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Enter the e-mail address of the recipient Add your own personal message: The download should begin automatically. The real beauty of using PDF manager online does not require the installation of any software plus the free PDF managers and the online PDF manager can be accessed free of charge. If I am buying a car for ego purposes, I may have an interest in amassing sufficient funds and paying off existing debts in order to be able to increase my capacity to buy a fancier car. Oh no! Rather than put a trademark symbol after every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use names in an editorial fashion only, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. Just as many Asian martial arts teach us to let others defeat themselves by allowing us to use their own strength to our advantage, in negotiation it is possible to respond effectively to heavy-handedness with a light touch.
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The online PDF manager supports conversion of video files, media files, and documents using online services. The interface is not highly intuitive, and the conversion occurs in three simple stages. First, you upload the file. Secondly, you select the desired output format for your file and then you enter the email address to receive the converted file. Dec 27, Anthony Adamopoulos, Esq. My daughters Julia and Abigail have kept me on my negotiating toes all their life. Fundamentally, however, my most significant negotiation learning took place at the knee of my father, Martin E.
I owe it all to him. For further information and advice about negotiation, you are invited to visit the Web site of The Negotiation Skills Company, Inc.: His clients come from business sectors as diverse as healthcare and the manufacture of nuclear weapons.
In Negotiating Skills for Managers, Steve offers his negotiation experience, communication skills, and teaching techniques to a broader audience. This page intentionally left blank.
How can he improve the accommodations when he checks into the next hotel? Sally Marks manages a team in the design department of an automobile manufacturing company. A directive has arrived from the marketing department indicating the top priority for the next design cycle is to develop a vehicle that weighs no more than a ton, has space for five passengers, can cruise at 75 miles per hour for extended periods, complies with increasingly strict exhaust emission standards, and can fit into small urban parking spaces.
The marketing department also wants manufacturing costs held substantially below any previous cars her group has designed—yet use high-tech materials.
In addition, Sally has to cope with regulatory issues as well as external suppliers in order to accomplish her task. When Fred and Jane Yancey and their two kids moved into their new home, it needed a lot of fixing up as well as an addition. Some of their neighbors have been very friendly—as well as understanding about the noise of construction machinery—but others have complained to the local building inspectors without talking first to Fred or Jane.
The Yanceys are the first AfricanAmerican family to move into the neighborhood. They wonder whether the complaints to the building inspector relate to the construction itself or whether other factors are involved.
But she is even more challenged by the process of figuring out how much progress she and her colleagues are making convincing the representatives of the Chinese utility company of the value of the processors they are selling. Every day, all over the world, people find themselves in similar situations. They want to accomplish a particular task, clarify a relationship, or simply find resources to achieve more than they might by making a deal with someone else. They need to negotiate to get from their starting point to their objective.
Negotiating Skills for Managers is designed to help its readers understand and utilize a process that is fundamental to business—and the rest of life. What Is Negotiation? When people want to do something together—buy or sell an item, make a business deal, decide where to go for dinner— they need to use some sort of mechanism for reaching an Cohen01a.
The winner of the battle was acclaimed the winner of the dispute. Then somebody invented lawyers. Today, as people rely increasingly on negotiation to resolve disputes or reach agreements, they are waging peace to reach the resolution that is most acceptable to all parties. Unless they agree instantly on every element of the choices to be made, they need to use a mutually acceptable process for decision making.
Negotiation is one name for a variety of joint decision-making processes, although people also use such terms as making a deal, trading, bargaining, dickering, or in the case of price negotiation haggling. A successful negotiation has taken place when the parties end up mutually committed to fulfilling the agreement they have reached.
Fairness is a crucial element to make a negotiation process succeed. Some people negotiate as if their most significant objective is to take advantage of other parties; this is selfdefeating.
If any party feels unfairly treated, he or she may walk away from the negotiation with a negative feeling and a disinclination to live up to the agreement. One way to think of negotiation is to compare knitting and weaving. When Negotiation The process you knit something, you of two or more parties generally use a single working together to arrive strand of yarn.
And at a mutually acceptable resolution of although knitted fabrics one or more issues, such as a commay contain a variety of mercial transaction, a contract, or a colors and textures, you deal of any sort. Negotiation is a give-and-take barcan easily stretch them out gaining process that, when conducted of shape. In weaving, the fabric is created by using at well, leaves all parties feeling good about the result and committed to least two strands coming achieving it.
Negotiation is more like weaving—the process takes contributions from various parties. By drawing upon the knowledge, skills, and other input of the multiple parties, a good negotiation process weaves together a durable agreement whose strength derives from the fact that the parties reached agreement by working together. What Negotiation Is Not When your boss gives you an order and your only choice is to do what he or she says, that is not negotiation.
That is not negotiation. When parties are not working together to reach an agreement, negotiation does not take place. But we are not competing with the aim of making sure we crush the opposition. Rather, we are aiming to do the best we can for ourselves. Using this philosophy, we are less interested in the sporting aim of competing and more interested in looking out for ourselves.
In negotiation, you want to do well for yourself, but not because you want to beat someone else. Effective negotiation is held in its proper context as a mechanism for pursuing interests. Your dealings with customers—or suppliers, neighbors, or relatives—should not be viewed as competitions. Our fundamental obligation is to pursue our own interests, assuming that the other parties are doing their best to get their interests met.
The definition of negotiation can now be expanded to describe how parties trade things of value in a civilized manner. Types of Negotiation People usually view negotiation as either confrontational or cooperative.
People who view negotiation as a confrontation see the process as a zero-sum game in which a limited number of bargaining chips are to be won—and they want to be the winners. The confrontational winner-take-all approach reflects a misunderstanding of what negotiation is all about and is shortsighted. Once a confrontational negotiator wins, the other party is not likely to want to deal with that person again. Cooperative-approach negotiators see a wide range of interests to be addressed and served.
They understand that negotiation is not a zero-sum game but a way to create value for all the parties involved. The cooperative negotiator understands the importance of all stakeholders winning something—this is how you build long-term mutually beneficial relationships.
The cooperative approach is known as interest-based negotiation. Interest-based negotiation is particularly effective in a marketplace characterized by diversity. We often need to reach agreement with people who are different from us—culturally, ethnically, or economically.
If we cannot get beyond Interest-based negotiathe differences, they can tion An approach to negocreate obstacles to agreetiation where the parties ment. To do this, we need focus on their individual interests and to focus on the interests of the interests of the other parties to find a common ground for building a the parties instead of on mutually acceptable agreement.
Those interests can form the building blocks upon which agreement is based. If all parties undertaking negotiation see themselves as good people, it makes sense for them to treat one another with that understanding.
If you approach a deal-making process as an opportunity to crush the opposition, you are choosing to beat up on someone who views himself as a good person.
If you want something from that person, you may have to give him something he really values. Think of your experiences in renting cars. Automobile rental companies have thought of all the answers; they ask you to sign and initial the front of the contract in several places.
The actual contract is on the back of the paper you sign, generally printed in very small letters in extremely light ink. The rental company has adopted a position from which they will not budge. Hazards of Adopting a Position In negotiations between parties who each have some power to influence the results the usual type of negotiation , the crucial thing to remember is that taking a position limits your capacity to bargain.
A Cohen01a. Investigating Your Interests The more effective route to achieving an acceptable conclusion to a negotiation is to look at the interests of the parties.
To move past job has to be accomplished by a cerjustification to learn which tain time. If you think the deadline threatens whether the job can be interests are at the core of why someone wants some- done as well as it should to yield the best results for your division, you thing, you need to ask: Understanding Our Own Interests One of the most difficult things to do is to understand our own interests. If we are making a retail purchase and have done a thorough job of research, we know which model of refrigerator or television we want to buy.
That becomes our position. In most negotiations, focusing on interests will make an enormous difference in the outcome. In buying the refrigerator, for example, your interests may include a certain size, color, and shelving flexibility.
Through your research, you find one model that meets your criteria, but there may be others that meet your criteria equally well or even better. Distinguishing between interests and positions is a critical first step in understanding the negotiation process. If we can determine whether we and the other parties are undertaking interestbased negotiation or positional bargaining, we have a clearer idea of what is happening among us.
When we use interests as the points from which we and the other parties are attempting to reach an agreement, everyone has greater flexibility in the decision-making process. This additional freedom provides the opportunity to think out of the box, to bring creativity to the process, and, as a consequence, to reach an agreement that will really work. The fact is If Charlie is unwilling to bargain or consider possible alternatives to the that most of the time we position Jackie has adopted, it reduces are negotiating with people the choices available to Jackie.
Using the interest-based approach is the best way to make sure that happens. Besides exploring your interests, you need to prioritize them. For example, if you want to buy a car to commute to work, focusing on finding a model that will get good gas mileage and that will be easy to park may be a lot more important as an interest than whether the radio has four or six speakers. Focusing on interests also helps us overcome Analyze the Process potential obstacles to Understanding the negotiaagreement that arise from tion process provides you differences between people.
Recognizing our own interests and, as much as we can, those of our negotiation counterpart, helps us navigate past potential obstacles to agreement. What do you do? However, many people do not understand or do not accept the idea that while onesided negotiations may yield short-term gains, they create the risk of long-term losses.
There are a variety of ways of dealing effectively with positional bargainers. Just as many Asian martial arts teach us to let others defeat themselves by allowing us to use their own strength to our advantage, in negotiation it is possible to respond effectively to heavy-handedness with a light touch. When people let off steam by shouting or using strong language, it is critical not to answer with the same sort of outburst.
You can compare it to two waves heading toward each other: If they meet, the water becomes even more turbulent. If you think of yourself as able to control one of the waves by making it duck under the onrush of the other wave, the water smooths down after the wave has passed.
Let Them Vent! If you are negotiating When people get highly with someone who comes emotional—for example, up with an outrageous or when a young child throws a tantrum—the wisest thing to do is let unacceptable proposal, rather than trying to conthe youngster ventilate his emotions without trying to control him.
Once a vince him by yelling even person has spouted off, heart rate louder, it can be extremely and breathing rate tend to slow effective to respond with down.
The individual becomes calmer silence. What did I do that offended him? If you were me, how would you sell this approach to the other side? By finding out what folks are really trying to achieve, you develop a better sense of how to present alternatives that will respond to their most important interests. If you are in a salary negotiation, for example, learn how significant the various elements of a compensation package may be to an employer or an employee.
If you ask Dealing with Bullies questions about such If you are negotiating with issues as tax considerasomeone who is acting like a bully, tions, shares of equity keep in mind that bullies are afraid of ownership in the company, failure. Often it seems that everything boils down to money. We place prices on things and on factors such as timely delivery or payment up front.
As far as I know, there is only one person in the world to whom money has an intrinsic value—the Walt Disney character Uncle Scrooge. Money itself is not an interest; rather it is a means to an end, a mechanism for helping us achieve interests and measure value. The first person to mention a dollar figure loses.
Recognizing our own interests is not charging? Ask budget? There are lots of reasons for choosing cars: Some of those reasons relate to solving practical problems—reliable transportation or commuting. Others relate to my ego—making an impression or celebrating an accomplishment.
If my most significant interests relate to transportation, my car search may lead in the direction of safety, gas mileage, or other practical considerations. Fundamental or primary interests For any person engaged in a negotiation, these are results that go to the heart of your needs.
Where the results that serve your interests come from is not important; it is the centrality of their importance to you that makes interests primary. Derivative or secondary interests These interests need to be met before it is possible to address and satisfy your primary interests.
If your primary interest is to live a comfortable old age, a derivative interest could be to make enough money to provide for that comfort. Another derivative interest that could precede comfort in your old age is preserving your health as best you can. Generally, there are fundamental or primary interests and derivative or secondary interests.
Sometimes, in order to satisfy a fundamental interest, the first thing we need to do is deal with another derivative interest without which we cannot satisfy the big one. If I am buying a car for ego purposes, I may have an interest in amassing sufficient funds and paying off existing debts in order to be able to increase my capacity to buy a fancier car.
Yet the same holds true if safe reliable transportation is the underlying interest. The more money I have available, the greater the likelihood I can afford a car with more safety features or a better warranty.
It is interesting, in the example of a car purchase, to see that while the fundamental interests—transportation or ego—may be different from each other, the derivative interest may be the same.
Improving your financial situation in order to afford a car that serves your transportation or ego interests is important in either situation. Your interest in pursuing strategies relating to money may well lead you to undertake negotiations that have nothing to do with buying a car; but unless you exert your efforts in the direction of improving your financial status, you are less able to undertake the negotiations with car dealers to pursue your underlying primary interest.
This relatively simple situation gives us a sense of how important it can be to prioritize interests to develop a reasonably clear sense of what must be done to take us to the next step.
In that case, buying the right car is a derivative interest designed to help fulfill the fundamental interest.