbet and Miss IVIontalba, they have made themselves acquainted with the best way of drawing for the Press.
Line drawings are now reproduced on zinc blocks fitted for the type press at a cost of less than six- pence the square inch for large blocks ; the pro- cesses of reproduction will be explained further on. It cannot be sufficiently borne in mind— I am speaking now to students who are not intimate with the subject — that to produce with pure black lines the quality and effect lines jf in which there is some gradation of tone, is no easy matter, especially to those accustomed to the wood engraver as the interpreter of their work.
Tenniel, M. Sambourne, not to mention others on the Punch staff, have been accustomed to draw for wood engraving, and would probably still prefer this method to any other. But the young illustrator has to learn the newer methods, and how to get his effects through direct photo-engraving.
George Leslie's pretty line drawing from his picture, on the opposite page, is full of suggestion for illustrative purposes. But let us glance first at the ordinary hand-book teaching, and see how far it is useful to the illustra- tor of to-day. The rules laid down as to the methods of line work, the direction of lines for the expression of certain te. Robertson, the well-known painter and etcher, writing seven years ago, says well: All steel and copper-plate engravings that have been executed in line, and all wood engravings, are within the possible range of pen-and-ink drawing.
I hold, however, that much time should not be occupied in the imita- tative copying of prints: There are, roughly, two methods of obtaining effect with a pen — one by few lines, laid slowly, and the other by many lines, drawn with rapidity. If the intention is to see what effect may be obtained with comparatively few lines deliberately drawn, we may refer to the woodcuts after Albert Dtirer and Holbein, and the line engraving of Marc Antonio.
The engraved plates by Dtirer furnish excellent examples of work, with more and finer lines than his woodcuts [but many of the latter were not done by his hand].
In the matter of landscape the etched plates by Claude and Ruysdael are good examples for study, and in animal life the work of Paul Potter and Dujardin. Thus, for style, for mastery of effect and manage- ment of line, we must go back to the old masters ; to work produced generally in a reposeful life, to which the younger generation are strangers.
But the mere copying of other men's lines is of little avail without mastering the principles of the art of line drawing. The skilful copies, the fac-similes of engravings and etchings drawn in pen and ink, which are the admiration of the young artist's friends, are of little or no value in deciding the aptitude of the student.
The following words are worth placing on the walls of every art school: No amount of patience, thought, and labour was spared for this one copy. What would he have said if told that in centuries to come this line work would be revived in its integrity, with the possibility of the artist's own lines being reproduced , times, at the rate of several thousand an hour. And what would he have thought if told that, out of thousands of students in centuries to come, a few, a very few only, could produce a decorative page ; and that few could be brought to realise that a work which was to be repeated, say a thousand times, was worthy of as much attention as his ancestors gave to a single copy!
On the principle that "everything worth doing is worth doing well," and on the assumption that the processes in common use — [I purposely omit mention here of the older systems of drawing on transfer paper, and drawing on waxed plates, without the aid of photography, which have been dealt with in previous books] — are worth all the care and artistic knowledge which can be bestowed ujjon them, we would press, upon young artists especially, the importance of study and experiment in this direction.
And as we are substituting process blocks for wood engraving in every direction, so we should take over some of the patience and care which were formerly given to book illustrations.
We cannot live, easily, in the "cloistered silence of the past," but we can emulate the deliberate and thoughtful work of Mantegna, of Holbein, of Albert Diirer, and the great men of the past, who, if they were alive to-day, would undoubtedly have preferred drawing for process to the labour of etching and engraving ; and, if their work were to be reproduced by others, they would have perceived, what it does not require much insight in us to realise, that the individuality of the artist is better preserved, by making his own lines.
To do this successfully in these days, the artist must give his best and most deliberate instead of his hurried and careless drawings to the processes ; founding his style, to a limited extent it may be, on old work, but preserving his own individuality.
It would be an easy nK! There is no sucli royal road. An excellent example of sketching in line. I have reproduced Mr. Clausen's artistic sketch of his picture in two sizes in order to compare results. The small block on page 59 printed in Grosvenor Notes, appears to be the most suitable reduction for this drawing. The results are worth comparing by anyone studying process work.
The first block was made by the gelatine process ; the one opposite by the ordinary zinc process. The education of the illustrator in these days means much more than mere art training-.
The tendency of editors of magazines and newspapers is to employ those who can write as well as draw. This may not be a very hopeful sign from an art point of view, but it is a condition of things which we have to face. Much as we may desire to see a good artist and a good raconteur in one man, the combination will always be rare ; those editors who seek for it are often tempted to accept inferior art for the sake of the story. I mention this as one of the intluences affecting the quality of illustrations of an ephemeral or topical kind, which should not be overlooked.
In sketches of society the education and standing of the artist has much to do with his success. His clever followers and imitators lack something which cannot be learned in an art school. This is an excellent example of drawing — and of treatment of textures and surfaces — for process re- production. The few pen touches on the drapery have come out with great fidelity, the double lines marking the paving stones being the only part giving any trouble to the maker of the gelatine relief block.
The skilful management of the parts in light shows again " the art of leaving out. They will be older by the end of the century, but not as old then as some of our best and experienced illustrators who keep to wood engraving.
I am touching now upon a difficult and delicate part of the subject, and must endeavour to make niv meaning clear. The wood engraver was apprenticed to his art, and after long and laborious teaching, mastered the mechanical difficulties.
From very slight material handed to him by the publisher, the wood engraver would evolve from his inner consciousness, so to speak an elaborate and graceful series of illustrations, drawn on the wood block by artists in his own employ, who had special training, and knew exactly how to produce the effects required.
The system often involved much care and research for details of costume, architecture, and the like, and, if not very high art, was at least well paid for, and appreciated by the public. Nobody knows — nobody ever will know — how much the engraver has done for the artist in years past. The artist who draws for reproduction by chemical and mechanical means is thrown upon his own re- sources. Drawn by Herbert Railton. Example of brilliancy and simplicity of treatment in line drawing for process.
There is no illustration in this book which shows better the scope and variety of common process work. Railton has studied his process, and brought to it a knowledge of architecture and sense of the jiicturesque.
VI II. I do not think the modern illustrator realises how niucli depends upon him in taking the place, so to speak, of the wood engraver. We cannot keep this too continually in mind, for in spite of the limitations in mechanically-produced blocks as compared with wood engraving in obtaining delicate effects of tone in line, much can be done in which the engraver has no part.
Gore side by side, to. One could hardly point to better examples of pure line. They were drawn on ordinary cardboard the one above, 4;[X9j in. A little reflection will convince anyone that this is no argument at all. Ruskin's advice in his Elements of Drawing, as to how to lay tkit tints by means of pure black lines although written many years ago, and before mechanical processes of reproduction were in vogue is singularly applicable and useful to the student of to-day; especially where he reminds him that, "if you cannot gradate well with pure black lines, you will never do so with pale ones.
As to the amount of reduction th;it a drawini; will bear in reproduction, it cannot be sutliciently widely known, that in spite of rules laid down, there is no rule about it. It is interesting to compare this reproduction with the larger one overleaf. There is no limit to the e.
This fine drawing was made in [len and ink by Mr. Hall, from his picture in llie Royal Academy, 18S9. Size of original 14,'. Reproduced by gelatine blocks. The feeling in line is conspicuous in both blocks, butmany painters might prefer the smaller. Vew Gallcrv, 1SS9. Emery Walker, of the firm of Walker and Boutall, who has had great experience in the re- production ol illustrations and designs from old books and manuscripts, will tell you that very often there is no reduction of the original ; and he will show reproductions in photo-relief of Migravings and drawings of the same size as the originals, the character of the paper, and the colour of the printing also, so closely imitatetl that experts can hardlv distinguish one from the other.
On the other hand, the value ot reduction, for certain styles of drawing especially, can hardly be over-estimated. Again, I say, " there is no rule about it. In these pages will be found cxanniles of drawings reduced to one-sixtieth the area of the original, whilst others have not been reduced at all.
Sketch in pen and ink. Berkley's picture in the Grosvenor Gallery in 1S A good example of breadth and expression in line, the values being well indicated. Berkley, knowing animal life well, and knowing his picture, is able to give expression to almost every touch. Here the common zinc process answers well. Clausen p.
Hall [. Gotch p. S3 , and others, help to ex[ lain the difference. These are all reproduced easily on process blocks. The s -stem is, 1 know, followed by a lew illustrators for ncwsjaapcrs and by a few geniuses like Mr. Joseph Pennell, Raven Hill, and Phil.
May, who have their own methods , and who, by incessant practice, have become pro- ficient. They have special ability for this kind of work, and their manner and st le is their capital and attraction. A Portrait, by T. Gotch is well known for his painting of children ; but he has also the instinct for line drawing, and a touch which reproduces well without any help from the maker of the zinc block.
The absence of outline, and the modelling sug- gested by vertical lines, also the treatment of background, should be noticed. This background lights up when opposed to white and vice-versa. S5 pyrotechnics wliilsc fireworks are goini; dIT. And yet we hear of prizes given lor ra[ id sketches to l e reproduced by the processes.
Indeed, I Ijeheve this is the wrong road ; the baneful result of hving in high-pressure times. It is cHfhcult to imagine any artist of the past consenting to such a system of education. Sketching from life is, of course, neces. The lines for reproduction require thinking" about, thinking what to leave out, how to interpret the grey of a pencil, or the tints of a brush sketch in the fewest lines. Thus, and thus onl -, the student learns "the art of leaving out," "the value of a line. Let me juute an instance.
Example of another style of line drawing. Ward is a master of line, as well as a skilful portrait painter. He has lost nothing of the force and character of the original here, by treating it in line. Ward has painted a series of small portraits of public men, of which there is an example on p. I say nothing of his pictorial sense and humour, for they are beyond imitation.
It is the husk only we have jiresented to us. As a matter of education and outlook for the younger generation of illustrators, this imitation of other men's lines deserves our special consideration. Nothing is easier in line work than to copy from the daily press.
Nothing is more prejudicial to good art, or more fatal to progress. And yet it is the habit of some instructors to hold up the methods and the tricks of one draughtsman to the admiration of students.
I read in an art periodical the other day, a suggestion for the better understanding of the way to draw topical illustrations in pen and ink, viz. But this is a dangerous road for the average student to travel. Of all branches of art none leads so quickly to mannerism as line work, and a particular manner when thus acquired is ilithcult to shake oft.
JOHN MOR and beauty of his lines — lines, be it observed, that reproduce with difficulty on relief blocks — imitated by countless students; Mr. It may be said generally, that in order to obtain work as an illustrator — the practical point — there must be originality of thought and design.
There must be originality, as well as care and thought bestowed on every drawing for the Press. The drawing of portraits in line from photo- graphs gives employment to some illustrators, as line blocks will print in newspapers much better than photographs.
But for newspaper printing they must be done with something of the precision of this portrait, in which the whites are cut deep and where there arc few broken lines. It is the exception to get good printing in England, under present conditions of haste and cheapening of production, and therefore the best drawings for rapid reproduction are those that require the least touching on the part of the engraver, as a touched-up process block is troublesome to the printer ; but it is difficult to impress this on the artistic mind.
Some people cannot draw firm clean lines at all, and should not attempt them. Pen-and-ink drawing from the picture by E. The large block is suitable for printing on common paper, and by fast machines. The little block is best adapted for bookwork, and is interesting as showing the quality obtained by reduction. It is an excellent example of drawing for process, showing much ingenuity of line. The tone and shadows on the ground equal the best fac-simile engraving. Size of original drawing, from which both blocks were made, 15 x 10 in.
The results are often a matter of touch and temperament. Some artists are naturally unfitted for line work ; the rules which would apply to one are almost useless to another. Again, there is great inequality in the making of these cheap zinc blocks, however well the drawings may be made ; they require more care and experience in developing than is generally supposed.
As line drawing is the basis of the best drawing for the press, I have interspersed through these pages examples and achievements in this direction ; examples which in nearly every case are the result of knowledge and consideration of the requirements of process, as an antidote to the sketchy, careless methods so much in vogue.
Here we may see as has probably never been seen before in one volume —what harmonies and discords may be played on this instrument with one string. One string no— " messing about," if the phrase may be excused pure black lines on Bristol board or paper of the same surface , photographed on to a zinc plate, the white parts etched away and the drawing made to stand in relief, ready to print with the letterpress of a book ; every line and touch coming out a black one, or rejected altogether by the process.
This is an example of drawing for process for rapid printing. The accents of the picture are e. Kpressed firmly and in the fewest lines, to give the effect of the picture in the simplest way.
Sir John Millais' picture, which was exhibited in the Grosvenor Gallery in , was engraved in mezzotint, and published by Messrs.
Size of pen-and-ink drawing, 7] x 5! It is suitable for much CTeater reduction. The pen should be of medium point, or a brush may be used as a pen. The lines should be clear and sharp, and are capable of much variation in style and treatment, as we see in these pages.
I purposely do not dwell here upon some special surfaces and papers by which different tones and effects may be produced by the line processes ; there is too much tendency already with the artist to be interested in the mechanical side. The results are nearly always mechanical looking.
Here every line tells, and none are superfluous; the figure of the monk, the texture of his dress, the old stone doorway, the creeper growing on "the STOrPF. D KEY. The tendency of much modern black-and-white teaching is to ignore backgrounds. Academy Notes. Thus, the lines are turned into metal in a few hours, and the plate when mounted on wood to the height of type- letters, is ready to be printed from, if necessary, at the rate of several thousands an hour.
I reproduce Mr. Wirgman's sketch for the sake of his [lowerful treatment of line. From the "English Illustrated Magazine. It serves to show how clearly writing can be reproduced if done by a trained hand. Students should notice the variety of " colour " and delicacy of line, also the brightness and evenness of the process block throughout. This illustration suggests possibilities in producing decorative pages in modern books without the aid of printers' type, which is worth consideration in art schools.
It requires, of course, knowledge of th2 figure and of design, and a trained hand for process. Appendix It would be difficult, I think, to show more clearly the scope and variety of line work by process than in the contrast between this and the two preceding illustrations.
Each artist is an expert in black and white in his own way. Jo txirig hoUh. From "Academy Kotcs,'' By this process a more delicate ami sensitive method has been used to obtain a relief block.
The drawing is photographed to the required size as before , and the negative laid upon a glass plate previously coated with a mi. The part of this thin, sensi- tive film not exposed to the light, is absorbent, and when immersed in water swells up. Thus we have a sunk mould from which a metal cast can be taken, leaving the lines in relief as in the zinc process. The blocks take longer to make, and are double the jjrice of the photo-zinc process first described.
There is no process yet invented which gives better results from a pen-and-ink drawing for the type-press. These blocks when completed have a copper surface. The reproductions of pencil, chalk, or charcoal draw- ings by the zinc, or " biting-in " processes are nearly always failures, as we may see in some of the best artistic books and magazines to-day.
Another very interesting example of Mr. Johnson's drawing in pen and ink. Nearly every line has the value intended by the artist. The drawing has been largely reduced, and reproduced by the gelatine relief process. For tho.
SC who cannot draw easily with the pen, there are several kinds of grained papers which render drawings suitable for reproduction. The first is a paper with black lines imprinted upon it on a material suitable for scraping out to get lights, and strengthening with pen or pencil to get solid blacks.
It is seldom that such a good grey block can be obtained by this means. Drawings thus made can be reproduced in relief like line drawings, taking care not to reduce a fine black grain too much or it will become "spotty" in reproduction. This drawing and the one opposite by Mr. Hume Nisbet show the skilful use of paper with vertical and horizontal black lines ; also, in the latter draw- ing, the different qualities of strength in the sky, and the method of working over the grained paper in pen and ink.
XV IT. Another skilful use of the black -grained paper to represent snow, glacier, and drifting clouds. The original tone of the paper may be seen in the sky and foreground.
The effect is obtained by scraping out the lighter parts on the paper and strengthening the dark with pen and pencil. It is interesting to compare the two blocks made from the same drawing. Size of drawing 74X4 in. Landscape, by A. Example of bold effect by scraping out on the black-lined paper, and free use of autographic chalk This drawing shows, I think, the artistic limitations of this process in the hands of an experienced draughtsman. The original drawing by Mr- Lindstrom from his painting in the Royal Academy was the same size as the reproduction.
I2t Other papers largely used ior illustration in the type press have a ivhite grain, a good specimen of which is on page ; and there are variations of these white-grained papers, of which what is known in France as allonge paper is one of the best for rough sketches in books and newspapers.
The question may arise in many minds, are these contrivances with their mechanical lines for pro- ducing effect, worthy of the time and attention which has been bestowed upon them?
A painter may use them for sketches, especially for landscape. Compton as on p.
In the drawing on page , Mr. Watson has shown us how the grained paper can be played with, in artistic hands, to give the effect of a picture. The difference, artistically speaking, between sketches made on black-grained and white-grained papers seems to me much in favour of the latter. Example of white-lined paper, treated very skilfully and effectively — only the painter of the picture could have given so much breadth and truth of effect.
This 2vhiie pai er has a strong vertical grain which when drawn upon with autographic chalk has the same appearance as black-lined pa[ er; and is often taken for it.
This is a remarkable example of the reproduction of a pencil drawing. It is seldom that the soft grey efifecl of a pencil drawing can be obtained on a "half-tone" relief block, or the lights so successfully preserved.
This is only a portion of a picture by Mr. The reproduction is by Carl Hentschcl. The reproduction on the previous page owes its success not only to good process, paper, and printing, but also to the firm, decisive touch of an experienced illustrator like Mr. Melton Prior. A pencil drawing in less skilful hands is apt to "go to " on the pieces press.
Harper, in his excellent book on English Pen Artists, has treated of other ways in which drawings on prepared papers may be manipulated for the type press ; but not always with success.
In that interesting publication, The Sttidio, there have appeared during the past year many valuable papers on this subject, but in which the mechanism of illustration is perhaps too much insisted on. Some of the examples of "mixed drawings," and of chalk-and-pencil reproductions, might well deter any artist from adopting such aids to illustration.
The fact is, that the use of grained papers is, at the best, a makeshift and a degradation of the art of illustration, if judged by the old standards. It will be a bad day for the art of England when these mechanical appliances are put into the hands of young students in art schools. For the purposes of ordinary illustrations we should keep to the simpler method of line. In a liandbook to students of illustration this requires repeating on nearly every page.
As a contrast to the foregoing, let us look at a sketch in pure line by the landscape painter, Mr. Corbet, who, with little more than a scribble of the pen, can express the feeling of sunrise and the still air amonorst the trees. Amongst the modern inventions for helping the hurried or feeble iUustrator, is the system of laying on mechanical dots to give shadow and colour to a pure line drawing, by process.
It is a practice always to be regretted ; whether applied to a necessarily hasty newsjxiper sketch, or to one of Daniel Vierge's elaborately printed illustrations in the Pablo de Segovia. One cannot condemn too strongly this system, so freely used in continental illustrated sheets, but which, in the most skill ul hands, seems a degradation of the art of illustration. These dots and lines, used for shadow, or tone, are laid upon the plate by the maker of the block, the artist indicating, by a blue pencil mark, the parts of a drawing to be so manipulated ; and as the illustrator lias not seen the effect on his oivn line drawing, the results are often a surprise to everyone concerned.
I wish these ingenious contrivances were more worthy of an artist's attention. On the opposite page is an example taken from an English magazine, by which it may be seen that all daylight has been taken ruthlessly from the principal figure, and that it is no longer in tone with the rest of the picture, as an open air sketch. The system is tempting to the hurried ihustrator; he has only to draw in Hne or outline, which is worse and then mark where the tint is to appear, and the dots are laid on by the maker of the blocks.
In the illustration on the last page I have chosen an example of fine-grain dots ; those used in news- papers and common prints are much more unsightly, as everyone knows , it is obvious that the artist's sketch is injured by this treatment, that, in fact, the result is not artistic at all. Nothing but high pressure or incompetence on the jjart of the illustrator can excuse this mechanical addition to an incomplete drawing ; and it must be remembered that these inartistic results are not the fault of the process, or of the "process man.
It is one of the processes which I think the student of art had better not know much about. Drawing on stone is well worthy of study now, for the irt is being revived in England on account of the greater facilities for printing than formerly. Lancelot Speed, in whicli many technical experiments have been made, including the free use ot white lining. The illustration opposite from Andrew Lang's Blue Poetry Book, shows a very ingenious treat- ment of the black-lined papers.
Technically it is one of the best e. Ait,ir,w Land's "Blue Poetry Book. This extraordinary example of line drawing for process was taken from Andrew Lang's Blue Poetry Book, published by Messrs. Li this illustration no wash has been used, nor has there been any " screening " or engraving on the block.
The methods of lining are, of course, to a great extent the artist's own invention. This illustration and the two jireceding lead to the con- clusion that there is yet much to learn in drawuig for process by those who will study it. The achievements of the makeri of the blocks, with difficult drawings to reproduce, is quite another matter. Here all is easy for the reproducer, the common zinc process only being employed, and the required effects obtained wiihout much worrjiiig of the printer, or of the maker of the blocks.
Thus far a'l the illustrations in this book have been produced by the common line process. The next process to consider is the method of reproducing wash drawings and photographs on blocks suitable for printing at the type press, com- monly known as the Meisenbach or " half-tone process " a most ingenious and valuable invention, ; which, in clever hands, is capable of artistic results, but which in common use has cast a gloom over illustrations in books and newspapers.
First, as to the method of making the blocks. Thus, all drawings in wash, chalk, pencil, etc. The conditions of drawing for this process have to be caret ully studied, to prevent the meaningless smears and blotches the result generally of making too hasty sketches in wash which disfigure nearly every magazine and newspaper we take up. There is no necessity for this degradation of illustration. The artist who draws in wash with body colour, or paints in oils in monochrome, for this process, soon learns that his high lights will be lost and his strongest effects neutralised, under this effect of gauze ; and so for pictorial purposes he has X.
Thus, also for this process, to obtain brightness and cheap effect, the illustrator of to-day often avoids backgrounds altogether.
In spite of the uncertainty of this system of reproduction, it has great attractions for the skilful or the hurried illustrator. It suggests, as so many of the illustrations in this book do, not the limits but the scope and possibilities of process work for books.
This and the [ircccding illustration by Mr. That this "half-tone" process is susceptible of a variety of effects and results, good and bad, every reader must be aware. The illustrations in this book, from jjages to , are all practically by the same process of "screening," a slight difference only in the grain being discernible.
The wash drawing on page suffers by the coarse grain on it, but the values, it will be seen, are fairly well preserved. The lights which are out of tone appear to have been taken out on the plate by the maker of the block, a dangerous proceeding with figures on a small scale.
Louis Grier's clever sketch of his picture in wash, at the head of this chapter, gives the effect well. Weguelin's illustrations to Hans Aiidcrscii s Fairy Talcs have been, I understand, a great success, the public caring more lor the spirit of poetry that breathes through them than for more finished drawings. This is delightful, and as it should be, although, technicalh', the artist has not considered his process enough, and trom the educational point of view it has its dangers.
The "process" has been blamed roundly, in one or two criticisms of Mr. However, the effect on a wash drawing is not satisfactory in the best hands. So uncertain and gloomy are the results that several well-known illustrators decline to use it as a substitute for wood engraving. We shall have to inii rove considerably before wood engraving is abandoned. We are improving every day, and by this half-tone process numberless wash drawings and photographs from nature are now presented to the public in our daily prints.
Great advances have been made lately in the "screening" of pencil drawings, and in taking out the lights of a sketch as pointed out on page , and results have been obtained by carelul draughtsmen during the last si.
These results have been obtained principally by gooel printing and jiaper — allowing of a fine grain on the block —but where the illustration has to be prepared for printing, say 5, an hour, off rotary machines, a coarser grain has to be used, producing the " Berlin wool pattern " eftect on the page, with which we are all familiar in newspapers.
This is a good average example of what to expect by the halftone process from a wash drawing.
That the result is tame and monotonous is no fault of the artist, whose work could have been more brightly rendered by wood engraving. That " it is better to have this process than bad wood engraving " is the opinion of nearly all illus- trators of to-day. The artist sdds his on'ii ivork, at any rate, if through a veil of fog and gloom which is meant for sunshine!
But the time is coming when the pubUc will hardly rest content with such results as these. This is a good example of wash drawing for process ; that is to say, a good example from the "process man's" point of view. Here the artist has used his utmost endeavours to meet the process half-way ; he has been careful to use broad, clear, firm washes, and has done them with certainty of hand, the result of experience.
If, in the endeavour to get strength, and the best results out of a few tones, the work lacks some arlislic qualities, it is almost a necessity.
Manton has a peculiar method of lining, or stippling, over his wash work, which lends itself admirably for reproduction ; but the practice can hardly be recommended to the attention of students. It is as difficult to achieve artistic results by these means, as in the combination of line and chalk in one drawing, advocated by some ex] erts.
At the same time, Mr. Manton's indication of surfaces and textures by process are both interesting and valuable. I50 'a sunny land. One of the many uses which artists may make of the half-tone process is suggested by the reproduc- tion of one of Mr.
Caldecott's decorative designs, drawn freely with a brush full of white, on brown paper on a large scale sometimes two or even three feet long , and reduced as above ; the reduction refining and improving the design. This is a most legitimate and practical use of "process" for illustrating books, architectural and others, which in artistic hands might well be further developed.
Tlie above design, from the Memoir of A'. Of the illustrators who use this process in a more free-and-easy way we will now take an example, cut out of the pages of Sketch [see overleaf p. Here truths of light and shade are disregarded, the figure stands out in unnatural darkness against white paper, and flat mechanical shadows are cast upon nothing. Only sheer ability on the part of a few modern illustrators has saved these coarse un- gainly sketches from universal condemnation.
But the splashes, and spots, and stains, which are taking the place of more serious work in illustration, have become a vogue in If the sketch comes out an un- sightly smear on the page, it at least answers the purpose of topical illustration, and apparently suits the times.
It is little short of a revolution in illustration, of which we do not yet see the end. Lithography comes from the Greek word for stone.
Originally, the technique used an image drawn with oil, fat, or wax onto the surface of a smooth, level lithographic limestone plate. Today, most types of high-volume books and magazines, especially when illustrated in color, are printed with offset lithography , which has become the most common form of printing technology since the s.
You can notice that the above lithography illustration examples share one quality, although they represent different style and imagery — there is a certain level of softness about all three of them.
Another type of illustration with which one can achieve softness, smooth transitions and lots of nuancing is the:. The overall feeling of watercolor illustrations is soft, airy, with lots of depth. It is one of the easiest ways of creating splashes of color, merging one into another — common threats for the mentioned illustration styles. You can watch a wonderful demonstration of watercolor illustration here:. Gouache paint is similar to watercolor modified to make it opaque. It offers rich, thicker, bit darker shades than watercolor and can be even reworked some years later.
Commercial artists often use gouache for works such as posters, illustrations, comics, and for other design work. Most 20th-century animations used it to create an opaque color on a cel with watercolor paint used for the backgrounds. You can read more about the technique on Wikipedia. One can paint with them on almost any kind of surface and they become water resistant, once they are dry.
These paints are very versatile as they also come as fluorescents, metalics and other interesting effects. It is a technique, where the artwork is made from an assemblage of different forms, often from different materials, to form a new whole.
This type of ilustration is hugely popular in the recent years, and even is considered as an inspiration for the big trend — material design. Often, illustrators use the shading from the different layers of their collage to achieve a beautiful 3D effect and to achieve depth. You can see in the above illustrations, how this technique was interpreted beautifully from different artists.
Another great process video for this type of illustration; the illustration is then used for a cover of a book:.
Illustrating with ink allows the artist to create strong areas of contrast. Inks are widely accessible and affordable material, easy to transport and to work expressively with. May be you remember the high contrasts of the woodcut? Well, inking allows you to be more mobile and to create even finer lines. Sometimes, achieving of gradations in value is hard , unless, working with ink and brush as it is in the first example illustration. The following video is a beautiful demonstration of a swedish ink master: As we discussed before, with the advancement of the electronics and stepping into the, so called digital era, the possibilities for artists to express themselves grew rapidly and more freely.
The first electronic handwriting device was invented back in Since then, the technology became more sophisticated and many illustrators and designers are accustomed to using graphics tablets nowadays — devices, which are connected to a computer.
Artrage, Ikscape and other. The software programs imitate different traditional brushes, pens, various drawing tools, paper and effects. As you can see from the pictures below, the freehand digital illustrations allow very smooth light and shadow transitions, making a complex background and fine detail.
Most of these illustrations are in a raster format and they can be scaled up and printed only to certain sizes before they lose quality. The way the images are produced allows scaling them up and down to any size, without any quality loss.
By rule, it is harder to make a smooth transition with vectors but vector has its advantages in producing a certain style of imagery.
You can easily recognize the vector by its clear outlines, shapes, and definition. We are quite sure the examples we have given so far are not nearly enough, so here are some curated illustrations and portfolios we found on the web — mesmerizing examples of the different types of illustration:.
We start with a small remark — by style, we mean the different genres in illustration or at least the most popular ones. However, style is used also for the individual and very specific way of expressing of the individual artists, but this could be defined much harder if possible at all.
Long story short, we can recognize the following genres in illustration:. Concept illustration for browser game created by GraphicMama. The term concept first appreared back in s, used probably first from Disney and it was used in the automative industry as well. Book illustration by James P. Children book illustrations can be very diverse — from realistic, full with details illustrations to very simplified, child-like, naive drawings.
It depends on the story, the target age group and many more. The characters are cute and friendly. According to Wikipedia comics is a medium used to express ideas by images, often combined with text or other visual information. Comics frequently takes the form of juxtaposed sequences of panels of images. Often textual devices such as speech balloons, captions, and onomatopoeia indicate dialogue, narration, sound effects, or other information.
Size and arrangement of panels contribute to narrative pacing. Cartooning and similar forms of illustration are the most common image-making means in comics.
Book cover illustration by Katie Harnett. Today, a book illustration could be designed in any technique and then printed. This style is very versatile and depends on the vision of the authour and the subject of the book. Illustrators try to create eye-catching covers in order to compete with the piles of books in bookshops.
Illustration by Rlon Wang. Many companies choose illustration as the medium to send their message to the audience, because the style better translates the idea than photography, for example.
The apothecary of Aureum — packaging illustration. The rise of digital technologies in the latter half of the 20th century allowed businesses to scale rapidly and become global. With unprecedented competition, packaging came to be the way of differentiating the product on the shelf. It offers personalized touch, elegance and custom feel.
Cartoon characters of employees of real estate, by GraphicMama. For example, a logo should be recognizable and readable at smaller sizes. Therefore, the illustrator should carefully plan the details of the logo. Logos should be simple, yet grabbing attention and memorable.
Sometimes, businesses need more than a logo illustration, but mascots, cartoonized version of their employees or products. We hope you liked this article and that you were able to dive you into the magical world of illustration!
Let us know how we did, what else you might want to know. Like us on Facebook. Behind GraphicMama stands a talented team of illustrators, designers, marketers, and coders who work hard to make GraphicMama one of the most reliable sources of vector graphics on the web. Thanks, this was helpful. We also like this website, it has nice categories and overview of illustration works: What is Illustration? I was looking for something more in depth.
It makes me wonder sometimes the articles that float to the top of a Google search. Sorry to hear, Angela. Probably it would be a good idea to make separate articles, focusing on each on of the types of illustration. Since it is already a lengthy article and an informative one, we decided to stick to the basics. You can also notice in Google search, that there are many scattered information and articles on this broad topic.
So we decided to gather the most important in one place. P1 - What kind of creator are you? What is vector art? Print Is Hot - Studio Seminar: Dream, Discover, Do. Thanks for elaborating the types of illustrations. I am a beginner to graphic designing. Thanks a lot. Artwork Bazar.