53MB Size Report. DOWNLOAD PDF design of ASME B metalic piping systems Advanced Piping Design (Process Piping Design Handbook) (v. II). DOWNLOAD PDF. PROCESS PIPING DESIGN HANDBOOK Volume One: The Fundamentals of piping Design Volume Two: Ailvanced piping Design. contained in ASME B, and design input specific to LANL. This Guide is not to be AWWA. M Steel Pipe-Guide for Design and Installation Valve Selection Handbook, 2nd edition, by R. W. Zappe. Acronyms and.
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Handbook of Piping Design - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Handbook of Piping Design. Nayyar, Mohinder L. Piping handbook / [edited by] Mohinder L. Nayyar. .. Shigley & Mischke STANDARD HANDBOOK OF MACHINE DESIGN. Skousen THE. HANDBOOK. Volume One. The Fundamentals of Piping Design. Drafting and Design Methods for Process Applications. Peter Smith. Gulf Publishing Company.
Selection of 'Ilpes. Monitor Systems. Table of Contents Drivers Drivers are required to power the compressor, and they fall into three categodes: Capacity Adiustment. These types of machines may require a larger area; therefore, they affect the size of the compressor house. In practice, this 2 m allowance provides a walkway of only mm, due to other items occupying floor space.
It is applicablc mainly for hazardous, flammable, and toxic services, where a greatel degree of reliability is required for the improvement of equrpmenr availability and the reduction of both emissions to the atmosphcrc arxl lifc-cycle scaling costs. It covers seals for pump shaft diametcrs lrorn 20 nrnr 0.
Statutorv llco r. Referenced Publications and International Basic Design. Sealless Pump Data Sheets. Cdtical Design and Application Considerations. Nozzle and Pressure Casing Connections. Extemal Nozzles Forces and Moments.
Rotor 6. Dynamics Appendix C. Circulation and Piping Schematics. Instrumentation and Protective Systems. Criteria for Piping Design. Material Class Selection Guide. Magnet Materials for Magnetic Couplings. Procedure for Determination of Residual Unbalance.
Pressure Temperature Profiles in the Recirculation Circuit. Baseplate and Soleplate Grouting. Low Temperature. Appendix M. Standard Baseplate. Appendix N. Inspector's Accessories. Appendix O. Instrumentation and Controls. Appendix Inspection, Testing and Preparation for Shipment.
Appendix S. Withdrawn Summary. Appendix U. Application Information. Specific Pump Sections. Magnetic Drive Pumps. Canned Motor Pumps. Layout 43 P. I Purchaser's Checklist. Appendix Q. Appendix R. Metric to U. Units Conversion Factors. The following are based on the guidelines from several operalr r[s, based on their in-service experience.
The pump manufacturer also ',lroLr lcl be consulted to see if any special issues should be considered. Ocntrifugal puml s must havc thcir suction lines flooded at all t i l cs. Therefore, suction lines should fall continuously from a sufficient height from overhead source to the pump and be adequately vented to minimize the presence of vapor. The minimum vertical height required from source of the liquid to pump suction is called the net positive suction heod.
This is critical for efficient pump operation and must not be reduced. Vessel elevations often depend on the NPSH of its associated pump. See Figue 2 to Lsyout 45 line Size Suction piping usually is one or two line sizes larger than the pump suction nozzle size. Suction piping more than two sizes larger should Irc queried with the Process Department. Centrifugal pumps are supplied with suction nozzles on the end of the pump casing, axially in line with the impeller shaft; however, they also are on the top or side of the pump casrng.
Usually, pumps are specified with end or top suction for general services. Side-suction pumps, with side discharge, frequently are selected for large-volume water duty. Also side suction-side discharge pumps can be obtained in multistage form for higher pressure differentials. These pumps tend to become very long, so if plot space is tight, consideration should be given to purchasing the pump in a vertical form with a sump at grade. See Figure Consider the use of flanged removable spool pieces, to allow pumps to be removed if required, without cutting the pipe and, therefore, avoiding additional fabrication.
Due to the suction line being larger than the suction nozzles, reducers are required in the line. Reducers should be as close as possible to nozzle. Eccentric reducers are used with the flat on top for hodzontal pumps. This prevents vapor being trapped and encouraging. I emporory Startup Strainers. Irigure Il the phenomenon of cavitation. For pumps with suction and discharge nozzles on the top of the casing, care must be taken to ensure that the flats on eccentric reducers are orientated back to back, so that suction and discharge lines do not foul each other.
Isolation valves must be provided on the suction line upstream of the strainer to allow its removal. It should be located within 3 m 10 ft of the pump nozzle and should be accessible for hand operation. Casing and baseplate drains should be piped to the appropriate piping system. All pumps must have a temporary startup strainer in the suction line to prevent any pipe debris damaging the internals of the pump.
The mesh size of the strainer must be specified or approved by the pump manufacturer, which is aware of the pump's characteristics. Strainers are located between the pump suction isolation valve and the pump.
This allows the pump to be isolated and the strainer removed to be cleaned or replaced. Strainers are available in the following styles: Both types have the advantage that the piping is left undisturbed and strainer element can be removed simply by unbolting the blind flange on the tee, thus leaving the piping and supports undisturbed.
Scc ljigurc Sy stem f rlgure. Discharge Piping Line Size. Generally, discharge piping is one or two sizes larger than the pump discharge nozzle size. For example, a 10" suction nozzle on a pump where the suction size of the pipe is 12" or 14,, is probable, but the same suction nozzle where the suction size of the pipe is 16,' or 18,, is questionable, check with the Process Department.
Dischorge Line Piping Fittings. Due to discharge lines being larger than the discharge nozzle, cccentric reducers are required in the line. A pressure gauge should be located in the discharge line, upstream of the check and isolation valves. When a level switch for pump protection is installed in the discharge line, upstream of the block valves, ensure good access for maintenance of switch.
Avoid supporting large lines from pipe-rack structures if possible, this enables minimum-size beam sections to be used and better access for pump removal and maintenance.
Slde-suction and -Discharge Piping. A hodzontal centrifugal pump with side suction and discharge usually is installed for heavy duty service with large bore lines. Supply a straight piece of pipe two pipe diameters long between the nozzle and elbow.
The tvvo-diameter pipe length can be eliminated if the elbow is in the horizontal plane, eliminate the pipe length only if available space is tight. INCORRECT For smaller sizes, the piping system supports the pump and motor; therefore, it is essential that the line is supported local to the pump to prevent the line moving when the pump is removed.
Ensure that there is good access to pump for maintenance and withdrawal with no overhead obstructions for lifting out pump. Larger-size inline pumps have feet or lugs on the casing for supporting from grade or steelwork. Usually, this type of pump is installed in cooling tower water circulating service, retention ponds, and applications where the NPSH is low and suction is taken from a sump below grade.
Sqc igurc The suction and discharge lines of a reciprocating pump should have pulsation dampers installed where vibration might be caused in the pumps due to cyclic pulsation of the liquid. The location of dampers, if installed in the discharge piping of the pump, should be selected for the nearest location to discharge nozzle of pump to minimize the piping length. The piping layout should not cause any obsbuction to the operation of the pump or any difficulty in the maintainability of the pump.
The liquid is pushed by means of gears or screws. These pumps uied only in special cases. Each design case needs to be addressed separately, and the vendor of the pump should participate in the design process.
The steam inlet nozzle usually is on the right-hand side when viewed from the pump coupling end of the turbine, with the exhaust on the left-hand side. Turbines can be purchased with the inlet and the exhaust on the same side. This means that the piping designer can place the exhaust connection either on the same or opposite side from the inlet. Generally, opposite side location of nozzles results in less piping congestion.
Worm-up Eypass. On automatic startup, a warm-up bypass must be provided around the control valve. This blpass is usually a 1" globe valve, is partially opened to allow steam to keep the turbine constantly warm, and is slowly turning to prevent the shock of hot steam entering a cold turbine, to eliminate damage to turbine blades.
For manual startup, it is recommended that a warm-up bypass be installed, but the iob flow sheets govern. When a warm-up bypass is installed, a steam trap on the casing keeps the system free of condensate. Steam inlets are fumished with strainers as part of the turbine for protection against pipe debds; therefore, inlet piping must be designed with a removable section for strainer removal.
Steam supply to turbines must avoid pockets in the line and be moisture free at all times; otherwise, the turbine will be damaged if condensate enters the turbine while it is running.
Upstream of the Piping Suppott ffid. For automatic startup, the isolation valve is replaced with a remote operated control valve; the bootleg and traps are still required upstream as for manual startup.
Steam traps should be provided to keep the turbine casing free from condensate. These can be installed at the casing low point if a connection is provided or on the outlet piping if the casing drains into the outlet system. There must be a trap before any vertical rise that could form a pocket where condensate can be collect and piped away to a collection system. Discharge Piping. When an exhaust is to a closed system, there must be a block valve between the turbine and the main header.
This block always is open during normal conditions and closed only for turbine maintenance ol removal. Thought should be given to locating exhaust block valve on the pipe rack immediately before lines enter main header; this prevents accidental closure of this valve. Auxiliary Piping Most pumps require external seNices to be piped to them for bearing cooling, bearing lubrication, seal flushing, venting, and draining. Thought should be given to running subheaders to groups ol' pumps that have harness requirements.
These subheaders must be sized and marked on flow sheet masters. Because branch Iines to individual pumps are small in diamcter, that is, 6 lnrn, it is advisalrlc to t kc l rancll coll cctions from tllc. This prevents pipe debds getting into the branch line, the pump bearings, and the like.
Most vendors supply the auxiliary piping to the pump seals through a harness. Care should be taken to ensure harness piping does not interfere with good operation and maintenance sDace, Piping Support and Stress lssues The piping around pumps should be designed to minimize the forces to the pumps caused by piping stresses. The stresses can be caused by temperature variation, piping weight with fluid, or vibrations in piping systems.
The pumps are high-precision lotating machinely and can be damaged by misalignment in the casing or foundation of the pump. The allowable forces to the nozzles of the pumps should be determined according to the iob or vendor specification. Each line connected to a pump should be considered for thermal stress calculation.
The first selection usually is based on the operating temperature. Care should be exercised, since in some cases, the piping system does not present the same constant temperature, depending the mode of operation. Common expansion loops, but also flexible ioints and ball ioints, should be used to minimize the external forces due to thermal expansion and contraction. The various restrictions or free supports, such as anchor support, stopper, or tension rods, can be used to reduce the force on the nozzles of the pump.
The following text is not intended to influence the selection l a compressor but to highlight certain issues that must be considt'r'cd when laying out the suction and discharge pipewolk to the ompressor. Each type of compressor has the specific duty l take in the vapor at low pressure, compress it, and discharge the virPor at a higher pressure.
The quantity of vapor to be moved and the rlischarge pressure usually are the deciding factors when selecting the lyl e compressor to be used. These machines 1gt'rrerally are specified for transporting lower volumes of vapor than rcrrtrifugal compressors. If several stages of compression are t,rrrPloyed, extremely high pressures can be achieved.
Because of their r ' il rocating action, these machines cause piping systems that are r rot properly designed and supported to pulsate, vibrate, and generate lirliguc that may resr-llt in fracture and system failure. Therefore, care slrorrltl bc taken with thc materials of selection and method of 57 3. All auxiliary equipment required for operating, starting, and controlling gas turbine units and turbine protection is either discussed directly in this standard or referred to in this standard through references to other publications.
Specifically, gas turbine units that are capable of continuous service firing gas or liquid fuel ot both are covered by this Centrifugal compression is the force converted to pressure when a gas is eiected by an impeller at increasing velocity. Generally, centrifugal compressors are specified when large quantities of vapor have to be transported through the piping system.
The suction-discharge pressure differential range is lalger than that of reciprocating compressors. Centrifugal compressots are not subiect to the same pulsation and vibration issues as reciprocating compressors and, therefore, do not produce the effects that may result in potential piping system failure.
Table of Contents Drivers Drivers are required to power the compressor, and they fall into three categodes: Electrical drivers range from small flameproof motors to large motors, hp or larger, that require an independent cooling system.
Steam drivers comprise single- or multi. Gas drivers cover gas turbines or gas internal combustion engines. The driver is selected based on several factors: Alternative 1. Referenced Standards. Combustors and Fuel Nozzles.
Casing Connections. Rotaling Elements. Bearings and Bearing Housing. The design and specifying of these items of equipment are the responsibility of the mechanical engineer; however, a piping engineer or designer benefits from being aware of these documents and reviewing the sections that relate directly to piping or a mechanicalpiping interface.
The standards discussed are. Gas Turbines for the Petroleum. Nameplates and Rotational Arrows. AI,l Standard Al'l Statr lard 6 9.
Starting and Helper Driver. Gears, Couplings, and Guards. Controls andlnstrumentation. Inlet Coolels. Insulation, Weatherproofing, Fire Protection, and 3.
Hot gas expanders, over "C 'F , are not covered in this standard. Chapter 1 contains information pertinent to all equipment covIt is to be used in conjunction with the following chapters as applicable to the specific equipment covered: Acoustical Treatment. Fuel System. Typical Data Sheets. Lateral and Torsional Analysis Logic Diagrams. Gas Turbine Nomenclature. Centrifugal and Axial Compressors. Integrally Geared Compressors. Reciprocating Compressors for Petroleum, Chemical and Gas Industry Services Scope lhis standard covers the minimum requirements for reciprocating ompressors and their drivers used in petroleum, chemical, and gas ir clustry services for handling process air or gas with either lubdcated or nonlubricated cylinders.
Compressors covered by this standard are ,1 moderate to low speed and in critical services. Also covered are the r t,lated lubricating systems, controls, instrumentation, intercoolers,.
Compressors not covered are a integral gas-engine-driven comrressors with single-acting trunk-type automotive-t? The r ' lLrirements for packaged reciprocating plant and instrument-air t nlpressors are covered in API Standard Allowable Speeds. Allowable Discharge Temperature. Road and Gas Loadings. Critical Speeds. Compressor Cylinders. Valves and Unloaders. Pistons, Piston Rods, and Piston Rings. Crankshafts, Connecting Rods, Bearings, and Crossheads.
Repairs to Gray or Nodular Iron Castings. Control Logic Diagramming. Distance Pieces. Figures and Schematics. Packing Case and Pressure Packing. Compressor Frame Lubrication. Material Specifications for Mator Component Parts. Cylinder and Packing Lubdcation. Reciprocating Compressor Nomenclature. Typical Mounting Plate Arrangement. Reduction Gears. Belt Drives. Pulsation and Vibration Control Appendix M.
Fulsation Design Studies. Guidelines for Sizing Low Requirements. I'rcl arralion [0r Acodstic. International Standards and Referenced Publications. Pass Appendix P. Air Intake Filters. I Vendor's Data. Slr iPrttcrtt. It does 64 Clkvl: Inlet Air Filtels. Inlet Separators. Table of Contents Foreword. Statutory Requirements. Pressure Casing. Rolaling Elemen ts.
Shaft Seals. Bearing Housings. Screw 7. Annex A Normative. Annex B lnformative. Nomenclature for Equipment. Annex C Informative. Forces and Moments. Annex D Q. Annex F Informative. Materials and Their Specifications for Rotary Compressors. Annex H lnformative. Annex I Informative. Typical Vendor Drawing and Data Requirements.
Lube-Oil and Seal-Oil Systems. Layout 65 Compressors. Piping-Specific Guidelines to Layout plant shutdown. The piping system should have the minimum overhanging weight, and bracing should be provided as needed to reduce the vibration created by the compressor.
The use of high-integrity butt welding fittings is recommended and should be consideted instead of socket weld fittings. See Figures Type of Cylinders Figures and show details of the cylinder arrangements. When a gas or vapor is compressed, this raises the temperature of the product. In a reciprocating machine, compression is violent and the increase in the temperature significant. Inlet temperatures of C may be raised to over 'C by the act of compression. The cylinder becomes hot, and depending on the vapor being compressed, it will need some form of cooling.
This usually is in the form of cooling water, but for low heat increases, a glycol-filled jacket may be specified. Compressor Layout Foundotion. The foundation of the machine must be of a sufficient srze so that it can support the compressor and all its auxiliary equipment. Cylinder supports are supplied by the vendor if they are required, and they must be attached to the compressor foundation concrete. Likewise, the snubber supports must bc attached to the foundation of the compressor and springs can be used locally to support the snubbers.
Operation and Mointenance Art effcctivc compressor layout see igure. All the compression cylinders tut tut onc side of the ftame and cyliruler diameters and lengths vary ttt I t tling to the comPosition, pressure, and volume of gas to be compressed. Gas t t. For angle-type compressors, locate the crankshaft parallel to the suction and discharge headers.
For balanced, horizontally opposed compressors, the crankshaft should run at right angles to the suction and discharge headers. This feature can influence the overall dimensions of the house, as in addition to the necessary building and maintenance clearances, the vertical reactions of the loaded crane increase the foundation size. Since these must not be connected to the machine foundations, the building size is affected.
It is usual for compressor vendors to indicate the overall foundation dimensions on their layout drawings. These dimensions should be requested as early as possible and forwarded to the civil engineering group. The compressor building must be sized very early in the layout stage, even if only preliminary dimensions are available.
When the dimensions of the compressor have been determined, add to these dimensions adequate clearance for maintenance plus possible control valve stations, lube oil equipment, local control panel, and the like. Allow at least 2 m all around the odginal dimensions. In practice, this 2 m allowance provides a walkway of only mm, due to other items occupying floor space. With two or more machines, allow at least 2 m between compression cylinders to allow for adequate piston removal.
All dimensions must be confirmed from certified vendor lrawings.
Allow a maintenance area at one end of the buildinc. Pits, trenches, and similar gas traps should be avoided in Jlas compressor houses. Large reciprocating gas compressors usually are elevatecl above grade, with lhe mezzanine floor level with lhe tou ol. The height of the mezzanine floor above grade is kept to a minimum consistent with the adequacy of space foipipirr6 and access, especially to valves and drains.
Suction and Discharge Piping Special consideration is required in the design of piping system at i l near compressors to reduce fatigue failures and possible costly pli l I shutdown.
The piping system should have the minimum v ,r hanging weight, and bracing should be provided as needed to re ll , vibration- created by the compressor. Compressor suction piping should be suitably clean to avoi l ingress of foreign material.
It is usual for the suction piping to be routed to the top ot. Liquids must be prevented from entering the compressor. The process Department adviscs thc ,xl , l o[ lhc lracinH. Suclion an l rlischarge hcaticr. Branch connections to the comDressor from the suction header are taken from the top oi the header.
Suction and discharge piping should be kept as straight as possible between the compressors and headers. The use of short-radius bends or tees and similar installations giving opposed flow are permitted. The suction piping should be no less than the compressor nozzle size. Piping local to cylinders should have sufficient distance to permit proper maintenance on the cylinder valves.
When compressors are elevated with a mezzanine floor, piping and valves normally are run under the floor. When more than one compressor is employed on the same seNice, all piping to and from the compressors should be valved so that an individual comDressor mav be shutdown and taken oul o[ service.
Spectacle blinds are installed at the compressor side of the isolating valves. Startup bypasses should be installed between the suction and discharge pipes of compressors and located between the compressor and the line block valve. If a relief valve is not supplied by the compressor manufacturer, then one should be installed between the compressor discharge and block valve.
This relief valve should discharge into the suction line downstream of the block valve. The relief valve is provided with a bypass for hand ventrng. Distance piece and packing vent piping are manifolded into systems as indicated on the flow diagrams.
These systems should either vent to the atmosphere outside the compressor house or connect to a collection system. Utility piping comprises the cooling water supply and return to lube oil cooler, also cylinder jackets.
Sufficient vents and drains are provided so that water lines and jackets may be completely drained at shutdown. A steam or electrical supply may be required if lube oil heatcrs are provided for either the compressor or gear box oil. In centrifugal radial compressors see Figure , the compression process is effected by rotating impellers of radial flow design see Figure in the fixed guide elements.
In centdfugal axial compres. Size ond Position of Nozzles Centrifugal compressor manufacturers have basic case designs, and they change the rotor blade design to meet specific volume and pres. For this reason, suction nozzles sometimes arc much larger or smaller than the line size for hydrocarbon proces! For example, a 30" suction nozzle may have a2O" or 24tl suction line. It is necessary to increase the suction line diametet locally at the compressor nozzle.
Do not use a reducing a flange, at this will intloduce full velocity to the rotor blades at a turbulent con. Use a 30" flange and a concentric reducer as a minimum. It h better if a pipe length of three diameters of 30" pipe can be accommo. Suction and discharge nozzles are on either the underside or tho top of the compressor. In multistage comptessors, two or more inlet nozzles may be provided; the suction lines are connected to suction drums controlled to maintain the vadous inlet Dressures.
Suction and Discharge Piping o. Centrifugal compressots usually are large capacity machincs, They are driven by electric motors, steam, or gas turbines; lhc power may be via a gearbox. It is usual to mount such machines on a tabletoD approximately 4 m high with elevated access aliarounct.
I hc lube and seal oil consoles for both thc comprcssor alrd turl iltc, if rctprilctl, usually arc locatcd at graclc. Centrifugal radial compressor courtesy of Red BagBentley oh ,'! Here, an electrical motor and a condensing-type turbine have been used. Note the withdrawal and A maintenance areas, also the acoustic hoods. The suction and discharge connections of the compressor most likely are on the underside; these lines can be anchored at grade. Should these connections be on the top of a horizontally split case compressor, see FiSure for details on removable spools.
Note the lube oil header tanks, these must be elevated above the machines, if the 74 3. The purpose of the tanks is for emergency lubrication, and they are tripped if the normal lubdcation supply system should fail.
They supply oil to the bearings until the machine comes to a standstill. The lube and seal oil consoles comprise the following items: All return lines must be free draining from the machines to the console. Suction and discharge piping must be suppoted so that the nozzles are not overloaded, use reducers not leducing flanges local to suction and discharge nozzles. Compressor suction piping should be suitably clean to avoid ingress of solids. A temporary strainer should be installed on the suction piping.
Make provision for removal of strainers in the suction pipitlg with a spool piece. Silcncers may be requircd in both the suction and dischargc l il ing. Acoustic hoods may be required for both the compressor and turbine; ensure that the tabletop is large enough to accommodate these hoods. The hoods may be of sectional construction. The traveling gantry crane is used to dismantle them; this must be taken into consideration when determinins the elevation of the crane hook. The maintenance area must be large enough to accommodate the acoustic hood, turbine and compressor half casing rotors, and so on.
Drives and Auxiliary Piping ll. Large, high-pressure machines with theil own cooling systems fall into two categories: These types of machines may require a larger area; therefore, they affect the size of the compressor house. The cooling air circulating around the motor is itself cooled by a water-cooled heat exchanger. Provision must be made for removal and service of the exchanger.
It is possible to obtain motors with lhe cooler mounted above or to one side of the motor. For a CACA machine see Figure , consideration must be given regarding the safe location of the air intake, which is outside the compressor house. If a filter is required in the intake system, provide access for replacement or cleaning. Provision should be considered to bleed warming steam into turbines and other steam drivers.
Large, high-pressure machines with their own cooling systems fall into two categories: It is possible to obtain motors with the cooler mounted above or to one side of the motor.
All retum lines must be free draining from the machines to the console. Figure avoid pockets low points to minimize the accumulation of condensation. The condensing turbine exhausts to a surface condenser, which usually is a large exchanger with a hot well attached but may take the form of an air fan, to recover condensate. Surface condensers often are at grade, mounted directly below the compressors turbine. This arrangement employs a turbine with an outlet nozzle directly connected via an expansion toint to the surface condenser See Figure The surface condenser may be mounted at grade alongside a grade-mounted turbine.
With this anangement very little NPSH is available. If an air fan is used as a surface condenser, it usually is located above the turbine, either on the compressor house roof or over a pipe rack. If the condenser is of the shell and tube t'? The cooling water lines associated with the condenser are large bore; and some consideration must be given to the piping arrangement and placing of valves to give Sood operation and utilization of plot space.
On the CACA enclosure, a top4nounted qir-to-air heat tvlnnger is used. The steam supply to the turbine is taken from the top of the steam header, a bellow may be required local to the turbine and a temporary strainer for startup. The turbine requires a similar lube oil console to that provided for the compressor.
Do not pocket the return drains. An elevated lube oil header tank also is required. Noncondensing turbine assemblies compdse a turbine, lube oil console, and header tank. The low-pressure steam discharge line has a large bore; a bellow most likely is required in the line, which must ioin the top of the header.
These tlpes of engines may develop hp or more. Ensure that adequate space is allowed for removal of cylinder heads and pistons. The lube oil system may be integral to the engine or in the form of a console. Should the latter be used, ensure that the engine is at a suitable elevation to allow for free-draining oil return lines see Figure SS Figure Typical section through a condensing turbine set courtesy foundation, independent of all other foundations.
Due to the vibration produced by these machines, a large mass concrete foundation is employed. The general layout of the compressor house should enable the use of a traveling gantry crane for all maintenance; therefore, when routing piping, this must be considered. Combustion air must be taken from a safe location outside the compressor house.
If an air filter is required, arrange for maintenance access. Likewise, the exhaust must be discharged outside the building. This system should be fitted with a silencer and flame trap. Utility systems comprise a startup air system and fuel gas. The engine most likely has a closed-circuit iacket water cooling system, comprising a shell and tube exchanger or an air fan.
If the former, a cooling water supply is required and the usual clearance for tube pulling and so forth. For maintenance access, provision must be made to dismantle the acoustic hood and remove half the turbine casins and the rotor. Gas Turbines. When using a gas turbine to drive a compressor, an arrangement similar to a steam turbine should be considered.
The lube oil console and header tanks are required for the auxiliary piping system. In addition, the exhaust system must be considered; this compdses ducting to some heat recovery system, elther a steam raising plant or process heaters. An inlet silenccr and filter most likely are required. Provision for operation and maintenance to all machinery must be Drovided. Gas Engines. Thermal expansion and dynamic fotces are to be considered when designing the piping layout and pipe supports.
All types of compressors compress vapor or gas, which increases the temperature of the gas. The temperature variation causes expansion of the piping.
Vibration forces are the result of the inetial forces due to the wcight of reciprocating elements and the balance weight of tllo rotating clcmcnts. Such forces act in the same plane and palallcl t thc axis OI thc cylindcr borcs.
The piping system connection usually starts with damper components that absorb the vibrational forces. Howeveq vibration needs to be considered for the piping system in the direct vicinity of the reciprocating compressor and extra fixation of the piping is necessary. Introduction n heat exchanger is a piece of equipment used to transfer heat from one media to another. In the petrochemical industry heat exchangers generally can be classified under the following headings: Heats one stream and cools the other.
There is no heat loss or physical change in either flowing media. Cools liquid or gases without condensation; the term also applies to intercoolers and aftercoolets' Condenser. Condenses vapor or vapor mixtures. Can be water cooled or by sufficiently cold process stream, which requires. Uses refrigerant to cool a process stream below the freezing point or below the prevailing cooling water temperature.
Heater nonfired. Heats process stream, genelally up to its boiling point, without appreciable vaporization. The heating medium usually is steam or hot oil; the term also applies to preheaters. Reboils the bottom stream of the tower for the fractionation process.
The eating medium can be steam or hot process stream. When large quantities of vapor have to be produced, a kettle-type reboiler is used. Waste heat boiler. Uses waste heat, such as internal combustion exhaust from gas turbines or similar drivers, to senerate steam. Uses the heat of the process produce steam. Vaporizes part of a process liquid stream as does an evaporator.
Both consist of banks of finned tubes through which passes the rrredia to be cooled. Large fans blow air from the atmosphere through lhe banks, thus cooling the flowing media.
Other types, such as plate cxchangers and carbon block exchangers, are used infrequently. Box Type Air Fin 4. As the name suggests, they consist of a cylindrical shell around a nest of tubes. The shell and tube exchangers can be further subdivided in three categories: Floating Head Shell and Tube Exchangers Floating head exchangers are used when the media being handled causes fairly rapid fouling and the temperature creates expansion problems. Tubes can expand freely, the channel head and shell cover arrangement are convenient for inspection, and the tube bundle can be removed easily for cleaning.
U-Tube Shell and Tube Exchangers U-tube exchangers are used when fouling of the tubes on the inside is unlikely. The tubes are free to expand and the bundle can be remove l from the shell for cleaning the shell side of the tubes. Fixed Head Shell and Tube Exchangers Fixed head exchangers have no provision for the tube expansion and, unless a shell expansion ioint is provided, can be used for only relatively low-temperature service. The end covers are removable, so thal the inside of the tubes can be cleaned by rodding or using simillr tools.
This type of cleaning usually is carried out in situ, so sonrc in the piping layout for this. A-Frame Air Fin A-frame air fins are less common than the box type. They do present a few problems, however. Due to their Physical shape, that is, a triangular section with the apex uppermost, tlrr inlet header is located at the apex, with the collecting headers at lx th bottom corners.
This means that cooled product lines come off lx th sides of the rack, which can present piping problems. Also, with r o" sides containing the product, it is possible to get uneven coolin8, rlrre to the sun being on one side or the prevailing wind tending to lrlow into the tube bank asainst the fan. Al'l Stanclartl 66O. Handling Devices. The standard is applicable to the following types of shell-and-tube heat exchangers: This standatd is not applicable to vacuum-operated steam surface condensers and feed-water heaters.
Purchaser's Responsibilities. Drawings Are Reviewed. Design Temperature. Pass-Partition Plates. Connection Junctions. Welding Heat Treatment. Dimensional Tolerances. Tube-to-Tubesheet Joints. Inspection and Testing.
Vendor's Responsibilities. Drawings and Other Required Data. Outline Drawings. Information Required after 6. Reports and Records. Hydrogen Service. Expanslon Joints. Cladding for Corrosion Allowance. Shell Supports. Stationary Head. Floating Head. Tube Bundle. Nozzles and Other Connections. Irlangcd llxternal cirth. Quality Assurance. Quality Control. Pressure Testing. Nameplates and Stampings. Supplemental Requirements.
Specification Sheet. Anncx l lnformativc. Responsibility specification Sheet. Annex D Informative. Recommended practices. The standard is applicable to air-cooled heat exchangers with horizontal bundles, but the basic concepts also can be applied to other configurations. Approval Information. Final Records. Tube Bundle Design. Structural Design. Other Components. Fabdcation of Tube Bundle. Post-Weld Heat Treatment. Thread Lubrication. Alignment and Tolerances.
Inspection, Examination and Testng. Pressure Test. Shop Runln. Equipment Performance Testing. Surfaces and Finishes. Identification and Notification. Annex A Informative. Recommended Practices. Annex B Informative.
Annex C lnformative. Winterization of Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers. API Foreword. Proposal Information Required. Drawings and Other Data Requirements. Drawings and Other Data Requitements. Recommended practice. Recommended Practice. Plate-Fin Heat Exchanger Checklist. When spaced apart, a clear access way of mm is considered adequate, this being the cieul. For paired exchangers, a similar condition is required between pairs and adiacent singles, bul between each shell of the Dair, this may be reduced to mm betlveen head flanges.
Exchangers always should be arranged such that a minimum of mm is clear at the rear for removal of the bonnet and space is provided for dropping it clear of the working area. At the front or channel end, a minimum distance of the tube length plus mm is considered sufficient.
This latter does not apply to exchangers located in structures, where a total of mm would be sufficient. Alterations to exchangers, of course, should not affect their duty and cost.
The cost saved on simpler piping should not be spent on costly alterations Lo exchangers. When contemplating such a change, it should be remembered that generally the heated media should flow upward and the cooled media downward.
This is Darticularlv important iI a physical change takes place withinlhe cxchangeq such as vaporization or condensation. Minimum clearunces for heat exchangers couftesy of Red Systems, Inc.
Reboilers, where the process stream enters the shell at the bottom as a liquid and leaves at the top as a vapor after flowing through the tubes, and stream that enters the shell near the top of the tubes and leaves at the bottom of the shell as condensate. Condensers, where the process stream enters the shell at the top as a vapor and leaves the bottom as a liquid, while cooling water enters the tubes side at the bottom and leaves at the top. Exchanger Layout Other Than in Banks.
However, whatever layout system is r,rsed, the llcncral cvaluation lcgaKling cxclrangcr positiolls is vcly sirnilar. The relative positon of exchangers can be evaluated readily from flow diagrams. For exchanger positions in a petrochemical plant, the following general classification can be made: The engagement includes delivering infrastructure services to offshore maritime facilities and potential exploration sites.
Read More. Download Piping and Mechanical Handbook. The following generic procedures related to the control of Piping and Mechanical work activities are typical of the types of Generic Construction Project Procedures that are available: Since all safe work operations must begin with preplanning, the Field Engineer makes a direct contribution to safety by reviewing the planned work with safety in mind. The Field Engineer is typically responsible to develop a detailed work package for work planned by the Superintendent, verify the required materials are available and obtain the required permits to perform the work.
The following specific types of questions might be asked by the Field Engineer to ensure the work can be done safely: Why is Recession Back? We in board meetings every few months were being told and assured that work is coming and lots of it. Indeed, we had a pile of backlog always in work, and looked so promising to us. But then all of a sudden, at the pace we had work coming got slow.
Rumours started that company has taken out some contractual and much more. Although none of them was real, until started. Suddenly company started running out of work or had existing tasks to complete quickly before that goes out of hand too. Does that call for Recession? At least for me, Yes! A slump is petroleum industry is not a new thing we may hear. We have seen these before, like in and now after five years, its back.
The only difference between the previous and the current one is, this slump is affecting jobs worldwide. While the production rate has not slowed down, the requirement of Oil is going flat or dropping. Of course, time will come when the markets stabilize, and prices of Oil may rise again. But this time, I think it'll be slow, and there are many Geopolitical issues which first needs to be resolved. When compared to other equipment in a hydrocarbon processing plant , the piping network is designed to the most stringent standards.
The piping system is normally considered the safest part of the plant. However, even with this level of safety, reviews of catastrophic accidents show that piping system failures represent that largest percentage of equipment failures. Since these systems are responsible for many catastrophic accidents, operations, design, and maintenance personnel should understand the potential safety concerns. The best tool that we have to prevent future accidents is to review past incidents and incorporate lessons learned into future design and operation of piping systems.
This paper will discuss various case studies that will help to illustrate the consequences of inappropriate design, operation, and maintenance of piping systems. The case studies include: Check valves are important safety devices in piping. Check valves have been utilized in the process industry for many years to keep material from flowing the wrong way and causing operational or safety concerns.
One common mistake is installing the check valve backwards and blocking the process flow. There is normally an arrow on the check valve designating the proper flow direction, indicating the proper installation position. There have been cases where the manufacturer showed the arrow incorrectly, which greatly hindered troubleshooting. To know piping design basics by going through the following points: Many decisions need be made in the design phase to achieve this successful operation, including:.
The codes provide minimal assistance with any of these decisions as the codes are not design manuals. Code, Pressure, Temperature, How long is the plant lifetime, What is the plant reliability, etc.. Piping designed according to B Reliability of piping under B Each system be it vessel or piping has some base pressure-temperature rating. This is essentially the pressure temperature rating of the weakest member of the system.
This can be translated that no minor component valve, flange, etc shall be the weakest link.