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An Essay on Patriotism and Nationalism Oxford: In the work, della Porta provided evidence that human characteristics could best be interpreted when analyzed in comparison with similar animal faces. A related medal in the National Museum, etched by Georg Wilhelm Vest- ner,48 displays on its obverse the profile of the bust of Charles VI wearing armor. On a medal carved by Martin Brunner — , a distinguished Nurem- berg engraver of coins, coats of arms, and medals and a student of the famed jew- eler and medal-maker Johann Jakob Wolrab, the principle of using templates and adjusting them to fit the needs of different rulers is blatantly obvious. In terms of arts marketing, the arts can benefit from public relations. The cheaper ones were available to a wider range of subjects; they were either sold at marketplaces or awarded at public ceremonies. As a result, the book contained illustra- tions of donkeys, monkeys, lions, and dogs juxtaposed with portraits of various celebrities.
The immediate reason for making a medal varied, from the birth of the heir to the throne to the coronation of a new ruler, from a royal marriage to some key military or political event such as a declaration of war, victory over the enemy, or announcement of peace. During the seventeenth century, several craft workshops were engaged in making these medals.
The medals and coins served as agents for conveying a great deal of infor- mation about the ruler to his subjects. As a means of payment, the coins, through the pictures and script they contained, spread propaganda to the vast majority of the population. On the other hand, as simple objects, the medals had a primarily commemorative function, the magnitude of which depended on the size and the metal used in the manufacturing process—gold, silver, bronze, or tin.
The bigger, more expensive and luxurious medals were presented to foreign rulers and the ar- istocracy. The cheaper ones were available to a wider range of subjects; they were either sold at marketplaces or awarded at public ceremonies. Both the growing demand for these medals on the market and the development of their production technique contributed to this phenomenon.
While the portrait on the obverse and the composition on the reverse were interpreted as the body, the legend and the inscription were regarded as the soul that gave life to the medal by mediating between the pictures and making it possible for the message to be understood. As a result, every medal has two legends, one on the obverse and one on the reverse.
This care- fully conceived and centralized medal production served to celebrate the ruler, maintain his cult, and strengthen dynastic patriotism among his subjects. These master blacksmiths—Bengt Richter22 and Daniel Warou23 being the first to be invited—were joined by some of the most famous medallion-makers of the age, thus creating in Vienna a long-lasting system of imperial representation.
Born in Stockholm into a Protestant family, Heraeus was educated at the University in Frankfurt Oder and then, in accordance with the educational ideas of his time, traveled all over Europe meeting various acclaimed scientists and intellectuals. Among these was Elias Brenner, a particularly distinguished numismatist and antique dealer who taught Heraeus the trade that would define his life. For Charles VI, who shared his passionate interest in numismatics, Heraeus collected, completed, and orga- nized the imperial collection of coins and medals and then prepared a catalogue for publication.
Being knowledgeable in the fields of antique works of art, numismatics, and literature, Heraeus became chief adviser to the court architects and painters on concettuale aspects of decora- tion, as well as on the emblems and allegories appearing in the designs. Printed in Italy, Germany, or France, these catalogues listed and examined coins and medals from earlier days, Fig. Numismatics became recognized as a serious branch of historical research.
A greater interest in antiques in general contributed to this recognition, and coins and medals, unlike the ancient literary sources that fourteenth- and fifteenth-century Italian humanists digested, came to be regarded as valuable sources of historical facts.
Coins and medals were more numerous than pictures and sculptures and were easily obtained, even by collectors from distant and secluded corners of Europe. Numismatic research from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries presents one of the most useful results of Renaissance learning, equal to the progress made in the examination and interpretation of ancient manuscripts.
Knowl- edge of history was considered indispensable for rulers, politicians, and all those aspiring to a higher level of education. Particular emphasis was placed on the didactic aspect of numismatics, through which one could learn volumes about great historical personalities, emperors, kings, and military leaders and their glorious achievements; well-known towns, provinces, or rivers; and the un- usual and amazing animals and plants existing in nature.
Although Jacopo Strada declared his skills to be inadequate, Lazius was undeterred in his aim of compiling a catalogue that would contain all known antique currency, which, by his estimate, amounted to some , examples. This ambitious plan never saw the light of day, but it did attract serious attention and provoked the interest of numerous researchers and collec- tors all over Europe.
In his view, portraits and their text are the most convenient tools for spreading the glory of celebrities, which, he argued, was the very foundation of the discipline of his- tory: Similarly, the outline of what is written can put on record the achievements of a prince, and at the same time his physiognomy explains what he does by natural instincts.
Hubert Goltzius, a painter and copper engraver from Antwerp and uncle to the renowned painter and engraver Hendrick Goltzius, also produced a very influential art pub- lication. In , Goltzius published a book comprising the portraits of all of the emperors, from Julius Caesar to the recently enthroned Ferdinand I.
The book ap- peared in three editions, Latin, Italian, and German, and was translated into sev- eral other languages and reprinted many times, remaining topical throughout the seventeenth century. Having selected only one coin depicting each emperor from the collections at his disposal, Goltzius reproduced each of them in his folio-sized book, thus relating the ancient rulers to the modern-day ones. Researchers and collectors throughout Europe cor- responded about the symbols and allegories on medals and coins, exchanging knowledge and ideas and thus passing on the traditional esoteric concepts that played an increasingly important role in the medal production of the time.
He supports his theory with examples from Old Testament stories and mentions Moses and Abraham as the inventors of money. He divides medals into two categories—ancient medals, originating in the third or fourth century AD, and modern medals, made in the succeeding period. When comparing the old and the new medals, the author maintains that it is far easier to understand and explain the ancient ones than it is the modern ones.
The last part of the book is dedicated to the knowledge anyone who wants to explore or collect old coins and medals must have. Here, the author outlines the history, geography, mythol- ogy, chronology, and literature of numismatics, singling out works by the greatest numismatists.
Giovanni Battista della Porta — , a Renaissance humanist from Naples, outlined a similar approach in his work De Humana Physiognomia , which was translated into several languages. Seeing that the writer was a notable poet and an acknowledged authority on medicine, agriculture, the dramatic arts, and cryptography, and that the illustrations often bordered on the bizarre, the book had a great influence on generations to come. In the work, della Porta provided evidence that human characteristics could best be interpreted when analyzed in comparison with similar animal faces.
As a result, the book contained illustra- tions of donkeys, monkeys, lions, and dogs juxtaposed with portraits of various celebrities. The academic literary language of Baroque culture demanded a complex way of conveying ideas, so the medals abound in symbols, allusions, and emblematic pictograms, borrowed from official impe- rial iconography.
The only exceptions to this rule are medals depicting the ruler surrounded by his allies or on horseback. The emperor is usually shown communicating directly with God, who is represented as an extended hand hold- ing a laurel wreath, or with the Sun or Christ himself. Medal by G. In Passarowitz on 21 July Reaching a long-sought-after peace thanks to the wisdom and power of Charles VI, an occasion celebrated in the panegyrics of the time and reflected on the medal, becomes one of his many acts of courage to be remembered for all time.
A related medal in the National Museum, etched by Georg Wilhelm Vest- ner,48 displays on its obverse the profile of the bust of Charles VI wearing armor. Peace with the Turks, 21 July. In sixteenth- and seventeenth-century symbolography, the eagle served as a symbol of the empire and could not be used without permission.
Although an image of an eagle flying above a town or plain with a sword in its claws occasionally appeared emblematically in a broader context in the seventeenth century, in imperial propaganda it characterized an emperor as a fair judge and as a protector of the rights and lives of his subjects with his sword. Medal by P. Medal by B. Richter, appropriated after the ratification of the Peace Treaty of Passarowitz, National Museum in Belgrade personified as a woman places a wreath in his right hand.
To instead emphasize the triumph of the Christian faith and weapons required changing the composition and inserting a cross as a symbol of Christianity. To these changes are added the Turkish weap- ons lying on the ground, the bow and quiver, as well as the flags with a crescent behind the earthly emperor.
Medal by J. Hedlinger, appropriated after the ratification of the Peace Treaty of Passarowitz, National Museum in Belgrade by seven Catholic sacramental seals. Charles Augustus rules in this Christian universe and, following model emperors of old, he is crowned with a wreath of oak leaves, having liberated his subjects from slavery at the hands of the Turks.
Avgusto Pacatori Tertio , which Heraeus explains by noting that Charles the Peacemaker, like Caesar Augustus of old, closed the temple of Ianus, the symbol of the Turks, three times.
Indeed, as opposed to Augustus, who took the fifty years to do so, Charles managed to close the temple within the first five years of his reign. A triple peacemaker pacatori tertio , Charles ended the wars with the Hungarians in , the war against the French in by signing the Peace of Rastatt, and the war with the Turks in by signing the Peace Treaty of Passarowitz.
Victoria, with a palm twig—the symbol of peace and glory—in her left hand, hovers above the emperor while her right hand crowns him. Behind him, we see a garden with four pathways bordered by a wall.
The reverse depicts the allegory of the Danube: Medal by M.
Brunner, appropriated after the ratification of the Peace Treaty of Passarowitz, National Museum in Belgrade fication is a clear political allusion to the conquered area, which now recognizes the superior authority of the German emperor.
To the left, Belgrade and the Pil- lars of Hercules are visible in the background. This symbol is included in the dynastic propaganda program for no other reason than to ensure continuity with the ancient Roman emperors.
On a medal carved by Martin Brunner — , a distinguished Nurem- berg engraver of coins, coats of arms, and medals and a student of the famed jew- eler and medal-maker Johann Jakob Wolrab, the principle of using templates and adjusting them to fit the needs of different rulers is blatantly obvious. Moreover, as far as allegorical language is concerned, we can clearly see the continuation of a visual and political method of communicating in eighteenth-century Cen- tral Europe.
He is surrounded by three Turks begging on their knees for peace, a posture that clearly indicates their servile position; his response of an ex- tended hand and open palm expresses his imperial grace and mercy,57 Figs. Richter and H. The medal was created to glorify the victory of the Cross over the Crescent, as well as to cel- ebrate the emperor who accomplished this victory. Heraeus himself provided the interpretation of the allegorical image on the reverse, conceiving of it as a figure representing triumphant peace with the emperor, whose modesty unwillingly ac- cepts all the pompous triumph and who, in imitating the Roman emperors by de- nouncing the honors bestowed upon him, earns a place in the victorious quadriga of the Christian religion.
Conclusion The medals produced in accordance with the ideology and needs of the Habsburg dynasty and Emperor Carl VI were an inextricable part of their representation.
These medals were an exquisite opportunity to display the patriotic commitments of the monarch, defender of the Christian faith, ardent combatant against the Turkish conquerors, and state protector of his loyal subjects, their lives, and their property.
A well conceived representation of the emperor using the familiar, traditional iconography and standard Baroque allego- ries, symbols, and emblems brought the medals to life.
At the same time, they served as a vital educational tool for all those aspiring to gain an education and ascend in society.
As part of seventeenth- and eighteenth- century art production, the medals were subject to the rules governing all the other art genres. They were: These developments in medal-making would continue for the second half of the eighteenth and much of nineteenth century, alongside the political and cultural changes brought by the age.
Notes This paper presents some results of the scientific project The Religious and National Identity in the Visual Culture of Modern Times Verski i nacionalni identitet u vizuelnoj kulturi novog doba, no.
This essay does not comprise other art forms such as performing arts, language arts, culinary arts, art festivals, classes of artwork, blockbuster art, architecture, and the art of advertisement . Public relations are one of the oldest professions. The origins of modern PR lie in America. In the late s, a lot of companies all over America started to employ press agents in order to promote their ideas and products. The Association of American Railroads claims that it was the first company to use the term public relation in its Year Book of Railway Literature in Bates, Other sources state that public relations was used for the first time by the American lawyer Dorman Eaton in One of the pioneers in public relations is Ivy Ledbetter Lee.
At the end of the 19th Century, the American coal industry came under public fire and had to deal with a series of strikes. Lee was hired by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company and the Rockefeller family as a consultant.
On their behalf, he developed the Declaration of Principles which states in: Bates, More than a decade later, PR-pioneer and nephew of Sigmund Freud, Edward Bernays, wrote the first textbook about public relations: However, back then, the distinction between public relations and propaganda was literally non-existent. Bernays commented about the origin of the term PR: And propaganda got to be a bad word because of the Germans So what I did was to try to find some other words, so we found the words Council on Public Relations.
Several organisations were founded to represent the interests of public relations practitioners, e. The development of public relations towards a serious profession included the promulgation of ethical guidelines. Nevertheless ethic guides such as the PRSA Code of Professional Standards from were introduced to PR practitioners; the supervision of compliance had been lax ever since Bates, Today, a huge amount of ethical codes and guidelines exists which tries to implement values, such as honesty, independence, and fairness  , in the work of professional PR.
Brown, S. Imaging Marketing,. Public Relations for the Arts: What are the benefits? Essay, 16 Pages, Grade: C N Candy Lange Author.