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Back to top. Get to Know Us. Amazon Payment Products. English Choose a language for shopping. Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. Amazon Advertising Find, attract, and engage customers. From them, The results revealed different profiles among subgroups. Lower use of prescription medication was found among men who reported doing physical activities in their leisure time. Furthermore, there was an independent and inverse association for hospitalization within the last year. Over-the-counter medications consumed by men were dipyrone, paracetamol, acetylsalicylic acid, and diclofenac.
The findings of this study provide information that can guide actions aimed at promoting the rational use of medication in a poorly investigated population subgroup regarding this topic. Medication use; Prevalence; Men's health; Self-medication; Pharmacoepidemiology; Epidemiological surveys.
Men constitute the population subgroup with the highest risk of death 1 1. The gender differences in the risk of becoming sick are modified according to lifestyle and biological, socioeconomic, cultural, and behavioral factors 1 1.
Medication use and gender in Massachusetts: Health Care Women Int ; 28 7: Still, health perception can vary owing to factors connected to the social experiences of the individual, access to health services, the form in which people notice symptoms, evaluate the gravity of the sickness, and decide what to do regarding their health problems 3 3. Sawyer et al. Excess mortality among male is reported in various places around the world. In Brazil, Laurenti et al.
Mortality among adults: BMC Public Health ; Regarding health conditions and the use of services, despite the female excess morbidity, men are more vulnerable to severe chronic illnesses, which impose limitations and are an important cause of death 1 1. In , after identifying that men present low access to the actions for health promotion and prevention and that they access the health system for specialized care, the Ministry of Health implemented a National Policy for Integral Attention to Men's Health.
This policy was created with the intention of promoting health actions that reduce morbidity and mortality owing to preventable causes, considering the male singularity in the sociocultural, political and economic contexts and the different levels of development and organization of the local health systems. One of its guidelines is to give full attention to the quality of life and education as important strategies in the promotion of behavioral changes 7 7. Medication is a necessary therapeutic instrument, responsible for the increase in the population's life expectancy and quality 8 8.
Its use is influenced by sociodemographic and cultural factors, morbidity profile, characteristics of the pharmaceutical market, and the government policies 9 9. Arrais PSD. As a form of self-care in search of health, self-medication is understood as the selection and use of medication for health maintenance, illness prevention, and treatment of noticed sicknesses and symptoms, without the prescription, guidance, or follow-up of a doctor or dentist 12 A Spanish study found a prevalence of Age, consumption of alcohol, hours of sleep, and the absence of a visit to the doctor's, among other factors, were associated with self-medication 13 Sex-differences on self-medication in Spain.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 19 Uso de medicamentos. The need to investigate these health conditions and the conduct related to the health of men justifies the assessment of the use of medication in this population.
In addition, the identification of the pharmaceuticals consumed without a prescription is important in guiding actions that promote health and prevent the worsening of conditions, in favor of an approach that includes the rational use of medication among men. The survey sample was obtained through probabilistic sampling by clusters and in two stages: In the first stage, 50 census tracts were selected with probability proportional to size number of households.
In the second stage, households were selected through systematic sampling applied to the frame of existing households in each of the selected tracts.
All of the inhabitants of the age group were interviewed in the households, as reported at: The information was obtained through a structured questionnaire that had been previously tested during a pilot study, conducted in household interviews by trained and supervised interviewers. Have you utilized some sort of medication in the last 3 days? If yes, the following questions were asked:. Next, based on the answers obtained, the participants were allocated into three groups: The records relative to those who reported the simultaneous use of prescription and nonprescription were excluded from the analyses.
Within this concept, responsible self-medication is discussed, which is the treatment of diseases, signs, and symptoms utilizing "over-the-counter" medication OTCs , which should have proved efficacy and safety when utilized rationally 12 This classification was often used for comparing national and international data and takes into consideration the anatomical group or the system in which it acts, its chemical, therapeutic, and pharmacological characteristics 15 World Health Organization.
For the medication whose name the interviewee was unable to report, a code on nonidentification was given; for those that were not listed in the ATC, codes were created to identify them; and for those that did not present a specific code in the ATC, a code was utilized that allowed the identification of the group, class, and therapeutic action.
WHO; In the analysis of the factors associated with the use of medication according to a prescription, the following independent variables were selected:.
Has a doctor or other health-care professional ever told you that you have one of the following diseases? Next, a multiple analysis was conducted through a multinomial logistic regression, adequate to the variable polytomous response with mutually exclusive categories that have no implicit order between them 18 Agresti A. Categorical data analysis. New York: In this analysis, the groups were simultaneously compared with the reference category, that is, the group that did not consume medication in the 3 days prior to the survey.
Moreover, all pharmaceuticals consumed through self-medication were identified, regarding the reason for use, and the percentage of frequency were presented. The analyses were conducted utilizing the program Stata The average age of the population studied was Regarding the consumption of medication, The prevalence of medication use following a prescription, according to the sociodemographic characteristics of men, is presented in Table 1.
Among the men who perform paid work, Regarding the prevalence of the use of medication and behavior related to health, having health insurance and using health services, the BMI index, tobacco use, practicing physical activities during leisure time, seeking out medical professionals or health services in the last two weeks, and hospitalization in the last year were all significantly associated with the use of medication following a prescription. Among smokers, the prevalence of self-medication was of In Table 3 , the prevalence of use of medication according to a prescription is presented for the health status indicators.
The prevalence of self-medication was of The results of the multinomial analysis of the factors associated with the use of medication according to a prescription are presented in Table 4. Among the men who reported doing physical activity in their leisure time, a lower use of prescription medication was observed. Moreover, an independent and negative association was found for hospitalization within the last year for this subgroup.
Table 5 presents the percentage frequency found for the sample design of the questionnaire, of the medication consumed without a prescription, and the reasons reported for the use as well.
For sodium dipyrone, paracetamol, and acetylsalicylic acid ASA , the frequency is given by its occurrence in monodrugs or in combination drugs.
Thus, it could be noted that analgesics and anti-inflammatories were predominant among the most consumed medication without a prescription.
This study assessed the prevalence of use of medication and associated factors, according to prescription.
Regarding the identified profile for prescribed use, the effect of age observed in the higher use of medication is described in various studies 8 8. Comparisons among the subgroups investigated revealed an older age among men who reported the exclusive use of prescription medication in comparison to the others.
This subgroup, in general, is more vulnerable, presents a lower level of health status, higher frequency of hospitalization, higher prevalence of chronic diseases and other health problems, and seeks health services more often. Perrone et al. Higher prevalence was observed for use of prescription medication in those who did not perform paid work. A population-based study conducted in Spain, with a recall period of 2 weeks and records from 1, men between the ages of 25 and 64 years, found a more elevated use among retired men 20 Gac Sanit.
More prescription medication use was noted among overweight men. An important health determinant, excess weight is associated with adverse metabolism alterations-increase in arterial pressure, cholesterol, and resistance to insulin 21 The world health report Seeking health services and having dental care were positively associated to the use of prescription medication in the multiple regression analysis, as observed in other studies 19 It should be noted that the access depends on the perception of health needs and its conversion into demands 3 3.
An independent association was found between reported morbidity and the use of prescription medication. The illnesses, acute and chronic, are predictors of the use of medication 8 8. This finding is, in part, explained through the higher use of services within this subgroup data are not presented.
A common practice within the population 8 8. Wannmacher L.