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Then they'll occasionally grab onto different advice and follow that with similar resultsand then, inevitably, they'll abandon this pursuit in favour of another. In those centres. The first series of measuring is performed with control weights with total mass of F2zd sila. The employer is bound to provide the instructions for their use and maintenance. Miroslav Radojicic.
EN41  B. Grant III Osterwalder and Y. Costa and H. Roslovtsev and V. Galemmo and G. Liautaud and M. Song and P. Chen and G. Luckevich and S. Bisson and F. Takahata and Y. Security level against machines rollover through determined ax are defined by quotient of moment forces which are opposed to rollover moment of stabilizationMS and moment forces which threat to break down statistic stability moment of rollover.
Sets of loads are named as cases of loads. That brings to modern science discipline and its part of general theory of experiments. Checking of statistic stability of bucket wheel excavator i. Statistic stability of machine is insured if the attack line of resultant all forces are inside contour of reliance. Case of load HZ. According to cited literature there are four different cases of loading the excavator: We could say that experimental method is used in science and technique.
Based on data about weight and position of theirs attack lines. Main parts of bucket-wheel excavator. Serbia 1 Weighing is important component in science measuring. Permanent loads are presenting all loads made by weight parts of supporting structure.
Both of these theories mathematical and general theory of experiments are components of experimental method as general science method. According to . Temporary loads digging resistance. Case of load HZS in which. Just that massive use of experiments has developed science approach to experiment: Now days under weighing is included procedure of measuring weight. B — loaded zone.
Uneven from distributing loads by balls dominant depending on mentioned loads. If whole vertical force is acting inside core section around radius 0. In literature  is spoken about next minimal values of security level against rollover: Flat lines of reliance of upper construction. In massive bucket-wheel excavators big capacity and weight — excavator IV and V class. Whole vertical force Fz and moment Mxy are mutual administrative.
His part is that on lower construction pass on all loads which impact on upper construction also. R — impact of the attack line of vertical loads. Case of load HZG. The load of radial-axial bearing of construction. S — brunt of the loaded zone of ring.
The line of rollover is defined by her tangent in referent dot. Case of load HZS. Just for that. Radial-axial bearing of upgrade: Checking the statistic stability is proceeded in flat lines which defines relations of some vitals elements of excavator structure. The specific of bucket-wheel excavator relative to problem of statistic stability is effect of changeable geometrical configuration of upper construction — the arrow of rotor. If not. Mentioned relations are: Case of load HZG in which.
Minimal values of security level are: Case of load H. U — unloaded zone. A — Arrow of the rotor. V — wreath. FR — Resultant loads of bearing. Deformation of bodies of measuring cells cylinder are transferred to measured tapes. T — brunt. Upper construction of excavator.
On hydraulic cylinders with whose help is lifted the upper rolling construction. Change of resistance of tape is proportional to her deformation. DK — Diameter contour of leaning. Before start measuring its necessary to be fulfilled certain conditions: QR — weight of construction. For referent values we adjust the values which are produced through zero measuring measuring that is immediately after montage of mining machine.
Influence of temporary loads at resultant attack line. To stop the loose of statistic stability of operation of bucket-wheel excavator is proceeded with appropriate security which stops excessive loads. The judgment about results of measuring can be given only in case if they can be compared to some referent values. First measuring chain is based on measuring of force through measuring of pressure of hydraulic oil in hydraulic crane.
EN45 Based on measured values of pressure and known area of hydraulic cylinder piston. Second measured chain is based on measuring pf force through measured cells with electric resistance. Before that. B — Counterweight. The upper rotating construction of mining machinery is lifted up with help of hydraulic cylinder — cranes. A — the arrow of rotor. Considering the fact that brunt of the upper construction is stationed high relative on flat line of leaning. Checking of statistic stability of bucket-wheel excavator through weighing — measuring weight of upper working construction.
DK — diameter contour of leaning. B — counterweight. V — Wreath. Summing of measured intensities of leaners reaction. Hydraulic cylinders in supporters A1 and A2 are hydraulic connected. In zone of cross-ram 1 loaded is etalon — load. This phase of measuring is performed with the goal of performing calibration and control of liquids in measuring system. First phase of measuring. Third phase of measuring.
The arrow of rotor is located in lower position. Fourth measuring phase. Figure Second measuring phase.
Both of those cases the security screw nut must be tighten. First are lifted the supports towards counterweight. C and A A1 and A2. QB i QC loads of supporting dots. Scheme for determination of the weight and position of upper construction brunt Checking of statistic stability of bucket-wheel excavator through weighing — measuring weight of upper working construction.
Before starting measuring. A A1 and A2 and C. To eliminate the effect of mistake which occurs in first measuring chain friction between piston and cylinder in all phases of measuring.
The basics technical characteristics are in table 4. In which are QA1. C and B for 2mm. EN47 Considering the fact that the intensities of loads of supporters of the upper construction are equal to intensities of adequate reactions who are measured. After that in the space between adequate supporters on lower and upper construction are set the hydraulic cylinder with measuring cells. Measuring place. A A1 and A2 and B. For performing the measuring there are used the hydraulic cylinders: Enerpac CLP — B and A A1 and A2.
The look of the measuring place is shown on fig. B and C. Safety screw nut. Hydraulic cylinder CLP — Table 4. After relief of radial-axial bearing. Metal sheet on which are placed the hydraulic cylinder must be immaculately clean and degreased. These manometers must comply further requests: Position of safety screw nut after relief of radial-axial bearing.. Throw of the rope is mm. Considered system enable synchronously lifting of all supporters of the upper construction with at the same time following of imbalance.
Her form and structure are shown on image Functional relations of some elements of the system are shown on fig. Hydraulic aggregate of maximum working pressure of bar.
The force transudes shown on image 4. The way of connecting aggregate with hydraulic cylinder in supports of the upper construction is shown on fig. Sensor of moving. To achieve completely and centrically fitting of the upper construction to the measuring cell.
Distribution of limiters. Measuring cell. Computer controlled aggregate maximal working pressure of bar with all elements of system for lifting. If the difference of moving some supporters exceeds a pre — defining value. His body is places directly by hydraulic cylinder. Basic request which must be fulfilled by amplifier are: Functional scheme of measuring system  Figure H — distributor.
C — electric wire. A — manual unit. Elements of the system for synchronously lifting of the upper construction. E — junction box. Control and work management of universal measuring amplifier.
The echo and eventually annoyance are removed with use of electronic filters which are posted on the net part removing the annoyances which are coming from power. D — hose. The observed system. Mentioned signal is relatively weak. Shown device enables measuring at the same time by independent channels. Digital signal is much more suitable than analogue.
F — pump. Functional scheme of system for synchronously lifting. B — sensor of moving. G — hydraulic cylinder. Schedule of measuring places. Measuring are performed in following position of machine. The look of measuring spot A a. The support of reloaded device. The excavator in his measuring position.
Preparation of the excavator consider: After removing of the control weights. That level is accepted for referent flat line of measuring. The first series of measuring is performed with control weights with total mass of Position of the control weights.
Visual control of relief of the rolling bodies of the radial-axial bearing. After that the visual control of relieved rolling bodies of radial-axial bearing is carried out fig.
Relief of radial-axial bearing achieved by synchronously lifting of the upper construction in total of 15 mm. After performed measuring.
They are given in tables 5. Structure scheme of one measuring spot: Table 5. System for synchronously lifting and measure amplifier. Science and Tehnological development of Republic of Serbia.
The autors are giving special thanks to the Ministry of Education. Checking of statistic stability of bucket-wheel excavator through weighing — measuring weight of upper working construction EN Trans Tech Publications.: As a consequence. Unlike the existing solutions with a rigid connection. Normal functioning of transportation and earthmoving machinery. Elements of connections between the revolving and non-revolving parts by means of large diameter bearings  Figure 2.
Facultzy of Mechanical and Civil Engineering in Kraljevo. The solutions of the connection have been improved in the course of time by inserting a mid-element — cylindrical carrier. The solution is conceived in such a way that. The new concept of connection is oriented toward providing better adaptability to the path along which the machine is moving and improvement of the function of indirect elements made in the form of large diameter bearings type Rothe Erde with the increased reliability in operation and speed of operations.
The connections between revolving and non-revolving structures of transportation and earth-moving machinery have developed under the influence of different operation and structural requirements. The problem of realizing contacts can occur. The consequence of this phenomenon is the fact that the underframes of the existing solutions of radial-axial bearings cannot completely provide the necessary rigidity of the support surface for the bearing connection and.
The problem set for the model is a requirement how to structurally provide relief and reliable operation of the indirect element large diameter bearings inserted between the revolving and non-revolving parts of the excavator carrying structure.
In other words. Faculty of Mechanical and Civil Engineering in Kraljevo 1 The laboratory model presented in this paper covers the formation of a new concept of connection between the revolving and non-revolving parts of transportation and earth-moving machinery. All this shows that it is necessary to eliminate such an undesired effect.
The maximum value of the force FA is at the boom position in the direction normal to the diagonal BD.
In further exploitation. If the resultant passes through one of the two triangles. The analysis of this problem with the influence of the previously stated phenomena is comprehensive because it also requires the introduction of parameters of the revolving parts undercarriage and the path along which the machine moves.
With the support at four points. This is obviously seen in a comparative scheme of machines with a revolving part Figure 2 . The support at four points is applied in all other cases. In order to improve the solutions. The reason for larger application of the statically indefinite scheme of support at four points lies in the fact that the resultant of vertical forces can be distributed in a wider zone than with the support at three points with the same width of support.
Zone of action of the resultant with the support at four and three points So. Polar diagram of the change of loads at the supports as a function of the angle of rotation a-force FA according to Montagnon.
The graph Fig. By further rotation of the upper part of the machine. The evaluation and influence of roughness of the path are often connected with certain difficulties.
The statically determined scheme of support at three points is mainly applied in high-productivity mining machines. The novelty is seen in the increased quality of the connection between revolving and non-revolving parts of transportation and earth-moving machinery which are connected to radial-axial large diameter bearings [ Without disturbing the generality of the considered problem.
Laboratory model of the joint connection in the carrying structure of the excavator undercarriage. The universal element of the joint connection for torsional relief of the carrying structure of the excavator undercarriage consists of the central joint 5 made of a hub The hub 20 is connected.
This problem is the reason for finding a new solution that will allow tracking of roughness while the excavator is moving. It is installed from the lateral side of the box girder of the caterpillar.
The central joint is placed in the central part of the box girder of the caterpillar and it allows the reception of vertical load. The box girder of the caterpillars. The structural solution of the central joint. As for the central carrier 1.
The central joint allows rotation of the box girder in the vertical plane — in both directions. The joints are placed on one caterpillar carrier. Verification of the defined theoretical dependencies significant for the quality of connection was done experimentally. The auxiliary joints allow rotation of the box girder in the vertical plane — in both directions up to the prescribed angle as well as guidance in the vertical plane.
It thus alows turning of the rotary caterpillar carrier 4 in relation to the carrying plate The universal element of the joint connection for torsional relief of the carrying structure of the excavator undercarriage consists of the main central joint and two auxiliary joints Figure 5. They can be installed either on the left one or the right one. In spite of careful searching through the available patent documentation and considering solutions made by all relevant world manufacturers of excavators.
This rotation leads to torsional relief of the carrying structure of the excavator undercarriage. Prescribing of the angle of rotation is defined by the position of the installed limiters.
On its upper and lower sides. Vertical support on the box girder of the caterpillar is realized through a pair of bolts upper and lower which are connected to a ring welded to the upper or lower plate of the box girder of the caterpillar.
Formation of the theoretical calculation method for the carrying structure of the bearing allowed a certain degree of reduction of influential parameters and establishing of theoretical dependencies of the corresponding geometrical characteristics of the carrying structure. Carrying plate Figure 7. Bolt Figure 8.
Hub Figure 9. Isometric view and the cross section of the carrying structure of the excavator undercarriage with the universal element of the joint connection  Figure 6. Cross section of the auxiliary joint Figure Pin 2. Auxiliary joint  Figure The restriction is defined by the tooth of the plate 48 and the limiter EN59 In other words. The pressure plate Central and auxiliary joints of the laboratory model of the joint connection  Figure Laboratory installation of the joint connection  Figure Vol International Conference on Engineering Design..
Pajer G. Mechanism and Machine Theory. Volume 1. IMK The solution developed prevents the appearance of deplanation of the support surface for the the bearing connection. Berlin Research and development of carrying structure of radial — axial bearing of construction and transport mechanization machines. Journal of Mmechanical Design. Research and development of new solution to the connection of excavator carrying construction.
It has been established that the installed cylindrical carrier does not always produce displacements which are smaller than the allowed ones. Modeling of rollers in calculation of slewing bearing with the use of finite elements.
VEB Verlang Technik. Kurt F.. KOD The influence of installation of the cylindrical carrier on the reduction of deplanation and displacements of points of the support surface for the connection of the radial-axial bearing has been defined based on the theoretical dependency of the corresponding geometrical characteristics of the carrying structure and the comparative analysis of the values of displacements of characteristic points of the support surfaces..
The influence of relation between elements geometric dimensions of a dredger supporting structure and the connection with the rotating platform.
RaDMI The 6th International Symposium. Soko Banja. Mechanism and Machine Theory.: Carrying angle and carrying capacity of a large single row ball bearings as a function of geometry parameters of rolling contact and the supporting structure stiffness. Easy mounting of the assembled elements of the bearing and the increased stability of the whole structure with its own boundary parameters provide an advantage over the other manners of support and.
Load distribution in a four contact-point slewing bearing. Justification of analysis and research for the purpose of increasing the life of the mentioned machines and their safety in operation is even greater if the problems of transferring loads from revolving and nonrevolving parts of carrying structures of transportation and earth-moving machinery are taken into account.
Applied research was conducted with insufficient effects in its promotion and application at all levels of organization of work. Labour Inspection Kraljevo. As in the meantime. This field is also treated by a lot of scientific and professional papers. The main document which promotes the culture of prevention in the field of occupational safety and health is the Strategy of Occupational Safety and Health in the Republic of Serbia for the period from to This paper aims at drawing more attention to the importance of the culture of prevention in our society.
The legal regulations which define and prescribe the safe operation of cranes imply the interaction of a large number of different factors. Cara Lazara The problems of safety and exploitation of cranes as well as all machines have for a long time been regulated by the Laws on Occupational Safety and national standards and their importance has been constantly rising.
Veteran and Social Policy. Safe operation of cranes is continuously in the process of dynamic changes and improvement. The application of technical regulations from the field of occupational safety in the operation of cranes which provide the basis for definition and implementation of requirements for crane safety refers particularly to accomplishing safe and healthy working conditions for the operation of cranes. Serbia Cranes are machines with increased hazards during operation so that employers are obliged to examine their proper functioning and perform preventive and periodic inspections and tests for the purpose of safe operation of cranes.
The application and implementation of regulations defining the occupational safety in the operation of cranes considerably influences the development and improvement of the culture of prevention in the operation of cranes. Labour Inspectorate.
This field has been considerably improved by adopting key regulations especially and exclusively related to machine safety and it can be freely said that it has been coordinated with the obligations required by European manufacturers of machines cranes.
Such changes are the consequence of constant changes connected with modern requirements during the use of cranes in technological processes. Promotion of the principle of prevention has basically contributed to the understanding of safety culture which is. The Strategy is a document which comprehensively establishes the state in the field of occupational safety and health in the Republic of Serbia and measures which should be taken for its development.
The culture of prevention as a concept of occupational safety and health was previously investigated only within social-psychological or organizational traditions. The employer is bound to provide the instructions for their use and maintenance. In the process of European integration. It eliminates differences in national regulations and conformity assessment procedures. The employer is also bound to allow the employee to use the cranes only if they comply with the prescribed technical requirements.
The harmonization of technical legislation and standards thus enables manufacturers to place their cranes on the domestic and foreign markets under the same conditions. Based on the adopted principles. The national preventive culture of occupational safety and health means culture in which the right to a safe and healthy work environment is respected at all levels. Although the manufacturers that export to the EU market can apply the requirements of the European regulations and standards directly.
The application of modern standards in all phases of the process of industrial production directs manufacturers to continuous adaptation and improvement of technical and technological solutions.
According to the adopted principles of preventive approach. Serbia intensively works on the harmonization of domestic technical legislation and national standards with the European legislation and standardization. Technical regulations laws and bylaws define the compliance of cranes with technical requirements. Education represents the basis for development and improvement of the culture of prevention.
The new policy established by this Strategy promotes: The free flow of cranes on the international market. The free flow of cranes on the European market. The manufacturer of the crane establishes the purpose of the crane during its manufacturing. The employer is bound. A modern and efficient system of adopted laws contributes to strengthening competitive production and protection of public interests and. The Law is applied to all products cranes which are considered products according to this Law.
The Law prescribes the manner of prescribing technical requirements and definitions of technical regulations. According to the provisions of this Law. The obligations particularly refer to the free flow of goods and. The fulfilment of obligations prescribed by this Law does not exclude the responsibility of the manufacturer for the damage incurred by the product crane with a weakness in terms of the regulations which define that responsibility.
This Law represents the basis for transposition of European directives if the prescribing of technical requirements and implementation of procedures for the assessment of conformity of products cranes is not prescribed by special laws. If the Rulebook on Machinery Safety is considered in the technical sense.
This Rulebook prescribes important requirements for the protection of health and safety which refer to the design and production of machines as well as other requirements and conditions which must be fulfilled for their placing to the market and use-exploitation. The manufacturer is bound. The application of those regulations classifies our country among European developed countries and for the purpose of achieving a common goal in this field.
It includes the participation of nominated bodies. This Rulebook prescribes: According to the provisions of this Rulebook. By repeating the risk assessment procedure and reducing the risks that has occurred. The limits of use include the foreseen use and the improper use of the crane which can be reasonably predicted.
It means that the characteristics and performances of the crane or a series of cranes should be identified in an integrated process. If a certain crane is also the subject of other regulations which define other issues and which prescribe putting the mark of conformity. The crane manufacturer is bound to carry out the risk assessment or have that assessment carried out for the purpose of establishing requirements for health protection and safety which are applied for the crane.
It is very important to note the fact that the data about the regulations taken into account during crane manufacturing are stated in the Declaration of Machine Conformity.
In the process of implementation of the risk assessment procedure and by reducing the risk that has occurred in the mentioned way. The influences which are taken into account are as follows: Risk assessment starts with the determination of limits — restrictions of the crane. After the risk assessment. The main purpose of this international standard is to provide designers with general frameworks and instructions for making decisions during crane development.
The concept of crane safety considers the capability of the crane to perform its foreseen function during its operating cycle. The crane which is in compliance with the requirements from this Rulebook is marked with the mark of conformity in the prescribed form and manner.
The Serbian mark of conformity consists of three capital letters A connected in such a manner as to form an equilateral triangle 3A.
The size of the mark is determined according to the height of the V mark which may only have values of standard numbers rounded up to the order of magnitude R10 expressed in millimetres mm as per the Serbian standard SRPS A. The technical documentation covers the main construction documentation. The technical documentation for the crane must be elaborated in the Serbian language. The Declaration refers exclusively to the cranes in the state in which they have been placed to the market and excludes the components which are subsequently added and the operations subsequently carried out by the end user.
The mark of conformity is put on the crane by the manufacturer or its representative. The Declaration of Crane Conformity contains the following data: The employer is bound to ensure that ergonomic principles are fully respected in the use of the crane.
The employer is bound to provide the employees or their representatives for occupational safety and health with the information that refer to occupational safety and health. The general goal is to improve and preserve the health of currently active population. All stakeholders in the system of occupational safety and health should participate in the activities of implementation and full integration of regulations in the field of occupational safety in the operation of machines cranes.
It would create the conditions for promotion of the culture of prevention and examples of good practice in the field of occupational safety in the operation of cranes at all levels of organization of employers. Education should be the basis for development and improvement of the culture of operation of cranes. The education system in the Republic of Serbia should be oriented toward purposeful education for the purpose of facing the increasing challenges and creation of new quality and safe workplaces for the operation of cranes.
The employer is bound to engage a legal person with the licence for performing preventive and periodic inspections and testing of cranes. The vision of the culture of prevention should be constant work on the improvement of this field through showing full support to the regulations in the field of occupational safety and health.
In the education system of the Republic of Serbia there are higher education institutions which educate students in the field of occupational safety and health in study programmes of occupational safety engineering at the level of basic academic and basic vocational studies. The culture of prevention tends to create socialeconomic motivation among all participants in the process of operation of cranes so that more and more business entities actively manage the occupational safety in the operation of cranes in order to improve the situation in this field.
The culture of prevention promotes. The employer is bound to provide crane operators with the instructions for safe operation of the crane. The crane manufacturer or its representative keeps the original Declaration of Crane Conformity in the period of at least ten years after the date of manufacturing the last crane. The manner and model of including occupational safety and health in the education system should be considered through a legal framework.
Education is one of the key factors for development and strengthening of the culture of prevention. It is necessary to introduce the programme of occupational safety and health into the school programme. Establishing such a centre will complement the system of occupational safety and health in Serbia with the obligation of permanent learning and constant additional training of all subjects dealing with safety jobs.
Inadequate educational programmes can be one of the factors influencing the situation in the field of occupational safety in the operation of cranes. Educational programmes which involve occupational safety and health represent one of the bases for improvement of this field. There are a lot of such centres in Europe. It will cover common activities of the school.
One of the main goals should also be establishing centres for training and education in the field of occupational safety. Raising awareness of the importance of occupational safety and health through the education system means the integration of the field which deals with occupational safety and health into the field dealing with education.
This strategic period should result in the creation of such conditions that employers and employees. In those centres. Besides formal education in the field of occupational safety and health. It shows the need for establishing cooperation between the institutions dealing with occupational safety and health with the institutions dealing with education.
This paper emphasizes the prescribed obligations of the employer. The promotion of occupational safety and health through the education system develops the occupational culture and prevention in this field. The possibility of including occupational safety and health in the education system is also seen in extracurricular activities. The programmes of formal and informal education should be prescribed as well. EN67 Occupational safety and health of the persons that will be employed in the future is connected with the level of awareness gained from an early age.
Increased investment in the education system. Raising awareness of the importance of occupational safety and health through the education system. Children in primary and secondary schools. Final acceptance of papers for publication in the Journal is based on the decision of the Editorial Board.
Template for Manuscript: Author's Address: The evaluation of dynamic performances in case of self-propelled construction machinery is based on the influence of kinematical excitations analysis transmitted to the metallic structure on the resistance limit.
This article presents the influence of the dynamic excitations due to the bucket movement or displacement on dislevelmented roads. Basing on the adopted dynamic model and numerical and experimental tests for the MMT45 loader, the values of loading dynamic coefficients for the metallic structure have been determined.
Key words: The calculus model is based on the following hypotheses: In order to model and analyse the most important stage of the technological process, namely the bucket loading, three physico-mathematical models having various complexity degree putting into evidence the profound dynamic character of the digging-loading process, have been conceived. In order to determine the performances of the bucket front loader operating in the actual regime, a dynamic model realized as a system having two masses m 1 the mass of the base machinery and equipment and m 2 the mass of loaded bucket and elastic supported, has been conceived.
By differentiation of relation 1 we can calculate the movement velocity of mass m 2: The following notations are introduced: Then the kinetic energy of the system is written under the form: Thus, the following system of linear differential equations is obtained: From the vanishing condition for the determinant of the system 11 we have: Solving of the third degree equation in p 2 can be realized using the substitution: The general solution for the system of linear differential equations 7 results in an overlap of the three movements: Braila the eigen pulsations have been calculated, the final expressions of the machinery movement for the three degrees of freedom have been written and the frequency spectrum of those movements have been illustrated in Figure 2.
These conditions can be expressed under the following form: It is important to know the influence that various structural elements of the model have upon the dynamic behaviour of the bucket dumping system. The construction of the bucket dumping system, by its rigidity and rotational speed of bucket unloading, influences the dynamic effects transmitted within the hydraulic drive system and the structure of the machine, as we can see in Figure 4.
Modifying the construction of dumping mechanism by increasing its torsion rigidity, the bucket angle of shearing- deformation decreases while the frequency of the bucket movement increases, phenomenon observed in Figure 5. In order to put into evidence the dynamic effects as a function of the speed from which the machine is being braked, two cases will be simulated: The response of the system is illustrated in Figure 8, the oscillating movement of the bucket in the joint where the bucket clamps on the arm has a peculiar interest.
The dynamic coefficients can be determined basing on the mass and geometrical characteristics of the equipment and machinery and the working regime as well.
Bratu, P. Debeleac, C. XIV, Mechanical Engineering, Mihailescu, St. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Hasen Bebba. Brian Diaz. Shitansh Nigam.