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This is the routine that provides the address and size of a requested descriptor. No sample string descriptor was provided or required for the data interface. The complete source code will be copied in the chosen directory. They are called by the lower- level USB firmware stack at the appropriate time. Eleonor Viola Enricoso Baliling.

This can pose a challenge, for the developer needs a serial communication channel from a peripheral to a host PC. The overall flexibility and power of the USB requires managing protocols for device identification, configura- tion, control and data transfer.

The sample code provided is eas- ily customizable, reducing the amount of effort and learning that might otherwise be necessary when add- ing a USB interface to a device. Working knowledge of C programming language 2. Some familiarity with the USB 2. Bud Caldwell Microchip Technology Inc.

Max data throughput figure assumes an otherwise quiet bus and that each packet transfers maximum-sized data payload of 64 bytes. Refer to Section 5. Perform the following steps to complete the installation: Execute the installation file. A Windows installa- tion wizard will guide you through the installation process. Before continuing with the installation, you must accept the software license agreement by clicking I Accept.

The complete source code will be copied in the chosen directory. Refer to the release notes for the latest version- specific features and limitations. TABLE 1: TABLE 2: The firmware application provides two services: To test these services, use any terminal emulator pro- gram on the host PC. Select this COM port from within the terminal emulator application to test the services.

Once connected to the PIC32, you can type into the ter- minal emulator and see the text echoed back by the demo application. You can also press switch S3 to see the hello message generated. Apply power to the target board. Select the PIC device of your choice required only if you are importing a hex file previously built. If you are rebuilding the hex file, open the project file and follow the build procedure to create the application hex file. The demo application contains necessary configura- tion options required for the Explorer 16 development board.

If you are programming another type of board, make sure that you select the appropriate oscillator mode from the MPLAB IDE configuration settings menu. If not, double check your program- ming steps and repeat, if necessary. The USBTasks routine manages the state of the USB firmware stack and performs the nec- essary steps required by events that occur on the bus. The USBTasks routine may be used in a polled, cooperative manner as demon- strated.

If so, nothing in the main loop should block for more than a few micro- seconds or events may be lost. The code below maintains a simple state machine to manage a global data buffer. Whenever data is sent by the host, it is received into the buffer and echoed back to the host. Avoids unnecessary loop iteration. This is important, since host is under no obligation to provide exactly the amount of data requested although the firmware stack will not allow it to receive any more. It stores this amount into the gSize variable.

SW3 is checked every time through the loop. If it is pressed, the code checks to see if the virtual UART is ready to transmit data by calling the routine.

Application-specific tables: USB Descriptor Table 2. Endpoint Configuration Table 3. Please refer to these documents for complete details. In general terms, the USB descriptors can be thought of as belonging to one of three different groups: Each USB device has one and only one descriptor in the first group — the device descriptor. It uniquely identifies the device and gives the number of possible configurations. Each configuration the sec- ond group has its own set of descriptors, describing the details of that configuration.

User-readable informa- tion is kept in the string descriptors, making up the third group. String descriptors are optional, but helpful to the end user. See Figure 4 and refer to Appendix E: This routine receives an ID value identifying the descriptor type. In the configuration and string cases, the ID also con- tains an index number identifying which instance of the descriptor is being requested, along with a language ID for string descriptors.

It then provides the length of the requested descriptor and a pointer to it. See Appen- dix F: Endpoints and interfaces are identified by numbers, starting at zero.

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USB devices can have one or more configurations of these end- points and interfaces, identified by a number starting at one. However, the CDC serial driver only has one configuration. The endpoint configuration table below identifies which endpoints belong to which interface for configu- ration 1 along with the data transfer direction and protocol features for each endpoint.

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The endpoint configuration table identifies that the CDC serial driver uses two different interfaces, each with one endpoint. Interface 0 is the device manage- ment interface. It provides the host with a mechanism to control the device and to receive notification of events. Interface 1 is the data interface. Control data is received on Endpoint 0 the USB control endpoint used for enumeration , making it a shared endpoint with Interface 0.

Virtual UART data is transmitted or received through this endpoint. To provide the USB firmware stack with access to the configuration table, the application defines the follow- ing routine. Each entry in the table contains the information necessary to manage a single function driver. Since the serial demo only imple- ments one USB function, its table only contains one entry as shown below. This is all the information that the USB firmware stack needs to man- age the CDC serial driver and make sure it is aware of events that occur on the bus.

To provide the USB firmware stack access to this table, the application defines the following routine. The size of the table is not needed because the endpoint configuration table con- tains the indices into the function driver table. As long as these indices are correct, no access violation will occur. This section discusses several options that are important to or specific to the CDC serial demo.

The CDC serial func- tion driver uses two endpoints Endpoints 2 and 3, as shown in the Endpoint Configuration and Descriptor tables, above , so it defines this macro as 3. This macro defines how much buffer space the USB firmware stack allocates for Endpoint 0 and must be defined as 8, 16, 32, or These routines are identified to the FW stack by three macros below. In addition to the above routines, which provide access to the data required by the USB firmware stack, the CDC serial function driver defines a mechanism for the application to receive notification serial-related USB events specifically changes to the line control settings and reception of encapsulated command strings.

To do this, the application implements a routine that matches the following function signature: This macro identifies the configuration number used for the CDC serial function.

Only one con- figuration is available so this is defined as one. It is defined as zero for this demo and can be left at that value unless a more complex implementa- tion requires it to be changed. It is defined as two for this demonstration, but can be changed to eliminate conflicts if the application is modified. This macro identifies the USB Interface number of the data class interface used to transfer the actual serial data.

It is defined as one for this demo and can be left at that value unless it needs to be changed for a different implementa- tion. It is defined as three for this demonstration, but can be changed to eliminate conflicts if necessary. It is set at the maximum size of 64 bytes to provide maxi- mum potential throughput, but it can be changed to any of 8, 16, 32, or 64 bytes if needed.

It is set at the maximum size of 64 bytes to provide maximum potential throughput, but it can be changed to any of 8, 16, 32, or 64 bytes if needed. Keep in mind that, in a USB environment, communication occurs at speeds defined by the USB protocol and most hosts will set the line coding parameters as desired.

None the less, the default values reported can be changed by changing the following macros. In general terms, customizing the demo application is a three-step process. Modify the main application. Modify the application-specific USB support. Configure USB stack options. Implement and test any non-USB application-specific support desired. Alternately, copy the demo application, rename the project and applica- tion files as desired, and add any non-USB code required.

Then, call USBTasks in a loop as shown in the example application. It is vital that no code executed within the main polling loop blocks or waits on anything taking longer then a few microseconds. If greater customization is required, the developer can design and implement a custom USB function driver.

However, doing so is beyond the scope of this docu- ment. The most important changes are related to the descriptor table. Unless additional USB-function behavior is added, no additional descriptors should be needed.

This section will discuss changes that will need to be made to these descriptors when modifying the application. Modifying the Device Descriptor The device descriptor provides information that applies to the overall device. This includes the device class, vendor and product ID numbers, the number of config- urations, and endpoint zero information. The following are key fields that may need to be changed when designing a new CDC serial device. If the size of the Endpoint zero buffer is changed, this field must be changed as well.

Each vendor is responsible for allo- cating and tracking PIDs for products it pro- duces. It should be changed to match the revision of the product design. String Indices: The iManufacturer, iProduct, and iSeri- alNum fields contain indices into the string descriptor table to string descriptors that describe the manufacturer, product and serial number in Unicode strings. Those string descriptors will need to be changed to provide appropriate descriptions for the product, but the index numbers placed in the device descriptor do not need to change unless the positions of these descriptors in the table are changed.

All of the other fields should remain the same unless very major changes are being made to the application such as adding additional configurations.

Modifying the Configuration Descriptor The sample code implements a single configuration. Thus, there is only one set of configuration-specific descriptors, beginning with a single configuration descriptor. The configuration descriptor is defined using the follow- ing data type: This field indicates the amount of current required for the device to operate in this config- uration.

The value placed in the descriptor is one-half of the desired current.

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So a value of 50 represents a maximum draw of mA for this configuration of the device to operate properly. Each increment in this value indicates in incre- ment of 2 mA in the maximum current draw.

A USB device may request a maxi- mum of mA from the bus, but low- power hosts or hubs may only be able to supply a maximum of mA from the bus. If your device is intended to oper- ate with such a host, be sure that it only draws the amount of current sup- ported by that host. It provides a num- ber identifying the interface, the class information for the interface, and the number of endpoints required for the interface. The interface descriptor is defined using the following data type: However, the two fields discussed below may be of interest.

However, if additional USB functional- ity is integrated with this application, you may need to change the interface number for the CDC communication management interface by changing this value to allow the host to uniquely identify each interface in the device. No sample string descriptor was provided or required for this interface.

If you desire to add one, its index in the string descriptor table will need to be placed in this location. The only changes to these descriptors that may be necessary are changes to the values that indicate which interface numbers are used for the CDC function.

These changes are only necessary if changes were made to the interface ID numbers for either the communication management interface or the data class interface. Any other changes may cause the host to expect behavior that is not supported by the CDC function driver and may induce errors. This number indicates to the host which inter- face will be used as the master communication interface, primarily used for device notifications. It will need to be changed if the ID of the com- munication management interface was changed.

The slave interface is the bulk transfer data interface. If the ID of the data interface was changed then this number will need to be changed as well.

This value should be the same as the bSlaveIntf0 value. It is duplicated in the call management functional descriptor to indicate that call management is embedded into the data stream. However, no call management capabili- ties are identified. Modifying the Notification Endpoint Descriptor The notification endpoint descriptor identifies the type of transfer supported by the endpoint, its direction, buffer size and polling period.

The descriptor may need to be changed if there is some reason to change which endpoint is used. The values identified below are the ones most likely to be changed. Changing others may cause the endpoint to stop functioning as required. Endpoint descriptors are defined by the following data type.

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This value identifies which endpoint is used for notifications to the host. As mentioned above, it may be changed if there is a conflict with any additional USB functions integrated with this application. This value indicates to the host what the size of the buffer is that is associated with the notifica- tion endpoint.

This buffer only needs to be large enough to send a CDC notification 8 bytes. However, if some application has a need to send larger notifications, then this value could be increased to 16, 32, or This value determines the polling interval in mil- liseconds, from 1 to for the notification end- point. As an interrupt transfer endpoint, it is regularly polled by the host for data. This polling frequency could be modified to match the needs of the application.

The communication device class def- inition allows for devices with multiple data interfaces. Thus, this descriptor can be expanded to include additional slave interface ID values. However, this implementation only uses slave Interface zero 0.

If any changes to these interface ID numbers are made by changing the values of these macros, then the changes to the union func- tional and call management func- tional descriptors will happen automatically.

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If the endpoint number is changed by changing the value of this macro, then the bEndpointAddress value in the notifi- cation endpoint descriptor will be changed automatically. It is important that the direction and trans- fer type do not change or the CDC function driver will not work.

DSA-page 19 AN Modifying the Data Interface Descriptor The data interface descriptor provides the number identifying the data interface, the class information, and the number of endpoints. Normally, there will be no need to change any fields in the data interface descriptor.

However, if additional USB functionality is being integrated with the applica- tion, the following fields may need to be changed. No two USB interfaces may have the same interface number unless one is an alternate set- ting of the other. So, if additional USB function- ality is integrated with this application, you may need to change the interface number for the data interface by changing this value to allow the host to uniquely identify each interface in the device.

No sample string descriptor was provided or required for the data interface.

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If you desire to add one, its index in the string descriptor table will need to be placed this value. Modifying the Data Endpoint Descriptor The data endpoint is used in both directions to transmit and receive data. Thus, it has two endpoint descriptors. Like the notification endpoint descriptor, the data end- point descriptors identify the type of transfer, direction, and buffer size.

Unlike the notification endpoint, the data endpoints support the bulk transfer protocol. Thus, there is no polling period it is specified as zero. Refer to Figure 8 for the data type used to define the data endpoint descriptors. This value identifies which endpoints are used for data transfer to-and-from the host.

This may be changed if there is a conflict with any addi- tional USB functions integrated with this applica- tion. If the endpoint numbers are changed by chang- ing the value of this macro, then the bEndpointAddress values in the data end- point descriptors will be changed automatically. This value indicates to the host what the sizes of the buffers are that are associated with the data endpoints.

These values could be 8, 16, 32, or 64, according to the needs of the application. Smaller buffers would consume less memory space on the device and larger buffers would provide greater data throughput efficiency.

Refer to Figure 7 for the data type used to define this descriptor. It is important that the transfer type not be changed or the CDC function driver will not work. Instead, it uses the applica- tion-defined buffers for all transfers via data endpoints. AN DSA-page 20! Modifying the String Descriptors The string descriptor table provides human-readable information in Unicode strings that help the host repre- sent the device to the user. Strings may be supported in many different languages.


The first entry in the string descriptor table identifies the list of languages supported. The example only supports English United States. Typical divider configurations are shown in Figures 1, 2, and mecatronica facil. For each of these circuits assume that Vin represents a low-impedance voltage source and V OUT mecatronica facil a high-impedance input node.

Such systems often employ a computer operated telescope type mechanism with ray tracing program software as a solar navigator or sun tracer that determines the solar position and intensity.

The purpose of this booklet is to assist developers to track and trace suitable source-code and solar tracking algorithms for their application, whether a hobbyist, scientist, technician or engineer. Many open-source sun following and tracking algorithms and source-code for solar tracking programs and modules are freely available to download on the internet today.

Certain proprietary solar tracker kits and solar tracking controllers include a software development kit SDK for its application programming interface API attributes Pebble. Widget libraries, widget toolkits, GUI toolkit and UX libraries with graphical control elements are also available to construct the graphical user interface GUI for your solar tracking or solar power monitoring program.

The solar library used by solar position calculators, solar simulation software and solar contour calculators include machine program code for the solar hardware controller which are software programmed into Micro-controllers, Programmable Logic Controllers PLC, programmable gate arrays, Arduino processor or PIC processor.

Mecatronica facil books and internet mecatronica facil use other terms, such as: As said, such software code calculate the solar azimuth angle, solar altitude angle, solar elevation angle or the solar Zenith angle Zenith solar angle is simply referenced from vertical plane, the mirror of the elevation angle measured from the horizontal or ground plane level.

Similar software code is also mecatronica facil in solar calculator apps or the solar power calculator apps for IOS and Android smartphone devices. Most of these smartphone solar mobile apps show the sun path and sun-angles for any location and date over a 24 hour period. Some mecatronica facil include augmented reality features in which you can physically see and look at the solar path through your cell phone camera or mobile phone camera at your phone's specific GPS location.

Honeywell, Fuchs, Yokonawa, or Muthibishi platforms. The above motion control and robot control systems include analogue or digital interfacing ports on the processors to allow for tracker angle orientation feedback control through one or a combination of angle sensor or angle encoder, shaft encoder, precision encoder, optical encoder, magnetic encoder, direction encoder, rotational encoder, chip encoder, tilt sensor, inclination sensor, or pitch sensor.

Note that the tracker's elevation or zenith axis angle may measured using an altitude angle- declination angle- inclination angle- pitch angle- or vertical angle- zenith angle- sensor or inclinometer. Similarly the mecatronica facil azimuth axis angle be measured with a azimuth angle- horizontal angle- or roll angle- sensor. Chip integrated accelerometer magnetometer gyroscope type angle sensors can also be used to calculate displacement. Other options include the use of thermal imaging systems such as a Fluke thermal imager, or robotic or vision based solar tracker systems that employ face tracking, head tracking, hand tracking, eye tracking and car tracking principles in solar tracking.

With unattended decentralised rural, island, isolated, or autonomous off-grid power installations, remote control, monitoring, data acquisition, digital datalogging and online measurement and verification equipment becomes crucial.