If this is not the case, then the application comprises a heating dimension, and part B of the questionnaire must also Max. surface temperature of the piping. Aug 16, Posts about piping questionnaire pdf written by awscwitraining. DOWNLOAD PDF. Report this file. Description. Download Piping Questionnaire Free in pdf format. Sponsored Ads. Shop Related Products.
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Jul 28, Page 1 of 63 PIPING QUESTIONAIRE Questions related to Codes & standard: 1 . What is the ASME code followed for design of piping systems. Piping Questionnaire. 1. What is the ASME code for design of piping systems in Process piping (Refineries & Chemical Industries)?. Answer: B 2. Piping Questionnaire - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.
Advantage is of small coverage area and ability to house the facility to suit process requirement or climate conditions. The impeller rapidly builds up the pressure. Energy of radiation. Ring type. How the proof stress in a material is altered increased marginally?
Block Valve, Strainer, Break out flanges in both inlet and outlet to remove casing covers, Straightening vane in inlet line if not enough straight piece in inlet line available, PSV in interstage line and in discharge line before block valve. What points to be considered for reciprocating compressor piping layout? High pulsation, simple line as low to grade as possible for supporting, analog study, all branches close to line support and on top, Isolate line support from adjacent compressor or building foundations.
What are the types of compressor shelters? On ground with no shelter, Open sided structure with a roof, Curtain wall structure Temperate climates , Open elevated installation, Elevated multi-compressor structure.
What are drum internals? Demister pads, Baffles, Vortex breakers, Distribution piping. What are drum elevation requirements? NPSH, minimum clearance, common platforming, maintenance, operator access. What are drum supports? Skirt for large drums, legs, lugs, saddles for horizontal drums.
What are necessary nozzles for non-pressure vessel? Inlet, outlet, vent, manhole, drain, overflow, agitator, temperature element, level instrument, and steam-out connection. What are necessary nozzles for pressure vessel? Inlet, outlet, manhole, drain, pressure relief, agitator, level gauge, pressure gauge, temperature element, vent and for steam-out. What is preferred location for level instrument nozzles?
Away from the turbulence at the liquid outlet nozzle, although the vessel is provided with a vortex breaker, instrument should be set in the quiet zone of the vessel for example on the opposite side of the weir or baffle or near the vapor outlet end. What is preferred location for process nozzles on drum?
Minimum from the tangent line. What is preferred location for steam out nozzle on drum? At the end opposite to the maintenance access. What is preferred location for vent? AT the top section of drum at the end opposite the steam out connection. What is preferred location for pressure instrument nozzle on drum? Must be anywhere in the vapor space, preferable at the top section of drum.
What is preferred location for temperature instrument? Must be in liquid space, preferably on the bottom section of drum. What are various temporary closures for lines? Line blind valve, line blind, spectacle plate, double block and bleed, blind flanges replacing a removable spool.
Why horizontal displacement is specified in data-sheet? What will you do if the angle due to displacement is more than 4 degree? For bottom mounted springs it is mentioned to avoid large spring bending by frictional force and displacement.
For top mounted spring hangers horizontal displacement is mentioned to check angularity of 4 degree to reduce transmission of horizontal force to piping systems as spring hangers are designed to take the vertical load only.
If angle becomes more than 4 degree due to large horizontal movement then install the spring hanger in a offset position so that after movement the angle becomes less than 4 degree. Which spring will you select for your system: Spring with low stiffness or higher stiffness and why?
Springs with lower stiffness provides less load variation for same travel. So this spring is a better choice than a spring hanger with higher stiffness. What do you mean by Stress? What are the types of Stresses that are generated in a Piping? Whenever a force is applied to any object it applies a reaction force against the deformation by that force.
That reaction force per unit area is the measure for the generated stress. There has to be an external force to create stress. In a piping system there are various reasons for the generation of stress like Piping Weight, Internal and External pressure, Change in temperature, Seismic and Wind forces, PSV reaction force etc.
The stresses generated in a piping system are as follows: What factors to consider for site selection? District classification, Transportation facilities, Manpower availability, industrial infrastructure, community infrastructure, availability of raw water, effluent disposal, availability of power, availability of industrial gas, site size and nature, ecology and pollution. Why Stress Analysis is required? Ensure reliability and safety of working by Limiting Stresses sustained, expansion, hydro-test, occasional within code allowable.
Reducing damaging effects of dynamic loads.
Avoiding leakage at joints. Limiting sagging and displacements within allowable limits. Avoiding high loads on supporting structures. What is the difference between Stress and Pressure? Stress is generated because of internal resistance force. Pressure is generated because of external force. Pressure can be a cause to generate stress.
Where jacked screwed flange is used? For spectacle discs, one flange is jacked screw flange. This flange has two jacked screws degree apart which are used to create sufficient space between flange for easy removal and placement of line blind or spectacle blind. What is double block and bleed? Two valves with bleed ring in between with a bleed valve connected to the hole of bleed ring. Where blind flange is used? It is used with view to future expansion of the piping system, or for cleaning, inspection etc.
What are crude oil ranges? Crude oil BP Range: What is batch shell process? What are types of towers?
Stripper, Vacuum tower, trayed, packed towers. What is chimney tray? What factors to consider while setting tower elevation? NPSH, Operator access, Maintenance access, Minimum clearance, re-boiler type , common area, type of support, Tower dimensions, type of head, bottom outlet size, foundation details, minimum clearances. How to located tower maintenance access nozzles? At bottom, top and intermediate sections of tower, must not be at the down-comer section of tower and in front of internal piping.
How to located feed nozzle? Must be oriented in specific area of tray by means of internal piping. Handlever, handwheel, chain operator, gear operator, powered operator likes electric motor, solenoid, pneumatic and hydraulic operators, Quick acting operators for non-rotary valves handle lift. What are ball valve body types? Single piece, double piece, three piece, the short pattern, long pattern, sandwich and flush bottom design.
What are two types of ball valve? Full port design and regular port design, according to type of seat, soft seat and metal seat. Why ball valves are normally flanged? Because of soft seat PTFE which can damage during welding.
What are butterfly valve types? Double flange type, wafer lug type and wafer type. What are types of check valve? Lift check valves and swing check valves. What are non-slam check valves? Swing check valve, conventional check valve, wafer check valve, tilting disc check valve, piston check valve, stop check valve, ball check valve. Where stop check valve is used?
In stem generation by multiple boilers, where a valve is inserted between each boiler and the main steam header. It can be optionally closed automatically or normally. Where diaphragm valves are used? Used for low pressure corrosive services as shut off valves.
What is Barstock Valve? Any valve having a body machined from solid metal barstock. A air fin cooler 2 air coolers with each having 2 inlet nozzles needs a Typical piping arrangement. How many types of piping arrangement is possible. Thanks to for the answers Mahathir Che Ap Piping Designer SBMOffshore Still some answers are not so much satisfactory with total explanation, so if any of you does not agree with any of the above answers, give me feedback by leaving comments on this article or mail me the answers at ankit pipingguide.
Keep it up. Thank you Varun for your appreciation. If you can also some material which you would like to share with all, please do send us that to ankit pipingguide. That would be really helpful and you would be given full credit for that.
For Question number: Thanks for correcting us Piping Engineer: I'll make the proper modifications in post as required now. Answer to qustion 5- Normally Flat side bottom reducer used for slurry pump suction line so as to avoid the accumulation of solids inside the suction lines.
Does anyone know how to calculate SIF for Y pipe?
The answer to no. Though galvanic corrosion could set in because of dissimilar metals, the use of insulating kits may not be feasible at all times especially when higher temperatures are concerned.
Insulating kits are made of composite materials phenol or fiberglass and have limited usage at higher temperatures normally encountered in process plants. Answer to no. The answer is quite honest. One basic fact regarding aircooler piping design is to know how it is constructed, how it is supported and knowing the allowable loads per API Most aircoolers are constructed there are other ways that may need verification with equipment engineer very much like how a cassette tape slides into a slot.
For the most part, a "waterfall" piping arrangement or what I call a "piano" arrangement wherein pipes flow down from a header to the nozzles, is the most ideal for airfin coolers. The routing has to be reasonably arranged with a few elbows and pipe length for pipe flexibility to ensure nozzle loads on airfin coolers which are commonly low are not exceeded. Some companies would require that aircoolers be at least twice or three times the allowable loads per API The bolts should be replaced with stainless steel bolts to prevent dissimilar metal contamination.
Very interesting questions.
More Piping quiz are available at http: Ans For que. Actually at the pump inlet reducers are flat site down to avoid the cavitation at the pump inlet which would damage impellers and gives abnormal sound and leads to damage of pump casing too.
Hi George, I just finished my piping engineering course form hyd, can you guide me as to any job openings? Can any one guide me as to any job openings in piping engineering field for freshers? Just enter your email address: Samir Kumar.
Still some answers are not so much satisfactory with total explanation, so if any of you does not agree with any of the above answers, give me feedback by leaving comments on this article or mail me the answers at ankit pipingguide. Tagged as: Varuntyagi February 15, at 3: Ankit Chugh February 16, at 8: Piping engineer February 23, at 3: Ankit Chugh February 23, at 3: Presence of oil. Chemically imperfect welding consumables. Excessive welding current.
Keep the joint surface especially gas cut surface and bare filler wire perfectly clean. The pores are in the form of small spherical cavities either clustered locally or scattered throughout the weld deposit.
Slag Inclusion Non—metallic particles of comparatively large size entrapped in the weld metal are termed as slag inclusion. Faulty composition of base material or electrode. Porosity The presence of gas pores in a weld caused by entrapment of gas during solidification is termed as porosity.
Quick-freezing of weld deposit. Faulty weld size and profile A weld is considered faulty if it has lack of reinforcement. Undercut This defect appears as a continuous or discontinuous groove at the toes of a weld pass and is located on the base metal or in the fusion face of a multipass weld. Sometimes entrapped gas give rise to a single large cavity called Blowholes. Use of low carbon equivalent materials. Crack Fracture of the metal is called crack. Improper cleaning of slag between the deposition of successive passes.
Use of low hydrogen electrode. Presence of heavy mill scale. It occurs prominently on the edge of a fillet weld deposited in the horizontal position. Inadequate gas shielding or impure gas in a gas —shielded process. Excessive moisture in the electrode coating or submerged-arc flux. Use proper welding consumables. Too high speed of arc travel. Wrong electrode angle. Page 12 of 63 C. As the molten pool solidifies and shrinks.
Page 13 of 63 H. Distortion Because a weldment is locally heated by most welding processes.
Distortion is caused when the heated weld region contracts nonuniformly. When it first solidifies. As it cools to ambient temperature. Residual stresses in weldments have two major effects. The distortion may appear in butt joints as both longitudinal and transverse shrinkage or contraction. Distortion in fillet welds is similar to that in butt welds: What is the soaking temperature during stress reliving for carbon steel material?
What is the pre-heat temperature for carbon steel above What is the soaking period during stress reliving for alloy steel material? Post heating is not required for carbon steel material of any thickness. What is the soaking period during stress reliving for carbon steel material? Why post-heating is done on some pipe after the welding is over? Why it is required? What is the soaking temperature during stress reliving for alloy steel material?
What is the post heat temperature for alloy steel material? Page 14 of 63 8. Why pre-heating is done on some pipe before starting welding? Is post heating required for carbon steel material above What is the pre-heat temperature during stress reliving for alloy steel materials?
Higher carbon equivalent material. Page 15 of 63 Type of coating the undiluted weld metal and current condition.
This CO2 gives a gaseous shielding for the metal and prevents atmospheric hydrogen from entering in arc atmosphere. Where the use of electrode E is recommended? The difference is only in soaking temperature. By this way the weld metal has low level of hydrogen.
For high thickness carbon steel plates. UTS — Ultimate tensile strength. Why the electrode E is called low hydrogen electrode? For high strength steel. The pipe is rotated during welding. Plates so placed that the weld is deposited with its axis horizontal on the underside of the horizontal surface and against the vertical surface. Overhead Position 4F: The axis of the weld will be horizontal and the pipe is not rotated during welding. Horizontal Position 2FR: Refer sketch e. The pipe is not to be rotated during welding.
Horizontal Position 2F: The axis of the weld will be horizontal and the pipe is not to be rotated during welding. Refer sketch d. Refer sketch c. Pipe with its axis vertical so that the weld is deposited on the underside of the horizontal surface and against the vertical surface. Plates so placed that the weld is deposited with its axis horizontal on the upper side of the horizontal surface and against the vertical surface.
Refer sketch b. Refer sketch a. Pipe with its axis horizontal and the axis of the deposited weld in the vertical plane. Pipe with its axis vertical so that the weld is deposited on the upper side of the horizontal surface and against the vertical surface. Vertical Position 3F: Flat Position 1F: Multiple Position 5F: Plates so placed that the weld is deposited with its axis vertical. Page 16 of 63 Pipe positions: Pipe with axis horizontal and the axis of the deposited weld in the vertical Plane.
Plate in vertical plane with the axis of the weld vertical. Page 17 of 63 Test positions for Groove welds: Overhead Position 4G: Multiple Position 5G: Pipe shall be not be rotated during welding. Pipe with its axis vertical and the axis of weld in a horizontal plane.
Flat Position 1G: Horizontal Position 2G: Plate in a horizontal plane with the weld metal deposited from underneath.
Multiple Position 6G: Pipe Positions: Pipe with its axis horizontal and rolled during welding so that the weld metal is deposited from above. Vertical position 3G: Plate in a horizontal plan with the weld metal deposited from above. Horizontal position 2G: Welding shall be done without rotating the pipe. Pipe with its axis horizontal and the welding groove in vertical plane. Plate in a vertical plane with the axis of the weld in horizontal.
Draw the Groove details for 6G position in pipe? Page 18 of 63 Horizontal Joint. What are the types of flexible spring hangers? Thermal loads during operation. Page 19 of 63 The co-efficient of friction for Graphite Pads is 0. Wind loads for piping at higher elevation. Steam out condition.
What are the Criteria for Pipe Supporting? Variable Spring Hanger. Forced vibration due to pulsating flow. Constant Spring Hanger 2. Questions related to pipes supports: What is the affect if the quantity of hydrogen induced in weld metal is more?
What is the function of providing the anchor. What is the purpose of providing Graphite Pads in supports below shoes? These cracks are called hydrogen induced cracking or delayed crack.
How is piping to Tank inlet nozzle is supported and why? Load of valves and online equipment and instrument. Constant spring Hanger: Iridium — B. What are the types of radiation emitted by isotopes? To avoid alloy steel welding and dissimilar welding. Thulium — 4. Cobalt — 60 C. Undesirable movement means movement caused by wind loading. Their purpose is to limit the undesirable movement.
Cesium — D. What is the difference between variable spring hanger and constant spring hanger? What are sway braces? Questions related to Radiography technology: Page 20 of 63 8. Name the gamma ray source used for industrial radiography work? Easily absorbed in the matter. Name the isotopes. They can be stopped by a thin sheet of paper.
Milliamperage X-ray or source strength for Gamma ray. Cesium — Time of exposure. What are the governing factors for exposure from particular radioisotopes? Light intensity incident on the film. Page 21 of 63 5. Iridium — What is the depth of penetration in steel by cobalt — Focal spot to film distance or source to film distance. What are the factors on which the density of radiographic film depends? Intensifying action of the screen if used. It is expressed as: Amount of radiation reaching the specimen.
The amount of radiation passing through the specimen. How the intensity of source is related with film distance? Cobalt — What do you mean by photographic Density? Name the instrument used for measuring density of photographic or radiographic film? Total amount of radiation emitted by X-ray or gamma ray.
D is density.
Light intensity transmitted through the film. This relation is known as the Inverse square law. What do you mean by Roentgen? The above relation is not quit accurate for exposure to light.
M 1 and M 2 are the Milliamperage. What do you mean by exposure? Page 22 of 63 The equation is expressed as: The above relation is also called Reciprocity law and is true for direct X-ray or gamma ray with lead screen exposure. D1 and D 2 are the distance from focus to film. It is defined as the amount of X or gamma radiation which liberates 1e s u of charge of either sign in 1 C.
What is the relation between Milliamperage source strength and film distance? How the source strength of radiographic isotopes expressed? T1 and T 2 are the time of exposure. Fluorescent screen or salt screens.
Thickness of foil. What do you mean by intensification factor IF? How the intensification factor depends on metal of foil? Lead oxide screen. Page 23 of 63 What is the function of radiographic screens? Quality factor generally considered as: Energy of radiation. Metal of foil. The unit of dose equivalent is Sievert SV. For gamma ray radiography generally Lead screen are used.
In the above definition it is assumed that same film and radiation source used for the both the exposure. Lead screen. Specimen thickness. Lead foil screen. What is Dose equivalent? What are the factors upon which the intensification factor depends? Intensification factor increases with atomic number of the metal.
What are the types of Lead screens? What are the types of radiographic screens generally used? What is the different base material tried so far for radiographic film? The intensification of low energy scattered radiation is more than the intensification of high energy filtered radiation. How the intensification factor depends on thickness of foil?
It provides the sticky action to the emulsion. Page 24 of 63 Emulsion and D. Where the fluorescent screen finds its use? What is the function of Subbing material. The radiographic screen can have different sensitivities for primary radiation and the radiation given by the above two effects. What are the main constituents of a radiographic film? Base material. Subbing layer. Intensification increases maximum corresponding to the range of photoelectron in that metal.
Cellulose Acetate. Gives low energy scattered radiation. How the intensification factor depends on energy of radiation? How the intensification factor depends on thickness of the specimen? Polyester Most suitable material to be used as base material. After further increase it remains practically constant. It filters the primary radiation. Cellulose Nitrate. If the thickness further increased. Hence the change in intensification factor with object thickness is expected. Cellulose Triacetate.
It contains silver bromide gelatin Generally animal bone marrow Protective Layer: It is coated on emulsion in order to protect the same from physical damage.
It is inverse of exposure required to produce on radiograph of particular density under the specified conditions. Low speed. Medium contrast. Sodium carbonate. Hydroquinone and Pencilone. Class — I: The exposed film when processed converts latent image into visible image. Low contrast. What is the basis of classification of radiographic film? What type of film is generally used for Radiography?
How the Radiographic films are classified? Finer the grain size of Silver Bromide in emulsion. D7 — Agfa make film is generally used for radiography. Developing B. Medium speed. What are the ingredients of Developer? Page 25 of 63 Class — II: What do you mean by film processing? Highest contrast. A film requires less exposure to achieve particular density is called fast film and more exposure called slow film.
Lowest speed. High contrast. What type of film is not used for industrial purpose Used for Medical purpose? Washing E. Stop bath. Potassium Bromate. Class — IV: What is speed with reference to Radiography film? What are the main steps in film processing? Class — III: Developing Agent: Sodium Sulphate. High speed. Generally used crystal size is 0. Sodium thiosulphate commonly known as Hypo.
What is the function of Stop Bath? What is Radiographic sensitivity? Larger developing time increases the fog density. What is the function of Accelerator present in Developer? It acts as antifogging agent. What is the ideal developing temperature? Used as rapid fixing agent. The image of IQI on the radiograph is the evidence that the radiographic inspection was conducted under proper condition and achieved the required sensitivity.
The developing time below 3 minutes is not recommended as the required density shall not be achieved and may miss minor discontinuities. Ammonium thiosulphate.
Minimum visible wire diameter. Opposite is the case when the temperature is lower. What are the ingredients of Fixer? What is the affect of temperature on Developer? Commonly used fixing agent. What is the function of Restrainer present in Developer? What is the developing time generally recommended? What is the ingredient of Stop Bath?
What is the function of Fixer? What is the recommended time for Fixer? Page 26 of 63 What is the function of Preservative present in Developer?
Hole type Penetrametre. Best contrast is achieved by ray of suitable low kilovoltage Soft Radiation. Film contrast. Name some IQI? Radiographic contrast is the combined effect of the following. Aluminum IQI. Stainless Steel IQI. The selection of IQI should be made as: What are the factors. What are the commonly used IQI? By reducing the scattered radiation internal. What do you mean by Radiographic contrast? Uniform thickness of the specimen shows no contrast but thickness difference in the specimen sows good contrast.
Scattered Radiation. Page 27 of 63 Subject contrast. Carbon Steel IQI. What is the general requirement of Radiographic Sensitivity?
What is subject contrast? Radiation Quality. What are the criteria for selection of IQI or Penetrametre? Plate type Penetrametre. What is film contrast? Step type Penetrametre. Thickness difference in the specimen. Copper IQI. Wire type Penetrametre. By increasing the kilovoltage Harder Radiation penetration will increase but decrease the subject contrast.
Type of film. When it is not possible as in case of double wall single image radiography. What are the steps involve in Plant design? Double wall double image. Single wall single image Panoramic Exposure. Grain size of the film controls the film contrast. Question related to Equipment and piping Layout: Film processing. It consists of following information: Planning for control room. What is Equipment layout design? Space allocation for basic plant requirement space required for laboratories.
Increasing the developing time increases the density as well as fog density and decreases the film contrast. Piping layout design. It is sometimes also referred as plot plan for large outdoor plant. The IQI should be placed in most unfavourable location with respect to the radiation beam. Double wall single image. Processing of film in fresh developer gives higher contrast then the exhausted developer. Where the IQI Penetrametre is placed?
It is the basic document of mechanical engineering design or in other words this document is the basis for development of construction drawing by all disciplines. What is conceptual layout design? Equipment layout design. At higher film density. Finer the grains lower speed of the film higher the film contrast. Page 28 of 63 Floor space needed for the equipment and other facilities are shown.
What are the different types of Radiography or Exposure technique? Conceptual layout design. Film Density. What is Grade mounted Horizontal Arrangement of equipment layout?