Engineering. Drawing The language is known as “drawing” or “drafting”. Both drawing types are used in technical drawing for communication. NOTES. LECTURE NOTES. For Environmental Health Science Students. Engineering Drawing. Wuttet Taffesse,. Laikemariam Kassa. Haramaya University. Here you can download engineering drawing book by n.d bhatt in pdf format. we' ve also provided Engineering Drawing Text Book and Notes of.
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CONTENTS. 0. Foreword. Notes on the Use of the Document Section 11 General Principles of Dimensioning on Technical Drawings. Section 12 Indication of. Manual of British Standards in Engineering Drawing and Design. a few ideas in the designers head, through to rough sketches and notes, calculations. LECTURE NOTES. BASIC ENGINEERING DRAWING AND COMMUNICATION. Inquiries, Suggestions, Opinions etc should be forwarded to: Dr. Ballegu W R W.
Even Seko. If you draw a circle and rotate it slowly, it will become an ellipse. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. This can appear either as: The depth of the hole refers to the depth of the cylindrical portion of the hole and not the bit of the hole caused by the tip of the drip. It may be used to show the electrical wiring system in multilevel buildings.
Working drawings show the size, quantity, location, and relationship of the building parts. Generally, working drawings may be divided into three main categories: Architectural Drawings Architectural drawings consist of all the drawings that describe the structural members of the building and their relationship to each other. This includes foundation plans, floor plans, framing plans, elevations, sections, details, schedules, and bills of materials.
Plans A plan is actually a part of the architectural drawing that represents a view of the project from above. Two types of plans will be discussed here: The project may be represented only by an outline.
The grades at fixed points are shown throughout the area. This is done to show how the land slopes before construction is started and the finished grade after construction is completed.
The north arrow symbol, used for orientation of the drawing, is shown. The Construction Electrician may have to have a plot plan to construct a pole line to the project site at or near the earliest phase of construction. Another example is when the slope and grade of the surrounding area is to be changed and you have to bury cable or conduit.
You must know what the finished grade is and how deep to dig. This type of work requires close coordination between you, the Engineering Aids, Equipment Operators, and Builders. By looking over the plot plan, you will know what to do to prepare for the job. This building is shown in figure , view A, and you are equipped with a huge saw.
If you sawed the building in half horizontally and looked down on it from above, you would see the complete outline of the building view B. This particular view directly above would be called a floor plan view C. Architects and engineers project their thoughts of a building, not yet built, onto a piece of paper and call it a floor plan. It does not matter that the heights of the outlets, appliances, or building parts are different. These heights will be indicated by figures in inches or feet, next to the symbols that represent them.
Electrical construction drawings are floor plans modified by the inclusion of electrical symbols. Figure shows an electrical layout superimposed on an outline taken from an architectural floor plan.
The service line feeds power by way of a service switch to a lighting panel, from which three branch circuits run to the lighting fixtures and convenience outlets in the rooms. The symbols for these fixtures and outlets and the service switch are shown at the bottom of figure Elevations An elevation is a drawing that represents a view of the finished structure as you would see it from the front, back, left, or right.
There are interior elevations, such as a view of a fireplace, as well as exterior elevations, as shown in the elevations of a small building shown in figure Doors, windows, shapes of roof, chimneys, and exterior materials are shown.
These views provide the viewer with a finished appearance. Few dimensions are given on elevations.
Only those vertical dimensions that cannot be shown on the plan are generally included on an elevation view. A Construction Electrician can quickly see from any one of the elevations in figure 2- 12 that there is an attic where easy access would be provided to electrical wiring. This is important where there is a requirement for junction boxes that must be accessible.
The electrician can also see a foundation wall where, if a service lateral is required, a conduit or sleeve must be placed for a later run of conduit. This knowledge will allow the electrician to plan ahead to work with the Builders when they build the forms. The conduit will be placed in or through the form before the concrete is poured. It may also include other drawings that are necessary to present the system properly in relation to the other portions of the project.
Shop Drawings - Shop drawings are drawings and related data used to show some portion of the work prepared by the construction contractor, manufacturer, distributor, or supplier.
Product data, such as brochures, illustrations, standard schedules, performance charts, and other information, are furnished by the contractor or the manufacturer to show a material, product, or system for some portion of the work.
Engineering Aids are sometimes required to draft shop drawings for minor shop and field projects. These drawings may include shop items, such as doors, cabinets, and small portable buildings prefabricated berthing quarters and modifications of existing structures , or they may come from portions of design drawings, specifications, or freehand sketches given by the design engineer.
Working from a shop drawing is much like working from other working drawings. You convert the ideas you get from your interpretation of the lines and symbols into the product represented by the drawing.
These drawings show the arrangement and relationship of parts. Electrical diagrams are usually used to show how the parts of one or more pieces of equipment are wired together. There are several types of these diagrams. They are similar, yet different in some way. The short description of each that follows should enable you to recognize their differences.
Isometric Diagram The isometric diagram is not often seen in electrical work. It may be used to show the electrical wiring system in multilevel buildings.
Appliances sometimes have an isometric diagram glued to an access panel so that it may be referred to for a quick look at an entire wiring system.
See fig. Figure shows a block diagram of a motor control system You can easily see how it gets its name. Sometimes the blocks are connected with only one line that may represent one or more conductors or cables. Either major or minor components or parts may be represented by blocks. This type of diagram is often used to show something of the relationship of components in a power distribution system. The block diagram provides little help in troubleshooting.
Axonometric Projection For objects which are fairly small in size and reasonably close to the observer we often use a form of drawing known as axonometric projection.
The word axonometric means 'measured axes'. Axonometric drawings often appear distorted because they ignore the foreshortening effects of perspective foreshortening means the way things appear to get smaller in both height and depth as they recede into the distance.
All axonometric drawings use vertical lines for those lines representing height and sloping parallel edges for all other sides. There are a number of axonometric drawings. The smaller these angles are the less we see of the top surface.
The angle is usually around 0. This side is always drawn as a true shape in this case a square. The receding lines are usually drawn at 45 0 although other angles could be used and one half their true size, to avoid undue distortion. It is usually rotated so that the angles shown are 45 0 - 45 0 or 60 0 - 30 0.
A crate or box can be drawn using any of the techniques shown above, by following the procedure shown below. Difficult shapes can be drawn by starting with the box or crate that the finished object will fit into and then adding or removing the bits that are not required.
An ellipse is a circle turned through an angle. All the examples shown above were box shapes without any curved surfaces. In order to draw curved surfaces we need to know how to draw ellipses.
If you draw a circle and rotate it slowly, it will become an ellipse. As it is turned through 90 0 it will eventually become a straight line. An ellipse has a major axis and a minor axis. The major axis is the axis about which the ellipse is being turned.
The minor axis becomes smaller as the angle through which the ellipse is turned approaches 90 0. You can draw a cylinder using the technique shown on the right. The ellipses can either be sketched freehand or drawn using an ellipse template. Tentang peraturan gambar teknik, tebal garis, jenis garis, dll. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Jump to Page.
Search inside document. Standar Dan Perjanjian Tanda Untuk Garis Garis dalam gambar teknik bukan sekedar menunjukkan geometri dari obyek, tetapi juga menunjukkan dimensi, posisi potongan dan penjelasan lain dari obyek. Given text books and notes are very useful for engineering and diploma students. An engineering drawing, a type of technical drawing , is used to fully and clearly define requirements for engineered items. Engineering drawing the activity produces engineering drawings the documents.
More than merely the drawing of pictures, it is also a language—a graphical language that communicates ideas and information from one mind to another. Engineering drawing, most commonly referred to as engineering graphics , is the art of manipulation of designs of a variety of components, especially those related to engineering.
It primarily consists of sketching the actual component, for example a machine, with its exact dimensions. The scale of dimensions is suitably adjusted so as to properly fit within the contours of the drawing sheet.
The book provides all aspects and detailed study of Engineering Drawing — Plane and Solid Geometry , a core subject for all branches of Engineering study, presented in a lucid manner and easy-to-follow style.
The text book follows the first-angle method of orthographic projection, however, the third-angle projection method has not been completely ignored. The entire book is printed in two colour which enhance the utility of the book. In this Fifty-third Edition some errors are rectified. The earlier Fiftieth Edition of this text-book is thoroughly revised, extensively enlarged, completely updated. It has been one of the most comprehensive revisions since the book was first published.
As a result, all the drawings have been redrawn with utmost intelligibility. Many new examples, drawings are incorporated along with some new text matter.
Chapter on Computer Aided Drafting CADr is entirely rewritten with inclusion of 50 self-interactive and self-learning practice modules. This book accompanied by a computer CD as a novel pedagogical concept, containing 51 selected audiovisual animation modules presented for better visualization and understanding of the subject. The solutions to exercises of Chapter 17, Isometric Projection and Chapter 20 Conversion of Views are given in this edition.