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But at the same time the exact nature of their relationship is not explained, and neither is a dependency relation between the two discerned. Grammatical gender is somehow related to natural gender, in that the "general rules" of recognizing the gender of a noun comprise formulations as: If we look at the derivation of female nouns from male ones by the suffix -in, we also find a quite laconic description, stating that: Such a formulation implies parallelity of male and female. This parallelity can also be seen in other parts of the grammars, e.

We do not find any cases of stereotypisation.

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Moreover the attributes are all of a virtuous nature. In the following period of enlightenment we notice a change in the discursive practice of grammaticography, which is certainly not accidentally paralleled by a change of view in medicine of that time Laqueur , ch. Let us first look at the influential work "Deutsche Sprachkunst" by Johann Christoph Gottsched , It is here that for the first time a philosophical passage of about one page is introduced, trying to give reasons for the existence of the now, since Schottel three grammatical genders of German.

Gottsched , cited according to Mitchell Ursula Doleschal May two sexes but there are many other things which are neither man nor woman and therefore he calls the third gender the "dubious" "ungewiss" one: According to Gottsched it is to be blamed on the inconsistency of the plebs who in the first place made the language that there is no unique relationship between the semantics and the grammatical gender of nouns in German, especially the fact that there are nouns denoting male or female beings diminutives but are of neuter, i.

It is interesting to note that although the argumentation starts from a natural classification of beings in sexed - male and female - and unsexed ones and relates this threefold classification to the grammatical classes found in language, it is nevertheless not argued that this relationship existed from the beginning and changed with the course of history.

On the contrary, Gottsched seems to assume that an inconsistency between natural and grammatical gender has existed right from the beginning of the "making of language" because, as he writes, it was the plebs who made language. Such a view is interesting from the point of view of a language ideology, because the categories of language are not seen as something given by god or some other higher instance. Nevertheless Gottsched believes that the relationship between natural and grammatical gender is "grounded in the essence of things.

But he plays this inconsistency in the masculine gender down, arguing that it is a consequence of certain syllables, whereas for the feminine he emphasizes the same inconsistency between female sex and grammatical gender, as evidenced by neuters as Weib 'woman'.

It is of course true from the point of view of contemporary linguistics that gender assignment by suffixes as -lein takes place on another level of linguistic structure than the neuter gender of a monomorphemic word as Weib 'woman' which is at the same time the basic word for designating a woman.

This can also be deduced from the formulation of the rules for discerning gender themselves: For the masculine gender the first rule is: For the feminine gender the rule sounds: First of all men and women are not introduced parallely: Secondly, the examples that illustrate the two rules are given as a whole block for the masculine gender: For the feminine gender on the other hand the examples are itemized according to the classes named names and designations, offices, titles, ranks and occupations.

Therefore, according to Gottsched, kinship terms as Base 'cousin', Schwester 'sister' etc. Ursula Doleschal May We can note another inconsistency here, which is this time due to the author, not to the language system: Gottsched , cited after Mitchell He distinguishes between occupational terms for women "when these are really engaged themselves" "wenn diese wirklich selbst in Diensten stehen" , such as Kammerfrau 'lady-in- waiting' and designations for women "where the womenfolk are not on duty themselves" "wo das Frauenvolk nicht selbst die Dienste thut".

These changes as compared to the presentation of gender in earlier grammars, although few, are significant in that they show clear attempts at a de-parallelization of the male and the female: This significance is corroborated by the fact that a contemporary grammar by Aichinger Naumann As Gottsched he does not start from a logical origin of gender, on the contrary, it is the nature of uncivilised people who first created language that is responsible for the chaotic distribution of nouns to the three gender.

Adelung even hypothesizes that because of the pervasiveness of sex in living beings, there were first only two grammatical genders, which were assigned to nouns on the basis of their semantic content, so that nouns corresponding to "the concepts of liveliness, activity, strength, size, probably also the terrifying and awful became masculine; everything one thought of as receptive, fertile, gentle, suffering, agreeable became feminine.

Only later, when people came to understand that most things were inanimate, the neuter gender came into being and was assignd to nouns "when the feelings were divided or the concept so dark that none of the former feelings overweighed the other" ibid. It is interesting to note that Adelung relates grammatical gender to natural gender on the one hand, and on the other to characteristics which we nowadays know as gender stereotypes.

As we have seen, this is the first time in German grammaticography where such a relationship is established and it is completely in line with cultural history cp. Laqueur The deparallelization of the two sexes is also noticeable 5 i. Ursula Doleschal May in the choice of exmaples for language phenomena and in a noticeable surplus of masculine examples: Gender stereotypes can be found in different places in the succeeding grammars: Becker This kind of discourse is revealed most consequently in Jacob Grimm's grammar of Grimm The chapter on gender is very large over 50 pages , and starts with the same comparison Becker used, but in contradistinction to the former, the parallelism is explicated and stated as fundamental: Both classifications may be compared in more than one respect; […] the active shows itself as the masculine as the most important and initial form, the passive as the feminine as one which is derived from the former, the medium as the neuter as a mixture or combination of active and passive, male and female forms" "Dieser unterschied greift so tief in das wesen des nomens und seiner formen wie der zwischen activum, passivum und medium in die des verbums.

In the same passage Grimm also states that the three genders are in a way three languages, since a man says pulcher sum 'I am beautiful. In such a way we immediately relate the comparison between two grammatical cateogries - voice and gender - via metaphor to gender stereotypes and thus to natural gender.

This system of metaphors as well as the comparison of the masculine with the active, the feminine with the passive and the neuter with the medium is pervasive in Grimm's grammar and emerges everywhere, where the topic of gender is treated. Grimm introduces a lot of stereotypes which are very often also evaluative and demonstrate the higher rank of the masculine-male over the feminine-female. If the masculine form ends in a vowel it is a short one, whereas feminine forms have long vowels, and this again shows the distinction of the masculine, since short vowels are obviously "older and more noble" than the long ones which are dependent on the former Grimm Grimm's discourse is typical of romanticism and is not repeated in the following, modernistic and thus more rational, grammars with the exception of the Duden grammars , , but in a very abridged form.

But his way of thinking has influenced generations of linguists in their thinking about the origin of gender until the end of the 20th century Leiss Bennewitz , Engel , Wustmann.

Here the use of the right gender for the designation of women but also for ships and other objects is discussed. Manuals of style argue for the use of feminine nouns for women and the reservation of masculine nouns for men cp.

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Doleschal This is interesting, since in the s women had to fight for the recuperation of the right to feminine nouns. In the time after the view on the relationship between grammatical and natural gender changed radically and grammars now state that grammatical gender is a purely formal feature Ms.

Ursula Doleschal May of nouns that has nothing to do with natural gender of human or other living beings, arguing that there are 1 nouns with feminine gender denoting men e.

And although this relationship is not a deterministic one, i. It is especially interesting to note that the change in discourse may be abrupt, as we have noticed both for the 18th and the second half of the 20th century, and there is no need to refer to earlier views. What we have also seen is that the degree of ideologization of grammatical discourse can vary greatly: Whereas during renaissance and baroque as well as during the post-modern time we find rather neutral discussions of gender, the period of enlightenment, romanticism and modernism are periods where the topic "gender" was highly ideologized.

Das generische Maskulinum im Deutschen. Ein historischer Spaziergang durch die deutsche Grammatikschreibung von der Renaissance bis zur Postmoderne. Jellinek, Max Hermann Laqueur, Thomas Making Sex. Body and gender from the Greeks to Freud. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Auf den Leib geschrieben. German translation of Leiss, Elisabeth Genus und Sexus.

Kritische Anmerkungen zur Sexualisierung von Grammatik. Linguistische Berichte Leiss, Elisabeth Gender in Old High German. Mouton de Gruyter, Naumann, Bernd Grammatik der deutschen Sprache zwischen und Roessler, Paul Frankfurt a. Rod i jezik. Linguistics with a Human Face. A festschrift for Norman Denison Sornig, Karl, ed. Grazer Linguistische Monographien 10, Adelung, Johann Christoph Aichinger, Carl Friedrich Versuch einer teutschen Sprachlehre.

Olms Albertus, Laurentius Teutsch Grammatick oder Sprachkunst. Michael Manger. Bibliographisches Institut. Becker, Karl Ferdinand Die deutsche Wortbildung oder die organische Entwicklung der Sprache in der Ableitung. Behaghel, Otto []: Die deutsche Sprache. Bennewitz, A. Die Schwierigkeiten unserer Muttersprache. Blatz, Friedrich Meyers Erben u.

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