Worlds in Collision by Immanuel Velikovsky (free PDF file) is an essential book for the Electric Universe theory (EU theory) and chronology revisionists. Worlds in Collision is a book written by Immanuel Velikovsky and first published April 3, .. Skeptic, 3 (4), pdf>; Cochrane, Ev (). Velikovsky still in collision. Skeptic, 3 (4) . Immanuel Velikovsky's book on global planetary catastrophes documented in Worlds in Collision is the first book written by Immanuel Velikovsky and first .. pdf>; Cochrane, Ev ().
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WORLDS IN COLLISION. IMMANUEL VELIKOVSKY. First published in The author gratefully acknowledges permission to quote from the following books. no pages , , , in the original page numbering. This book may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, in any form or by Hardison for coaching and friendship beyond th.
Velikovsky vs. Science, technology, and, politics in modern society , University of Toronto Press. Leroy Ellenberger , a former senior editor of Kronos a journal to promote Velikovsky's ideas Bauer Worlds in Collision Publ. Skeptic , 9 3 , p. Sagan gave a critique of Velikovsky's ideas and attacked most of the assumptions made in Worlds in Collision. Some Other Problems, p.
I found that the collective memory of mankind spoke of a series of global catastrophes that occurred in historical times. I believed that I could even identify the exact times and the very agents of the great upheavals of the more recent past.
Worlds in Collision is a book of wars in the celestial sphere that took place in historical times. In these wars the planet earth participated too.
Velikovsky proposes: The book proposed that around the 15th century BCE , a comet or comet-like object now called the planet Venus , having originally been ejected from Jupiter , passed near Earth an actual collision is not mentioned.
Then, in the 8th and 7th centuries BCE, Mars itself displaced by Venus made close approaches to the Earth; this incident caused a new round of disturbances and disasters. Velikovsky arrived at these proposals using a methodology which would today be called comparative mythology — he looked for concordances in myths and written history of unconnected cultures across the world, in particular following a rather literal reading of their accounts of the exploits of planetary deities.
In this book, he argues on the basis of ancient cosmological myths from places as disparate as India and China , Greece and Rome , Assyria and Sumer.
For example, ancient Greek mythology asserts that the goddess Athena sprang from the head of Zeus. Velikovsky identifies Zeus whose Roman counterpart was the god Jupiter with the planet Jupiter.
This myth, along with others from ancient Egypt , Israel , Mexico , etc. The plausibility of the theory was summarily rejected by the physics community, as the cosmic chain of events proposed by Velikovsky was regarded as simply contradicting the basic laws of physics.
Shapley, along with others such as astronomer Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin also at Harvard , instigated a hostile campaign against the book before it was even published. Initially, they were highly critical of a publisher as reputable as Macmillian publishing such a seemingly disreputable book, even as a trade book,Gilbert, James Redeeming Culture: Grove, J. In Defence of Science: Science, technology, and, politics in modern society , University of Toronto Press.
The fundamental criticism against this book from the astronomy community was that its celestial mechanics were irreconcilable with Newtonian celestial mechanics , requiring planetary orbits which could not be made to conform to the laws of conservation of energy and conservation of angular momentum Bauer He proposed that electromagnetic forces could be the cause of the movement of the planets, although such forces between astronomical bodies is essentially zero Friedlander Velikovsky tried to protect himself from criticism of his celestial mechanics by removing the original Appendix on the subject from Worlds in Collision , hoping that the merit of his ideas would be evaluated on the basis of his comparative mythology and use of literary sources alone.
However this strategy did not protect him: Carl Sagan wrote that the high surface temperature of Venus was known prior to Velikovsky, and that Velikovsky misunderstood the mechanism for this heat.
Sagan, Carl , Problem VIII: The Temperature of Venus. Velikovsky believed that Venus was heated by its close encounter with the Earth and Mars. He also did not understand the greenhouse effect on Venus, which had earlier been elucidated by astronomer Rupert Wildt. Ultimately, Venus is hot due to its proximity to the sun; it does not emit more heat than it receives from the sun, and any heat produced by its celestial movements would have long dissipated.
Sagan concludes: Problem VII: The Clouds of Venus.
Sagan notes that the presence of hydrocarbon gases such as petroleum gases on Venus was earlier suggested, and abandoned, again by Rupert Wildt, whose work is not credited by Velikovsky.
Also, the Mariner 2 probe was erroneously reported in the popular press to have discovered hydrocarbons on Venus. Tim Callahan, religious editor of Skeptic , presses the case further in claiming that the composition of the atmosphere of Venus is a complete disproof of Worlds in Collision. In fact, the atmosphere of Venus is made up mainly of carbon dioxide—carbon in its oxidized form—along with clouds of sulfuric acid.
A New Mythology: Skeptic , 13 4 , At the very least it orbit would have been profoundly changed, made tremendously elliptical. Worlds in Derision: Velikovsky vs. Modern Science. The essential characteristics of the Jovian radio emission — that is is nonthermal, polarized, intermittent radiation, connected with the vast belts of charged particles which surround Jupiter, trapped by its strong magnetic field — are nowhere predicted by Velikovsky.
Merely guessing something right does not necessarily demonstrate prior knowledge or a correct theory. Some Other Problems, p. The meeting featured, among others, Velikovsky himself and Carl Sagan.
His criticisms are present in his book: Reflections on the Romance of Science and is much longer than that given in the talk. Reflections on the Romance of Science. Random House.
Reissued by Ballantine Books. Probing the Existence of the Supernatural , edited by George O. Cornell University Press. Here is an example of the re-working of the text between and Likewise, we should not be surprised if a few elements of a few legends are coincidentally identical.
Ginenthal, Charles New Falcon Publications, Tempe Arizona. Friedlander, professor of physics at Washington University in St. For example, contrary to Velikovsky, R.
At the Fringes of Science , Westview Press.
Velikovsky on the Fringes letter. Skeptic , 9 3 , p. Forrest, Bob In six volumes, with Notes and Index Volume. Privately published by the author, Manchester. The first of these is his proclivity to treat all myths as having independent value; the second is the tendency to treat only such material as is consistent with his thesis; and the third is his very unsystematic method.
Velikovsky Mythistoricus. A short analysis of the position of arguments in the late 20th century was given by Dr. Ellenberger, Leroy A lesson from Velikovsky. Skeptical Inquirer , 10 4 , An antidote to Velikovskian delusions.
The planet is cold, yet its gases are in motion. It appears probable to me that it sends out radio noises as do the sun and the stars. Redeeming Culture: In Defence of Science: Science, technology, and, politics in modern society , University of Toronto Press.
Velikovsky", section: Problem VIII: The Temperature of Venus. Problem VII: The Clouds of Venus. Velikovsky", Section: Some Other Problems, p. A New Mythology: Skeptic , 13 4 , Worlds in Derision: Velikovsky vs. Modern Science. Broca's Brain: Reflections on the Romance of Science. New York: Ballantine Books. Reprinted as Sagan, Carl Reflections on the Romance of Science".
Science and the Paranormal: Probing the Existence of the Supernatural. Tempe, Ariz: New Falcon Publications. A Personal Voyage. Retrieved Velikovsky's Sources. In six volumes, with Notes and Index Volume. Privately published by the author, Manchester. Velikovsky Mythistoricus. A lesson from Velikovsky.
Skeptical Inquirer , 10 4 , An antidote to Velikovskian delusions. Skeptic , 3 4 , Velikovsky at Fifty: Cultures in Collision on the Fringes of Science.
Skeptic , 9 1 , ; reprinted in Shermer, Michael editor This survey confirms the hunch expressed by Morrison and Clark R. Chapman in Chap. Velikovsky Revisited". Exodus to Arthur: Catastrophic Encounters with Comets. Velikovsky's evidence? Nature , November Ellenberger, C. Nature ] is corroborated by ocean sediments and bristlecone pine rings [ref. Kronos X: Cato, I. Boreas 14 , ].
Either their mere existence contradicts Velikovsky or they do not contain debris suggesting a catastrophe. Velikovskian catastrophes are neither indicated by nor necessary to explain the natural stratigraphies of the Holocene.
Tree Rings. Kronos X , 1, October, pp. In other words,.
Giant Tortoises Do Not Swim letter. Workshop 6 , 2, August. In other words, global, cosmic catastrophes are not necessary to explain the evidence cited in the chapters 'Thirty-five Centuries Ago', 'Klimasturz', and 'The Ruins of the East'.
Antarctic ice and the Dead Sea Reprised. Workshop 6 , 3, February. Watts, G. Fryer, J. Smith, and F. Imamura, Giant landslides, mega-tsunamis, and paleo-sea level in the Hawaiian Islands.
Marine Geology, , , Fryer, D. Tappin, I. Wilkinson, M. Williams, J. Fietzke, D. Garbe-Schoenberg, and P. Sea Level. Kronos X 3 , pp. Retrieved from " https: Hidden categories: Pages to import images to Wikidata.