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Some questions may be changed as a result of customer feedback. React as soon as you can whilst keeping control of the vehicle. Visit a garage as soon as possible if the steering vibrates the wheels may need balancing the vehicle pulls to one side when you brake your brakes may need adjusting. This will ensure that you get an accurate reading. Getting help Think about the people you can speak with to ask questions, get advice or share experiences about driving such as your driving instructor, parents, friends or colleagues at work.
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Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. Amazon Advertising Find, attract, and engage customers. Amazon Drive Cloud storage from Amazon. Alexa Actionable Analytics for the Web. Why is this? Because you will need to accelerate out of danger To assess how your actions will affect following traffic a stop ahead Because you will need to brake sharply to To check what is happening on the road.
DES s10 At junctions your view is often restricted by buildings, trees or parked cars. You need to be able to see in order to judge a safe gap. Edge forward slowly and keep looking all the time. Dont cause other road users to change speed or direction as you emerge.
You are waiting to turn right at the end of a road. Your view is obstructed by parked vehicles. What should you do? Stop and then move forward slowly and carefully for a proper view Move quickly to where you can see so you only block traffic from one direction it is safe for you to emerge Wait for a pedestrian to let you know when Turn your vehicle around immediately and find another junction to use.
Stickers or hanging objects could affect your field of vision or draw your eyes away from the road. Objects hanging from your interior mirror may restrict your view improve your driving distract your attention help your concentration. You should take all possible precautions against feeling sleepy while driving. Any lapse of concentration could have serious consequences. On a long motorway journey boredom can cause you to feel sleepy. You should leave the motorway and find a safe place to stop keep looking around at the surrounding landscape sooner drive faster to complete your journey ensure a supply of fresh air into your vehicle stop on the hard shoulder for a rest.
It may be necessary to turn on your lights during the day if visibility is reduced, for example due to heavy rain. In these conditions the light might fade before the street lights are timed to switch on. Be seen to be safe. You are driving at dusk. You should switch your lights on even when street lights are not lit so others can see you only when others have done so only when street lights are lit.
Planning your journey before you set off is important. A few sensible precautions are to tune your radio to stations in your area of travel, take planned breaks, and plan your route. Except for emergencies it is illegal to use a hand-held mobile phone while driving. Even using a hands-free kit can distract your attention. DES s1, HC r It is illegal to use a hand-held mobile phone while driving, except in a genuine emergency.
Park in a safe and convenient place before receiving or making a call or using text messaging. Then you will also be free to take notes or refer to papers. DES s5 As you drive, look well ahead and all around so that youre ready for any hazards that might occur.
There may be occasions when you have to stop in an emergency. React as soon as you can whilst keeping control of the vehicle. Which FOUR are most likely to cause you to lose concentration while you are driving? Using a mobile phone Talking into a microphone Tuning your car radio Looking at a map Checking the mirrors Using the demisters.
You should ONLY use a mobile phone when receiving a call suitably parked driving at less than 30 mph driving an automatic vehicle. You are driving on a wet road.
You have to stop your vehicle in an emergency. You should apply the handbrake and footbrake together keep both hands on the wheel select reverse gear give an arm signal. DES s4, 5, HC r Before moving off you should use all the mirrors to check if the road is clear. Look round to check the blind spots and give a signal if it is necessary to warn other road users of your intentions. When you are moving off from behind a parked car you should look round before you move off use all the mirrors on the vehicle look round after moving off use the exterior mirrors only give a signal if necessary give a signal after moving off.
You will need to use all of the road to pass the cyclist, so be extra-cautious. Look out for entrances to fields where tractors or other farm machinery could be waiting to pull out. Except in a genuine emergency never attempt to use a hand-held phone while on the move. Its illegal and very dangerous. Your eyes could wander from the road and at 60 mph your vehicle will travel about 27 metres 89 feet every second.
Your vehicle is fitted with a hand-held telephone.
To use the telephone you should reduce your speed find a safe place to stop steer the vehicle with one hand be particularly careful at junctions. DES s1, 18 Its easy to lose your way in an unfamiliar area. If you need to check a map or ask for directions, first find a safe place to stop. You lose your way on a busy road. What is the best action to take? DES s5, 10 Windscreen pillars can obstruct your view, particularly at bends and junctions.
Look out for other road users, particularly cyclists and pedestrians, as they can be hard to see. Windscreen pillars can obstruct your view.
You should take particular care when driving on a motorway driving on a dual carriageway approaching a one-way street approaching bends and junctions. DES s9, HC r If you want to turn your car around try to find a place where you have good all-round vision. If this isnt possible and youre unable to see clearly, then get someone to guide you. You cannot see clearly behind when reversing. Open your window to look behind Open the door and look behind Look in the nearside mirror Ask someone to guide you.
DES s4, HC r Modern vehicles provide the driver with well-positioned mirrors which are essential to safe driving. However, they cannot see every angle of the scene behind and to the sides of the vehicle. This is why it is essential that you check over your shoulder, so that you are aware of any hazards not reflected in your mirrors.
What does the term blind spot mean for a driver? An area covered by your right-hand mirror An area not covered by your headlights An area covered by your left-hand mirror An area not covered by your mirrors. DES s1, HC r Unlike someone in the car with you, the person on the other end of the line is unable to see the traffic situations you are dealing with. They will not stop speaking to you even if you are approaching a hazardous situation.
You need to be concentrating on your driving all of the time, but especially so when dealing with a hazard. DES s8, HC r Before emerging right onto a dual carriageway make sure that the central reserve is deep enough to protect your vehicle. If its not, you should treat it as one road and check that its clear in both directions before pulling out. Neglecting to do this could place part or all of your vehicle in the path of approaching traffic and cause a collision.
Using a hands-free phone is likely to improve your safety increase your concentration reduce your view divert your attention. You are turning right onto a dual carriageway.
What should you do before emerging? DES s10 Windscreen pillars can completely block your view of pedestrians, motorcyclists and pedal cyclists. You should particularly watch out for these road users; dont just rely on a quick glance. Where possible make eye contact with them so you can be sure they have seen you too.
You are waiting to emerge from a junction. The windscreen pillar is restricting your view. What should you be particularly aware of? However they can also distract you and cause you to lose control if you look at or adjust them while driving.
Pull up in a convenient and safe place before adjusting them. Your vehicle is fitted with a navigation system. How should you avoid letting this distract you while driving?
Keep going and input your destination into the system your route system system Keep going as the system will adjust to Stop immediately to view and use the Stop in a safe place before using the.
Case study practice 1 Alertness James has a two-hour drive to make on a motorway. He has a cold and his nose is also slightly blocked. He takes an off-the-shelf cold remedy to help reduce the symptoms. Its a cold and dull day and the car heater is on.
James also turns on his dipped headlights. An hour into the boring journey, James begins to feel drowsy. Mark one answer Information about the retailers who stock the product Information about the medicine causing drowsiness Information about how many pills are in the packet Information about the manufacturer of the medicine HC r96 DES s1.
Mark one answer To observe other vehicles more clearly To improve his view of the road To catch sight of road signs easily To maximise his visibility to others HC r Mark one answer Keep driving, slow down a little while taking a caffeinated drink Drive more slowly, turn the vehicle around and go back home Stop in a service area, drink a caffeinated drink and then rest Stop on the hard shoulder, recline the seat fully back and rest HC r91 DES s1.
In this section, youll learn about showing consideration and courtesy to other road users how to follow other road users safely giving priority to emergency vehicles, buses and pedestrians.
Attitude Safe driving is all about developing the correct attitude and approach to road safety, together with a sound knowledge of driving techniques. However modern, fast or expensive your vehicle, its you, the driver, who determines how safe it is. Good manners on the road Be considerate to other road users.
Other drivers, cyclists and horse riders have just as much right to use the road as you. If you drive in a competitive way, youll make the road less safe for everyone using it. Its also important to be patient with other road users. Unfortunately, not everyone obeys the rules. Try to be calm and tolerant, however difficult it seems. For instance, if someone pulls out in front of you at a junction, slow down and dont get annoyed with them. Helping other road users You can help other road users know what youre planning to do by signalling correctly and moving to the correct position at junctions.
For instance, if you want to turn right, get into the right-hand lane well before the junction. A badly positioned vehicle could obstruct traffic behind it.
HC r DES s7, 8. If youre driving a slow-moving vehicle, consider other drivers behind you. If theres a long queue, pull over as soon as you can do so safely and let the traffic pass. Think how you would feel if you were one of the drivers following behind you. They may not be as patient as you are.
HC r DES s If a large vehicle is trying to overtake you but is taking a long time, slow down and let it pass. It will need more time to pass you than a car would. HC r DES s7. If youre travelling at the speed limit and a driver comes up behind flashing their headlights or trying to overtake, keep a steady course and allow them to overtake. Dont try to stop them they could become more frustrated. HC r DES s7, Using your horn and lights Only sound your horn if theres danger and you need to let others know youre there.
Dont sound it through impatience. HC r DES s58, At night, dont dazzle other road users. Dip your lights when youre following another vehicle.
If youre queuing in traffic at night, use your handbrake rather than keeping your foot on the brake, as your brake lights could dazzle drivers behind you. You should only flash your headlights to show other road users youre there. Its not a signal to show priority, impatience or to greet others. HC r DES s5, Animals on the road Horses can be frightened easily and a rider could lose control of their horse.
When passing horses keep your speed right down give them plenty of room. If the road is blocked by animals, or if youre asked to, stop and switch off your engine until the road is clear. Following safely Driving too closely behind another vehicle known as tailgating is intimidating and distracting for the road user in front very dangerous, as it could cause an incident if the vehicle stops suddenly.
Travelling too closely to another vehicle also means that you can see less of the road ahead, so keep well back, especially from large vehicles. Youll be able to see further down the road and spot any hazards ahead more easily. DES s7, Use a fixed point, like a road sign, to help you measure the gap between you and the vehicle in front.
See section 4, Safety margins, for more information about the amount of space to leave between you and the vehicle in front.
When youre following large vehicles, you may see them move to the centre of the road before turning left this is because they need more room to manoeuvre. Keep well back and dont try to pass on the left as the rear of the vehicle will cut in. If the road user behind is following too closely, gradually increase the gap between you and the vehicle in front. This will give you a greater safety margin.
If another road user cuts in front of you, drop back until youve restored your safety margin. Giving priority to others Who has priority on the road at any time can vary. Sometimes traffic going in one direction is given priority, and this is shown by a road sign. Having priority doesnt mean you can demand right of way. Be careful: Emergency vehicles Always give priority to emergency vehicles.
Its important for them to move quickly through traffic because someones life might depend on it. Pull over to let them through as soon as you can do so safely.
As well as fire, police and ambulance services, other emergency services also use a blue flashing light, including those shown here. Doctors vehicles may use green flashing lights when answering an emergency call. Watch the Blue Light Aware video to find out more about how to help emergency vehicles get through traffic.
Priority for buses Give priority to buses pulling out from bus stops, as long as you can do so safely. In some areas, bus lanes allow buses to proceed quickly through traffic. Be aware of road signs and markings so that you dont use bus lanes while theyre in operation. HC r DES s6, 7, Unmarked crossroads At unmarked crossroads, no-one has priority. Slow down, look both ways and only emerge into the junction when you can do so safely. Pedestrian crossings Be particularly careful around pedestrian crossings so that youre ready to stop if necessary.
What you need to be aware of Watch out for pedestrians at or approaching a zebra crossing. Be ready to slow down and stop. Be patient if they cross slowly. Dont encourage them to cross by waving or flashing your headlights there may be another vehicle coming. If youre approaching a pelican crossing and the amber light is flashing give way to pedestrians on the crossing dont move off until the crossing is clear.
What you need to be aware of Puffin crossings are electronically controlled. Sensors ensure that the red light shows until the pedestrian has safely crossed the road. These crossings dont have a flashing amber light; they have a steady amber light, like normal traffic lights. Toucan crossings, which work in a similar way to puffin crossings, allow cyclists to cross at the same time as pedestrians.
Meeting the standards You must be able to help other road users to understand what you intend to do by signalling correctly support the signals that you make with the position of your vehicle. For example, if youre turning right, position the car in good time and use the right-turn lane if there is one control your reaction to other road users.
Try not to get annoyed or frustrated give other road users enough time and space. You must know and understand what can happen if you wrongly use the headlights or the horn as a signal what lane discipline is and why its important that its an offence to drive without due care and attention without reasonable consideration for other road users.
Think about To which vehicles do you need to give priority? What would you do if someone was tailgating you? In what conditions should you keep a four-second distance between you and the vehicle in front? What problems might you cause if youre impatient and inconsiderate while driving? Read more about attitude to come up with your own ideas. Discuss with your instructor the different crossings you may come across puffin, toucan, etc and who can use them which emergency vehicles you may see on the road police, doctors, etc and how to react to them what the two-second rule means and how it may change in different weather conditions.
Practise with your instructor driving in an area with bus lanes, to practise how to react when theyre in operation driving at night, to get used to using your dipped and main beam headlights driving in heavy traffic, to get used to other vehicles that may be following you too closely. Push-button controls change the signals.
Pelican crossings have no red-and-amber stage before green. Instead, they have a flashing amber light, which means you MUST give way to pedestrians already on the crossing, but if it is clear, you may continue. DES s7, HC r If people are waiting to use a pedestrian crossing, slow down and be prepared to stop. Dont wave them across the road since another driver may not have seen them, may not have seen your signal and may not be able to stop safely.
DES s10, 11, HC r Tailgating is used to describe this dangerous practice, often seen in fast-moving traffic and on motorways. Following the vehicle in front too closely is dangerous because it restricts your view of the road ahead leaves you no safety margin if the vehicle in front slows down or stops suddenly.
At a pelican crossing the flashing amber light means you MUST stop and wait for the green light stop and wait for the red light give way to pedestrians waiting to cross give way to pedestrians already on the crossing.
You should never wave people across at pedestrian crossings because there may be another vehicle coming they may not be looking it is safer for you to carry on they may not be ready to cross. Tailgating means using the rear door of a hatchback car reversing into a parking space following another vehicle too closely driving with rear fog lights on. This will help you to see any hazards that might occur and allow you more time to react.
The safe separation gap of at least two seconds in dry conditions should be doubled in wet weather. You are following a vehicle on a wet road. You should leave a time gap of at least one second two seconds three seconds four seconds. DES s7, HC r A long lorry with a heavy load will need more time to pass you than a car, especially on an uphill stretch of road. Slow down and allow the lorry to pass.
A long, heavily laden lorry is taking a long time to overtake you. Speed up Slow down Hold your speed Change direction. DES s7 When you see emergency vehicles with blue flashing beacons, move out of the way as soon as it is safe to do so.
Which of the following vehicles will use blue flashing beacons? Motorway maintenance Bomb disposal Blood transfusion Police patrol Breakdown recovery. Check that there are no bollards or obstructions in the road that will prevent it from doing so.
DES s7, HC r A green flashing beacon on a vehicle means the driver or passenger is a doctor on an emergency call. Give way to them if its safe to do so. Be aware that the vehicle may be travelling quickly or may stop in a hurry. What type of emergency vehicle is fitted with a green flashing beacon?
Fire engine Road gritter Ambulance Doctors car. They are directed at tram drivers but you should know their meaning so that youre aware of the priorities and are able to anticipate the actions of the driver.
DES s7, HC r The narrow wheels of a bicycle can become stuck in the tram rails, causing the cyclist to stop suddenly, wobble or even lose balance altogether.
The tram lines are also slippery which could cause a cyclist to slide or fall off. On a road where trams operate, which of these vehicles will be most at risk from the tram rails? Cars Cycles Buses Lorries. Its function is to alert other road users to your presence. DES s7, 8, HC r If youre travelling in a one-way street and wish to turn right you should take up a position in the right-hand lane.
This will enable other road users not wishing to turn to proceed on the left. Indicate your intention and take up your position in good time. Move to the centre of the road when its safe to do so. This will allow vehicles to pass you on the left.
Early planning will show other traffic what you intend to do. What should you use your horn for? To alert others to your presence To allow you right of way To greet other road users To signal your annoyance. You are in a one-way street and want to turn right. You should position yourself in the right-hand lane in the left-hand lane in either lane, depending on the traffic just left of the centre line.
You wish to turn right ahead. Why should you take up the correct position in good time? To allow other drivers to pull out in front of you To give a better view into the road that youre joining intend to do To help other road users know what you To allow drivers to pass you on the right. Look out for cyclists approaching the crossing at speed. At which type of crossing are cyclists allowed to ride across with pedestrians?
Toucan Puffin Pelican Zebra. This will only lead to the other driver becoming more frustrated.
Allow the other vehicle to pass when you can do so safely. You are travelling at the legal speed limit. A vehicle comes up quickly behind, flashing its headlights. You should accelerate to make a gap behind you touch the brakes sharply to show your brake lights maintain your speed to prevent the vehicle from overtaking allow the vehicle to overtake.
Dont use them to greet others, show impatience or give priority to other road users. They could misunderstand your signal. You should ONLY flash your headlights to other road users to show that you are giving way to show that you are about to turn to tell them that you have right of way to let them know that you are there.
DES s8, HC r Be extra-cautious, especially when your view is restricted by hedges, bushes, walls and large vehicles etc. In the summer months these junctions can become more difficult to deal with when growing foliage may obscure your view. You are approaching unmarked crossroads. How should you deal with this type of junction? Accelerate and keep to the middle Slow down and keep to the right Accelerate looking to the left Slow down and look both ways.
DES s7, 10, 11, HC r To measure this, choose a fixed reference point such as a bridge, sign or tree. When the vehicle ahead passes the object, say to yourself Only a fool breaks the two-second rule. The conditions are good and dry. You could use the two-second rule before restarting the engine after it has stalled to keep a safe gap from the vehicle in front before using the Mirror-Signal-Manoeuvre routine when emerging on wet roads.
DES s7, HC r Puffin crossings have infra-red sensors which detect when pedestrians are crossing and hold the red traffic signal until the crossing is clear.
The use of a sensor means there is no flashing amber phase as there is with a pelican crossing. Give yourself a greater safety margin by easing back from the vehicle in front. At a puffin crossing, which colour follows the green signal? Steady red Flashing amber Steady amber Flashing green.
You are in a line of traffic. The driver behind you is following very closely. What action should you take? DES s7, 10, HC r Give way to buses whenever you can do so safely, especially when they signal to pull away from bus stops. Look out for people leaving the bus and crossing the road. DES s13, HC r Use the full beam headlights only when you can be sure that you wont dazzle other road users.
You are driving on a clear night. There is a steady stream of oncoming traffic. The national speed limit applies. Which lights should you use? Full beam headlights Sidelights Dipped headlights Fog lights. They may move out to the right in order to make a left turn.
Keep well back and dont attempt to pass on the left. You are driving behind a large goods vehicle. It signals left but steers to the right.
You should slow down and let the vehicle turn drive on, keeping to the left overtake on the right of it hold your speed and sound your horn. Be tolerant and try not to retaliate or react aggressively. Always consider the safety of other road users, your passengers and yourself.
Accelerate to get closer to the red van Give a long blast on the horn Drop back to leave the correct separation distance Flash your headlights several times. However, if you are driving in fog its safer to keep your foot on the footbrake. In this case it will give the vehicle behind extra warning of your presence. You are waiting in a traffic queue at night. To avoid dazzling following drivers you should apply the handbrake only apply the footbrake only switch off your headlights use both the handbrake and footbrake.
If necessary, slow down. Reacting incorrectly to another drivers impatience can lead to danger. You are driving in traffic at the speed limit for the road. The driver behind is trying to overtake. You should move closer to the car ahead, so the driver behind has no room to overtake it is safe wave the driver behind to overtake when keep a steady course and allow the driver behind to overtake behind accelerate to get away from the driver. This can cause disruption to traffic and delays to public transport.
Animals are unpredictable and startle easily; they could turn and run into your path or into the path of another moving vehicle. A person herding sheep asks you to stop. You should ignore them as they have no authority stop and switch off your engine continue on but drive slowly try and get past quickly.
DES s10, HC r Horses can become startled by the sound of a car engine or the rush of air caused by passing too closely. Keep well back and only pass when it is safe; leave them plenty of room. You may have to use the other side of the road to go past: When overtaking a horse and rider you should sound your horn as a warning go past as quickly as possible flash your headlights as a warning go past slowly and carefully.
They may walk across without looking. Zebra crossings have flashing amber beacons on both sides of the road, black and white stripes on the crossing and white zigzag markings on both sides of the crossing. Where you can see pedestrians waiting to cross, slow down and prepare to stop. Plan ahead and learn to anticipate hazards. Youll then give yourself more time to react to any problems that might occur.
Be tolerant of the behaviour of other road users who dont behave correctly. Dont proceed until the green light shows it is safe for vehicles to do so. You are approaching a zebra crossing. Pedestrians are waiting to cross. You should give way to the elderly and infirm only slow down and prepare to stop use your headlights to indicate they can cross wave at them to cross the road. A vehicle pulls out in front of you at a junction.
Swerve past it and sound your horn Flash your headlights and drive up close behind Slow down and be ready to stop Accelerate past it immediately. You are approaching a red light at a puffin crossing. Pedestrians are on the crossing. The red light will stay on until you start to edge forward on to the crossing position the pedestrians have reached a safe the pedestrians are clear of the front of your vehicle a driver from the opposite direction reaches the crossing.
DES s3 You should be aware of where all the warning lights and visual aids are on the vehicle you are driving. If you are driving a vehicle for the first time you should take time to check all the controls. DES s7, 10, HC r In good, dry conditions an alert driver, whos driving a vehicle with tyres and brakes in good condition, needs to keep a distance of at least two seconds from the car in front.
You should leave at least a two-second gap between your vehicle and the one in front when conditions are. DES s13, HC r If you follow another vehicle with your headlights on full beam they could dazzle the driver. Leave a safe distance and ensure that the light from your dipped beam falls short of the vehicle in front. You are driving at night on an unlit road behind another vehicle.
You should flash your headlights use dipped beam headlights switch off your headlights use full beam headlights.
Other road users may become impatient and this could lead to reckless actions. If youre driving a slow-moving vehicle and the road is narrow, look for a safe place to pull in. DONT wave other traffic past since this could be dangerous if you or they havent seen an oncoming vehicle. You are driving a slow-moving vehicle on a narrow winding road.
At the end of a dry spell of weather you should be aware that the road surfaces may have a high level of diesel spillage that hasnt been washed away by rain. You have a loose filler cap on your diesel fuel tank. This will waste fuel and money make roads slippery for other road users improve your vehicles fuel consumption increase the level of exhaust emissions. Ask your instructor if you can use a petrol station and fill the fuel tank yourself.
You need to know where the filler cap is located on the car you are driving in order to park on the correct side of the pump. Take care not to overfill the tank or spill fuel. Make sure you secure the filler cap as soon as you have replaced the fuel nozzle. DES s1 Competitive driving increases the risks to everyone and is the opposite of responsible, considerate and defensive driving.
Defensive driving is about questioning the actions of other road users and being prepared for the unexpected. Dont be taken by surprise.
To avoid spillage after refuelling, you should make sure that your tank is only three quarters full you have used a locking filler cap you check your fuel gauge is working your filler cap is securely fastened. What style of driving causes increased risk to everyone? Considerate Defensive Competitive Responsible. Case study practice 2 Attitude Sam is driving in heavy traffic. It has rained, but now bright sun is causing glare on the wet road.
A car overtakes, then pulls back sharply into the traffic just in front of Sam. Further on theres a roundabout with two lanes on approach. Sam needs to take the first exit, turning left.
A large vehicle in front signals left but straddles both lanes. The traffic is still heavy, and theres a zebra crossing up ahead. There are people waiting to cross. Mark one answer Become upset, slow down and use the horn Stay focused, speed up and lessen the gap Remain calm, slow down and increase the gap Feel annoyed, speed up and use the horn HC r, DES s1.
Mark one answer In the right-hand lane while signalling right In the left-hand lane without signalling In the left-hand lane while signalling left In the right-hand lane without signalling HC r DES s8. Mark one answer The driver isnt sure which way to go The indicators arent working properly The load being carried is extremely heavy The vehicle needs more room to turn HC r, DES s8.
In this section, youll learn about carrying out basic maintenance on your car what to do if your car has a fault using your cars safety equipment effectively making your car secure parking safely being aware of the environment avoiding congestion. Safety and your vehicle Look after your car and it will look after you, not only by being less likely to break down, but also by being more economical and lasting longer. Remember that an efficient engine is kinder to the environment. Looking after your car Regular maintenance should ensure that your car is safe and fit to be on the road.
It will also help to make sure that your car uses fuel as efficiently as possible and keep its exhaust emissions to a minimum. Lights, brakes, steering, the exhaust system, seat belts, horn, speedometer, wipers and washers must all be working properly. HC p DES s12, Check the following items on a regular basis. Wipers and washers The battery may need topping up with distilled water, unless its a maintenance-free battery. Exhaust system Tyre condition: Uneven wear on the tyres can be caused by faults in the braking system, suspension or tracking.
If the front wheels are unbalanced, they could make the steering vibrate. Tyre pressures: This will ensure that you get an accurate reading. Under-inflated tyres can make the steering feel heavy increase fuel consumption increase your stopping distance.
Oil and coolant levels: The tread on car and trailer tyres must be at least 1. Its illegal to drive with tyres that have cuts or defects in the side walls. HC p DES s Dry steering is when you turn the steering wheel while the car isnt moving. It can cause unnecessary wear to the tyres and steering mechanism. DES s3. To check the condition of the shock absorbers, bounce the vehicle.
Push down hard over each wheel: Dealing with faults A basic understanding of how your car works will help you recognise when theres a problem with it. Its important that your car is checked regularly by a qualified mechanic, especially the brakes and the steering. Warning lights on the dashboard tell you about the performance of the engine and warn you of any faults. Check your vehicle handbook to make sure that you know what all the warning lights mean. Dont ignore a warning: HC p DES s3, The anti-lock braking system ABS warning light should go out when the cars travelling at mph.
If this doesnt happen, have the ABS checked by a qualified mechanic. Brake fade is when the brakes become less effective because of overheating. It may happen if you use them continuously, such as on a long, steep downhill stretch of road. In this situation, use a lower gear to help you control the vehicles speed.
Visit a garage as soon as possible if the steering vibrates the wheels may need balancing the vehicle pulls to one side when you brake your brakes may need adjusting.
Safety equipment Modern cars are fitted with equipment designed to keep you as safe as possible, but you need to make sure that you use it correctly for it to be effective. Seat belts and restraints Always wear your seat belt and make sure your passengers wear theirs unless exempt.
The driver is responsible for making sure that children under 14 wear a suitable restraint. HC r99, Adults aged 14 and over, and children over 1. Children aged from 3 to 12 years, or up to 1. If a suitable child restraint isnt available in the rear seat for children aged 3 to 12, an adult seat belt MUST be used. Children under 3 years of age MUST use a suitable child seat.
Never fit a rear-facing baby seat in a seat protected by an active airbag. The airbag MUST be deactivated first. HC r DES s2.
Safety before you start driving Make sure that youre safe and comfortable before you begin your journey. When you get into the car adjust the seat so that you can reach all the controls comfortably. Convex mirrors give a wider view but can make vehicles look further away than they are. If you cant see behind you when youre reversing, get someone to guide you. HC r97 DES s3, 4. See why its important to adjust the head restraint correctly, and how to do it, in this video.
Lights If youre driving in poor visibility, such as fog or heavy rain, use dipped headlights. Its important for other road users to see you. If theres thick fog, use your fog lights but remember to switch them off when visibility improves.
HC r, When leaving your car on a two-way road at night, park in the direction of the traffic. Hazard warning lights are fitted so that you can warn road users of a hazard ahead, such as when youve broken down queuing traffic on a dual carriageway or motorway.
Dont use them as an excuse to park illegally, even for a short time. HC r, , DES s3, Security Although its impossible to make a car completely secure, the harder you make it for a potential thief to break in and steal your property or your car, the less likely you are to be targeted.
Make it as difficult as you can for a thief to either break into your car or steal it. Use a steering lock. Lock any contents, especially valuables, out of sight, or take them with you if you can.
Dont leave the vehicle registration documents in the car: To make it more difficult for an opportunist thief, you can fit an anti-theft alarm or immobiliser use a visible security device such as a steering lock or handbrake lock have the vehicle registration number etched on the windows: Stereos and other forms of in-car entertainment are prime targets for thieves.
Install a security-coded stereo to deter thieves, or a removable one so you can lock it away or take it with you. Always lock away valuable items, or anything that looks valuable, out of sight or take them with you. Always switch off the engine and lock your car before leaving it. Consider joining a Vehicle Watch scheme if theres one in your area.
Contact the crime prevention officer at your local police station to find out more. Use this link to find out more about thefts from vehicles. Parking safely Where you park your car can affect the safety of other road users. Avoid parking where your car would block access or visibility for others, such as in front of a property entrance at or near a bus stop near the brow of a hill where the limited view of the road ahead makes it difficult to see whether its safe to pass the obstruction at a dropped kerb, as this is a place for wheelchair and mobility scooter users to get onto the road or pavement.
This would block the view of pedestrians and road users, and endanger people trying to use the crossing.
HC r, DES s9. Being aware of the environment Most cars burn petrol or diesel, which are both fossil fuels. Burning these fuels causes air pollution and damages the environment, while using up natural resources that cant be replaced. You can help the environment by driving in an ecosafe way: Ecosafe driving Follow these guidelines to make your driving ecosafe. Reduce your speed. Plan well ahead so that you can drive smoothly.
Use selective gear changing: This can help by reducing the amount of time youre accelerating, which is the time when your vehicle uses the most fuel. Follow these guidelines to make your driving ecosafe. Make sure your tyres are correctly inflated.
Avoid carrying unnecessary loads or leaving an empty roof rack on your car over-revving the engine in lower gears leaving the engine running unnecessarily if your vehicle is stationary and likely to remain so for some time, switch off the engine.
Try not to use your car to make a lot of short journeys: Using public transport or sharing a car can reduce the volume of traffic and vehicle emissions. In an automatic car, kick-down is a mechanism that gives quick acceleration when needed; for example, to overtake. Excessive use of this will burn more fuel. Keeping your car in good condition Having your car serviced regularly will help you to maintain the fuel economy of your car, and reduce its exhaust emissions.
If your vehicle is over three years old over four years old in Northern Ireland , it will have to pass an emissions test as part of the MOT test. The amount of road tax youll need to pay depends on the amount of carbon dioxide emitted by your car. Use this website to calculate vehicle tax rates. Take them to a local authority site or a garage. Dont pour oil down the drain. Make sure your fuel filler cap is securely fastened. If its loose, it could spill fuel, which wastes both fuel and money.
Spilt diesel fuel makes the road slippery for other road users. Noise pollution Dont make excessive noise with your vehicle. HC r DES s3. Avoiding congestion Sometimes its impossible to avoid road congestion, but if you can it will make driving less stressful for you. Always try to plan your route before starting out avoid driving at times when roads will be busy, if possible allow plenty of time for your journey, especially if you have an appointment to keep or a connection to make.
Plan your route by looking at a map using satellite navigation equipment checking for roadworks or major events with a motoring organisation using a route planner on the internet. In some towns and cities you may see red lines on the side of the road, which indicate Red Routes. They help the traffic flow by restricting stopping on these routes. HC p DES s6. If youre travelling on a new or unfamiliar route, its a good idea to print out or write down the route, and also to plan an alternative route in case theres a problem with your original route.
If you can avoid travelling at busy times, youll be less likely to be delayed help to ease congestion for those who have to travel at these times. In some areas, you may have to pay a congestion charge to use congested road space.
In London, those exempt from paying include disabled people who hold a Blue Badge riders of two-wheeled vehicles people living within the area. Meeting the standards You must be able to check that all lights and reflectors are legal clean in good working order make sure that all tyres including any spare are at the right pressure have enough tread depth get to know the vehicle if its the first time youve driven it carry out pre-start checks on doors parking brake seat steering seat belt mirrors.
You must know and understand that these must be kept clean at all times lights indicators reflectors number plates are correctly fitted are correctly inflated have enough tread depth are legal to use. Think about What maintenance does your car need each week, month and year? What should you do if a warning light appears on your dashboard while youre driving?
Which security features does your car have? How could you improve your cars security? Are there more efficient alternative forms of transport available for your journey? How can you find out about local traffic congestion? For example, local radio stations, websites and mobile phone apps. Read more about safety and your vehicle to come up with your own ideas. Discuss with your instructor the importance of the state of your tyres, eg on safety, fuel consumption, vehicle handling, etc what the seat belt requirements are for different age groups and whos responsible for them how to keep your car and belongings safe while parked.
Practise with your instructor driving through built-up areas to get used to different methods of traffic calming parking in safe areas, both in daylight and at night planning your journey. Do this with your lesson route and see how you can avoid busy times and places. Prepare an alternative route as well. DES s12, 14, HC p Your tyres are your only contact with the road so it is very important to ensure that they are free from defects, have sufficient tread depth and are correctly inflated.
Correct tyre pressures help reduce the risk of skidding and provide a safer and more comfortable drive or ride. Every effort must be made to prevent excessive noise, especially in built-up areas at night. Dont rev the engine sound the horn unnecessarily. It is illegal to sound your horn in a built-up area between Which TWO are badly affected if the tyres are under-inflated? Braking Steering Changing gear Parking. You must NOT sound your horn between 10 pm and 6 am in a built-up area at any time in a built-up area between DES s17 Trams are powered by electricity and therefore do not emit exhaust fumes.
They are also much quieter than petrol or diesel engined vehicles and can carry a large number of passengers. However, inconsiderate parking can lead to the closure of an inside lane or traffic having to wait for oncoming vehicles.
Driving slowly in traffic increases fuel consumption and causes a build-up of exhaust fumes. DES s6, HC r Traffic calming measures help keep vehicle speeds low in congested areas where there are pedestrians and children.
A pedestrian is much more likely to survive a collision with a vehicle travelling at 20 mph than at 40 mph. DES s17 Catalytic converters are designed to reduce a large percentage of toxic emissions. They work more efficiently when the engine has reached its normal working temperature.
Red routes in major cities have been introduced to raise the speed limits help the traffic flow provide better parking allow lorries to load more freely.
Road humps, chicanes and narrowings are always at major road works used to increase traffic speed at toll-bridge approaches only traffic calming measures. The purpose of a catalytic converter is to reduce fuel consumption the risk of fire toxic exhaust gases engine wear. This will give you a more accurate reading. The heat generated from a long journey will raise the pressure inside the tyre. It is essential that tyre pressures are checked regularly. When should this be done? After any lengthy journey After travelling at high speed When tyres are hot When tyres are cold.
DES s17 Check your tyre pressures frequently normally once a week. If pressures are lower than those recommended by the manufacturer, there will be more rolling resistance. The engine will have to work harder to overcome this, leading to increased fuel consumption.
DES s17 Batteries contain acid which is hazardous and must be disposed of safely. You will use more fuel if your tyres are under-inflated of different makes over-inflated new and hardly used. How should you dispose of a used battery? Take it to a local authority site Put it in the dustbin Break it up into pieces Leave it on waste land Take it to a garage Burn it on a fire. DES s17, HC r Accelerating and braking gently and smoothly will help to save fuel, reduce wear on your vehicle and is better for the environment.
What is most likely to cause high fuel consumption? Poor steering control Accelerating around bends Staying in high gears Harsh braking and accelerating. DES s5 Some modern batteries are maintenance-free. Check your vehicle handbook and, if necessary, make sure that the plates in each battery cell are covered.