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This was also confirmed by personal experiences with written work by students. Learn more than words categorized into 42 important topics using our vocabulary cards online. An orthographic reform means the " Noun formation from verb In both of languages are productive this tip of compound e. Handbuch zu Migrationssprachen und Deutsch. At the outbreak of war I was just three years old. The terminology and definition…………………………………….
Linked to this is also the spelling performance of students an often-controversial topic. The focus of the newly launched school reform was on individuality and equal opportunities.
Despite everything, the depth of expertise in the existing school reforms seems to diverge greatly, as well as with regard to German lessons and the related knowledge of German orthography. This work tries to get an answer to this phenomenon. The theoretical part discusses influencing factors on the acquisition of written language, the most important key data of the German history of orthography and a scientifically founded knowledge of the areas of upper and lower case as well as separation and combination.
The second part contains the research description and the data analysis. All results are then analyzed with regard to theoretical knowledge. The aim of the project is to make the knowledge of German orthography more accessible and comprehensible to the learner.
German orthography, knowledge, school reform, foreign language, written language, etc. Be it in at school, at work or in a private ambient.
Who can write correctly, has higher career opportunities.
Many factors have a great influence on orthography knowledge, which is by no means to be underestimated. To mention is the readiness of family within the family and the associated own reading interest as well as the social layer, in which one grows up, even if the child speaks German as a native language, as a second or foreign language.
In general, spelling difficulties are always present in lessons. Although all six areas of orthography are important, two of them represent a very large problem. On the one hand, it is case-sensitive GKS and on the other hand also to perceive large mistakes in the separation and coordination GZS.
The other four sections of the spelling: Explanations of the sub- sections Loam-letter assignment, Hyphenation, punctuation, and word separation at the end of the line can be found in this project.
Both sections, GKS and GZS, must be made comprehensible either on a morphological or syntactic level, as the case may have become. This was also confirmed by personal experiences with written work by students. The language and the associated orthography of the German language are not Topic that has only occupied us since yesterday, a week or a year. One of the most important names in connection with German orthography is Konrad Duden with his orthography dictionary.
Today, the work is in its 27th edition and still has its status as a valid set of rules in the German-speaking world. Due to the importance and the strong desire for a good spelling competence, also the knowledge to write correctly and in accordance with the standards, this topic is given high priority in school lessons. This work enriches my ideas for the field, so using empirical data collection to compare the spelling competence in students' written work.
The core area of investigation is the two subareas GKS and GZS, since the highest mistake rate is to be perceived here. By the terms of spelling standard or spelling we understand " Nerius, Dieter An orthographic reform means the " An important milestone was set by Konrad Duden, "a man of the school 65", in with the first edition of his work - Complete Orthographic Dictionary of German - Language, an orthography dictionary of Prussian school spelling.
To understand how standards-based writing is learned at school, what difficulties learners and teachers encounter on a regular basis, and where spelling mistakes are the most common, will be explained in detail in this project.
The spelling is attributed great importance in the education sector, especially in German lessons. For this reason, this becomes an indispensable subject of the just mentioned subject.
But what should be achieved with spelling lessons? As Menzel stated, learners should be " According to the communicative requirements At this point, are the didactics with their tasks as a fulcrum for the achievement of this goal?
It should also examine, among other things, how orthography teaching is done, how spelling support is relevant and achievable, what function parents and school have for teaching spelling skills, what difficulties learners face in spelling lessons.
On the one hand, the difficulty for learners to learn these two areas of orthography in accordance with the standards and to apply them later in life, as well as on the other hand for teachers to impart didactically meaningful teaching of all these phenomena. Praxis des Deutschunterrichts. Auer Buch und Medien GmbH. Orthographie- und Schriftspracherwerb bei mehrsprachigen Kindern.
Freiburg im Breisgau: Orthographietheorie und Rechtschreibunterricht. Albanische Grammatik. Die deutsche Rechtschreibung. Bd 1, Berlin u.
For the Albanian part, I have included the following literature: Filologji Nr. Rilindja Verlag. EDFA Verlag. Dituria Verlag. Whether spell-writers are inductive or deductive, particular or embedded in a context, and whether orientation is more likely to be due to individual phenomena or vocabulary in general, is one of the important considerations in spelling didactics.
As so often in science, there is not the ideal method.
Nevertheless, there are pros and cons that must be considered in the selection so that, depending on the situation, the seemingly most efficient method is to be chosen. For example, isolated orthography lessons have the disadvantage of being useless in part due to the lack of life-world situations of the learners.
In written works by students who attend a language school, there are more spelling mistakes in the two areas of GKS and GZS orthography than in written work by students attending AHS. To answer the hypothesis scientifically, two different spelling tests are performed. Influence of social factors into the evaluation becomes parallel. To do so, a survey conducted by means of a questionnaire in which questions about the age and sex, the native language of the subjects and the Parents, the occupation of the parents, as well as the reading socialization as well as the own reading interest are listed.
This research is an enriching task to get closer to both forms of education with a focus on teaching German and to get an even closer look at the two very complex parts of German orthography. Especially for my future work as a teacher, this knowledge is essential, because only those who are themselves in the areas to be taught can and may demand performance from their own students.
The phase in which children first try graphemics becomes very important. Among other things, the terms such as logographic phase or logographic strategy are widely used. The strong emphasis on phonology in writing leads to more mistakes. In the penultimate stage, the morphemic strategy, the child is already focusing on the meaning and meaning of words. Although the beneficial treatment of family and acquaintances, as already stated, very valuable for the acquisition of written language of the child, in spite of all, professional pedagogical action is also very important at school entry, especially in the first grade, because there it makes sense once again to draw children's attention to orthographic norms for the first time.
Consequently, as a teacher and parent, it is important to motivate children to write their own texts, strategically expand their vocabulary horizon, and explore orthographic peculiarities with them. The focus is on familial reading socialization. One of the most important instances is the parental home. The free access to German materials arouses the interest in children to make first contacts with the German writing.
The home and family ambient also play a significant role. An essential influencing factor is the education of the parents or the social origin of the child. Families with more favorable social conditions usually arouse their interest in reading very early her adolescent.
This happens mainly through regular reading out of books. So the child dives prematurely into the world of language. Students make manuals mistakes and they are allowed to. Only then can they explore and learn a language. Mending mistakes makes sense, but the way is crucial. In other words, we prefer to bother the child with mistakes while we adults write the word or sentence, rather than thwarting everything and possibly even commenting on it.
As Bouda The way to a spelling Before a closer examination of the spelling didactics should by the definition the term spelling standard or orthography and the spelling reform are offered a relevant basis of understanding. List of abbreviations: German as a foreign language DaM German as the first language DaZ German as a second language GKS Large and lower case GS Capitalization GTS Isolated case GZS Separated written KS Lowercase RT Credit card , other times as one word e.
Occasionally they are joined by a hyphen e. Often, one part of the compound forms the basis for many different compound nouns. If the examples listed above are considered carefully, it becomes obvious that they can be divided into three groups.
In the first group we have compounds which are written as a single word rattlesnake, bloodstain etc. Orthographic criteria for compounds may be written as: What a fool. Honesty is! And Turst, his sworn brother, a very simple gentleman!
I have sold all my trumpery: Types of compound nouns in English Word compounding is a very productive way of forming new words in English.
Almost any combination of the parts of speech may be employed in compounding, with the exception of articles. Once again we will make no attempt to be exhaustive. The nominal compounds are usually consisting of two elements, the second of which is usually a noun for example: So, I can illustrate with some example: Bus driver, history teacher, production manager.
Application form, can opener, swimming pool, emergency exit door. Detective story, horror move, women priests. Chicken soup, glass bottle, paper plates. Birthday party, winter coat, dining room table. Here is an update on the news. At the outbreak of war I was just three years old. The town has a bypass, which keeps traffic out of the center. We have same structure of compound between Albanian and English but we have and some difference structure example: In English we have some tips of compound nouns e.
For example, the Germanic languages make rich use of compounding. Some of the most frequent English compounding patterns are: They represent the ultimate reduction of an adjective clause, as shown in the examples below …a gear, a worn-shaped gear, a warm gear, a system a water purification system Compounding forms a word out of two or more root morphemes.
The words are called compounds or compound words. In Linguistics, compounds can be either native or borrowed. Native English roots are typically free morphemes, so that means compounds are made out of independent words that can occur by themselves. Note that compounds are written in various ways in English: The way the word is written does not affect its status as a compound. In Greek and Latin, on the other hand, roots do not typically stand alone. So compounds are composed of bound roots.
Compounds formed in English from borrowed Latin and Greek morphemes preserve this characteristic. Examples include photograph, iatrogenic, and many thousands of other classical words.
There are a number of subtypes of compounds, and they are not mutually exclusive. These words are compounded from two rhyming words. There are words that are formally very similar to rhyming compounds, but are not quite compounds in English because the second element is not really a word--it is just a nonsense item added to a root word to form a rhyme.
Another word type that looks a bit like rhyming compounds comprises words that are formed of two elements that almost match, but differ in their vowels.
Again, the second element is typically a nonsense form: A lot of tips we have and in Albanian for example: These forms are same and in English language: Some report a sea-mind spawned him But it is certain, that when he makes water, his urine is congealed ice-that I know to be true The most common type of word formation is the combination of two or more nouns in order to form a resulting noun: The first of the two compounds may be descriptive i.
It is also possible to form words whose components are equally important to or descriptive of its meaning, for example, a washer-dryer refers to an object combining two functions. There are, of course, many more different ways how compound nouns can be related to each other and how their new meanings can best be explained grammatically. Note that compound nouns usually appear as two separate words, only those more commonly used, those found in every-day language, and usually compounds with no more than three syllables are found as one word.
Hyphens - between the segments of a compound noun are absolutely exceptional. The compounds noun-noun is popular from different studies e. The same think we have and another studies: Those empty lives which were waster in animals visiting and being visiting, in the health in the worry of great and unnecessary households, in the arranging …. In this case, the resultant is an adjective, while the noun explains the objective.
Another possibility is that the noun supports the adjective, i. Those rules do also apply to the linking of nouns and participial adjectives: English - speaking, soul - destroying, frost - bitten More common and shorter compounds appear as one word whereas those longer and less common are linked by a hyphen. More examples of all subtypes: Noun formation from Adjective Examples: The formation of adjectives from nouns: It is also possible, however, to link the two segments and end up with a totally new word, for example, yellow press refers to newspapers specializing in sensational news items.
If the meaning of the compound does not immediately register through analysis of the segments, the latter is the case. Then, only a look in the dictionary will help. These compounds usually appear as one word. This construction exists in English, generally with the verb and noun both in uninflected form: Also common in English is another type of verb-noun or noun- verb compound, in which an argument of the verb is incorporated into the verb, which is then usually turned into a gerund, such as breastfeeding, finger-pointing, etc.
The noun is often an instrumental complement. From these gerunds new verbs can be made: Here verbs describe what is done with an object or what a subject "does", in short, a new noun is formed, usually referring to something concrete, and the verb defines the action related to it: A drawbridge is a bridge that can be inclined in order to allow ships to pass, or "drawn". Here, the noun is the direct object.
Here, the word as part of speech is the subject. Besides that, both segments can be related in other ways, i. The usual rules apply to spelling. More examples: Waylay, sunrise, hand shake, garbage, dump, earthquake, life- gourd, handslide, toothache, sunset, waterfall, bus-stop, birth control. Noun formation from verb In both of languages are productive this tip of compound e. Wreath from wreathe mation of verbs from nouns: Bathe from bath, Bleed from blood, Believe from belief, Breathe from breath, Breed from brood, Clothe from cloth, Drip from drop, Feed from food.
The most important class of words formed by internal changes consists of the past tenses of the Primary Words. Those past tense-words are not treated as Derivatives. Formation of Nouns from Verbs: His actions show much like to madness-pray haven his wisdom be not tainted …. The formation of words has few rules which determine the nature of the words formed thus. A compound noun is made up of two nouns, or an adjective and a noun for example: Phrase Son-in-law, edition—in-chief, man-of-war, forget-me-not, happy-go-lucky etc.
Noun compounds are like compressed formal definitions. They can usually be interpreter by reversing the order of the words in the noun compound and inserting prepositions and articles.
Housewife housewives, Milkman milkmen, Nobleman noblemen, Boyfriend boyfriends, Schoolmaster schoolmasters, Grow-up grow-ups, Merry-go-round merry-go-rounds. Father-in-law fathers-in-law, Man-of-war men-of-war, Looker-on lookers-one etc.
The Albanian compounds have some same structure with English compounds e.
Compounds form the plural in different ways, but below is the most usual. Plural in the first element Mother-in-low - mothers-in-low, Man-of-war - men-of-war Coat of mail - coats of mail, spoonful — spoonfuls. Plural in both first and last element Gentleman farmer - gentleman farmer, Woman doctor - women doctors. Plural in the last element, Assistant director - Assistant directors. So we would like in the following to show two examples in Albanian and English, too.
In Albanian language the compound noun can generative in this form bregdet and kryeqytet: The first word height by the electronic dictionary we have this comment: The quality of begin tall or high. Elevation above typically sea level.
A high place or area. The most intense part or period of something or example of something: A roughly definable area of this: The black sea etc. A pebbly or sandy shore at the edge of the sea or a lake. Bring on to a beach from the water, become or cause to become stranded on a beach. The English language can possible study this form of generative for example: Chomsky with his printed of the book Syntactic Structure After that has done a lot of study for English but not for Albanian.
Both of them have creative the new words with the new meaning. The synonymic and antonymic of compound nouns In Albanian and English we have synonym and antonym compound words. In Albanian we have e. In English language this phenomena is the same with Albanian e. The Albanian studies J. Thomaj have reaseacher this phenomen of language and he has publice his printed this opinin for synonym: E ndikuar nga latinishtja ishte Sandfeldi. Bokshit si vijim: Edhe B.