Download PDF The Complete Human Body, 2nd Edition: The Definitive Visual Guide, PDF Download The Complete Human Body, 2nd Edition. The Complete Human Body, 2nd Edition is the definitive illustrated guide to the human body as we know it today, from its development and. Read The Complete Human Body, 2nd Edition PDF The Definitive Visual Guide Ebook by Dr. Alice caite.infohed by DK, ePUB/PDF.
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Get under your skin with this access-all-areas guide to the human body. Discover a breathtaking portrait of the human body as it's never been seen before, using the latest medical and microscopic imaging. Dr Alice Roberts, presenter of Don't Die Young, Coast and The Incredible. Complete Human Body: The Definitive Visual Guide by Alice Roberts and Dorling Kindersley Publishing Staff Hardcover) An illustrated, easy-to-understand approach presents medical terms within the context of the body’s anatomy and p. I know the power of enzymes and the positive. DK The Complete Human Body the Definitive Visual Guide ().pdf - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free.
Second molar Enamel Around 12 years The hardest tissue in the human body. Craig Childs. We are familiar with the idea that if we work out at the gym our muscles. Gillian Jenkins, Dr. Here the air is cleaned, warmed, and moistened before its onward journey. FOREWORD The body piece by piece A series of magnetic resonance imaging MRI scans show horizontal slices through the body, starting with the head and working downward, through the thorax and upper limbs, to the lower limbs, and finally the feet.
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No notes for slide. The complete human body 2nd edition the definitive visual guide [pdf] download 1. The Complete Human Body, 2nd Edition: Book Details Author: Alice Roberts Pages: DK Brand: English ISBN: Publication Date: Description The Complete Human Body, 2nd Edition is the definitive illustrated guide to the human body as we know it today, from its development and form to its functions and disorders.
Mysteries remain, but we have come a long way since the sketches and diagrams of the first anatomists in Ancient Greece. Now updated and expanded to include more information than before, The Complete Human Body, 2nd Edition explores the body's forms and functions in greater depth than any other popular reference, from muscle structure and activity to motor pathways within the brain.
Illustrated with unprecedented clarity by computer-generated artworks and the latest medical and microscopic imaging, this comprehensive reference shows anatomical structures and bodily processes in incredible detail. We inhabit it, we are it, and we are surrounded by 7. The Complete Human Body, 2nd Edition is your "access all areas" pass. The Definitive Visual Guide, click button download in the last page 5. They may occur at a prominent bump the insertion refers to the attachment that moves when the muscle contracts.
Conventionally, muscle attachments on the The attachments of muscles to bones are sometimes referred to as origins and insertions. Parallel bundles Skeletal muscle includes familiar muscles Whole muscle such as biceps or quadriceps. Cytoplasm see Formed by many cells merged p. Anisotropic or A band Z disk. M line. Isotropic or I band. There are three main types of muscle in the human body: Each of these has a distinctive microscopic structure.
Skeletal muscle also varies in its overall shape and structure, depending on its function. Cell nucleus Mitochondrion. Autonomic nerves can at a subconscious level. Muscular variation Skeletal muscles vary hugely in size and shape. Cranial nerves Twelve pairs of cranial nerves supply muscles and sensation in the head and neck.
Cervical spinal nerves Emerge from the spinal cord in the neck to supply the neck and arm Spinal cord. Intercostal nerve Anterior branches of the thoracic spinal nerves travel Axillary nerve forward between the ribs as Supplies muscles and intercostal nerves; they sensation around the supply the muscles and skin shoulder of the thorax.
Thoracic spinal nerves Radial nerve Supplies muscles and sensation on the back of the arm, including the triceps, forearm, and hand Median nerve Supplies most of the muscles in the front of the forearm, and also some in the hand Cauda equina Below the end of the spinal cord, the lumbar and sacral Lumbar spinal nerves nerve roots continue for some way inside the vertebral canal before emerging from the spine Lumbar plexus Anterior branches of the lumbar spinal nerves form a network here, from which Ulnar nerve nerves emerge to supply the leg Supplies two muscles in the forearm and many Sacral spinal nerves of the small muscles in the hand.
Branch of the sciatic nerve, supplying the front and outer side. Ganglion impar. Tibial nerve Largest branch of the sciatic nerve, supplying the calf and foot. It can be broadly divided into the central nervous rest of the body. You can also divide the nervous system by function. The brain and spinal surroundings is called the somatic nervous system. The part involved cord are protected by the skull and vertebral column respectively.
Cervical spinal nerves Spinal cord Cervical means of the neck; The continuation of the cervix is Latin for neck brain stem, lying protected within the vertebral canal of the spine. Musculocutaneous nerve Like most peripheral nerves, this supplies both muscles and skin. Axillary nerve Runs around the neck of the humerus. Axillary means related to the armpit, from the Latin word axilla, for armpit Head and neck This colored MRI scan reveals the structures of Brachial plexus the brain and upper spinal cord orange—red.
The Brachial means of the arm, brain stem emerges from the base of the brain to since brachium is the Latin Thoracic spinal nerves continue as the spinal cord. The branched word for arm Thorax is Latin for chest cerebellum is visible at the lower back of the brain.
Sacral plexus Sacral means of the Ulnar nerve sacrum, the bony plate at This nerve lies on the the base of the vertebral ulnar, or inner, side of column—sacrum in Latin the arm and forearm means holy bone. The spinal cord is shown as a dark blue column lying within the pale blue sheath of the dura mater. Toward the lower right is the cauda equina. Tibial nerve Named after the other bone of the lower leg—the tibia, or shinbone.
Lower back This color-enhanced X-ray of the lower back shows the dural sac white , which sheaths the spinal cord convey sensory information back to the central nervous system. The column of vertebrae structures in the head and neck, including the eyes, ears, nose, and. Thirty one pairs of spinal nerves sprout from the spinal cord,.
Most peripheral nerves contain. These nerves branch to supply tissues behind Twelve cranial nerves emerge from the brain and brain stem to supply. One is usually longer and thinner than the rest, and this is the axon.
Such impulses known as action potentials are conducted of the myelin sheath slowly in axons without an insulating layer of myelin and tend to leak away. At the end of an axon, the signal is transmitted across a tiny gap synapse , to the next neuron or to a muscle cell, by chemicals called neurotransmitters. Astrocyte Neuroglial cell providing support and nourishment to the neuron.
Parts of a neuron This artwork shows the detailed structure of a neuron from the central nervous system. A single neuron such as this can make contact with hundreds of other neurons, creating an incredibly complex network of connections. Axon From the Greek for axis or axle, this long projection carries nerve impulses away from the cell body. Dendrite Cell body Myelin sheath. Perineurium Sheathlike wrapping Dendrite Cell body for a fascicle. Axon Blood vessels.
The most common Nerve structure Axon is multipolar, with three or Peripheral nerves comprise bundles more projections. Axons are neurons lie mainly in the wrapped in a layer of packing tissue sensory nerves of the called endoneurium. Nasal cavity Air is warmed, cleaned, and moistened as it passes over the richly vascular lining of the nasal cavity, before entering the pharynx.
Pharynx Epiglottis A passageway that connects the nasal cavities to the larynx, as well as the oral cavity to the esophagus. Apex of left lung. Intercostal muscle. Right lung Possesses three lobes Left lung Has two lobes, and a concavity on its inner surface to accommodate the heart. Main muscle of breathing, supplied.
Parietal pleura Pleural cavity. Diaphragm themselves. These gases are transported around the body in the blood, but the actual transfer of gases between the air and the blood occurs in the lungs.
The lungs have extremely thin membranes that allow the gases to pass across easily. But air also needs to be regularly drawn in and out of the lungs, to expel the building carbon dioxide and to bring in fresh oxygen, and this is brought about by respiration—commonly called breathing. The respiratory system includes the airways on the way to the lungs: Hepatic veins Brachial veins A pair of veins that run with Portal vein the brachial artery.
Superior mesenteric artery Branch of the abdominal aorta Inferior mesenteric artery supplying the small intestine Supplies the lower half of the and part of the large intestine large intestine and the rectum.
Renal artery Carries blood to Common iliac arteries the kidneys A pair of arteries formed by the division of the aorta Renal vein Drains the kidney Common iliac veins A pair of veins that unite to form the inferior vena cava Superior mesenteric vein. Ulnar artery Branches off the brachial Inferior vena cava artery to supply the inner Large vein draining blood forearm and the hand from the lower body and returning it to the heart Radial artery Internal iliac vein Branches off the brachial Drains blood from the artery to supply the outer pelvic organs forearm and the hand.
Deep femoral artery Branch of the femoral artery supplying the muscles of the thigh. Femoral artery Continuation of the external iliac artery, in the thigh. Popliteal vein. The heart is a muscular pump that drains into the popliteal vein. The blood also the lungs, nutrients from the gut, white blood cells to protect against.
Posterior tibial artery. Peroneal artery Supplies muscles in the side of the lower leg. Posterior tibial vein Runs with the posterior tibial artery, draining deep tissues in the calf. Anterior tibial vein Runs with the anterior tibial artery, draining deep tissues in the shin. Artery of the dorsum of the foot. Continuation of the. Arteries branch into smaller and smaller vessels, anterior tibial artery.
Tiny vessels taking blood away from capillary networks join up, like the tributaries of a river, to form veins. External jugular vein From the Latin word jugulum, which means neck Internal carotid artery. Heart Azygos vein. Celiac trunk Brachial artery The name of this artery Brachium means arm in Latin comes from the Greek for belly or bowels.
Radial artery Inferior Takes its name from the outer or mesenteric artery lateral forearm bone—the radius. Ulnar artery Gonadal vein Named after the inner or medial The word gonad comes forearm bone—the ulna from the Greek for generation or reproduction. Branching sideways at collarbone level are the Gonadal artery Common iliac vein subclavian arteries, which transport blood to the upper limbs.
The pulmonary arteries are visible as a External iliac artery dense network of vessels on either side of the aorta. Femoral artery Takes its name from the femur, which means thigh in Latin. Popliteal artery The name comes from the Latin for knee joint or back of the knee. Small lesser Anterior tibial vein saphenous vein. This takes its name from the tibia, which means shinbone in Latin.
Artery of the dorsum of the foot Arteries of the abdomen and legs This color-enhanced CT angiogram shows the abdominal aorta and the arteries of the legs. Also visible are the kidneys and spleen. The large artery pressure cuff on the arm is much higher, easily enough to push and the systemic circulation carries blood pumped by the more carries blood pumped by the right side of the heart to the lungs, The circulation can be divided in two: The pressure.
While the tunica media is a thick layer arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins. CAPILLARY The heart contracts to keep the blood absent from capillaries, the walls of which comprise continually moving through a vast network of just a single layer of endothelial cells.
Arteries carry blood away from the The cardiovascular system carries oxygen from. It have walls made up of three main layers: Artery The largest arteries of the body contain a good proportion of elastic tissue within the internal elastic lamina and tunica media layers. There is less elastic tissue in smaller, muscular arteries, and even less in the smallest arteries, or arterioles. Vein Veins have much thinner walls than arteries and contain proportionately less muscle and more connective and elastic tissue.
Capillaries converge to form tiny veins, or venules, which then join up to form larger veins. This allows substances to transfer between the blood inside the capillary and the surrounding tissue. Some capillaries have pores, or fenestrations, to make the exchange of substances even easier. Kidney capillary cast To reveal the dense network of capillaries inside the kidney, resin has Single cell Cell nucleus Capillaries are so small been injected into the that just one or two renal artery and allowed to cells wrap around set.
The tissue of the organ their diameter has dissolved away.
Right subclavian vein Lymph from right arm, and right side of head and chest enters bloodstream here. Superior vena cava Left subclavian vein Lymph from the thoracic duct enters bloodstream here. Supratrochlear nodes Lymph from the hand and forearm drains to Pre- and para-aortic nodes nodes at the elbow Pre-aortic nodes lie on the aorta in the abdomen and drain lymph from Lateral aortic nodes the gut and digestive organs into the lumbar lymph trunk on each side.
Para-aortic nodes lie on each side of External iliac nodes the aorta and drain lymph from the legs and posterior wall of the abdomen. Internal iliac nodes. The nodes are therefore part of the immune system. There are also patches of lymphoid tissue in the walls of the bronchi and the gut. The spleen, which lies tucked up under the ribs on the left side of the abdomen, has two important roles: Occipital nodes.
Lymph node Jugulodigastric There are around lymph nodes in the adult body. Several lymphatic vessels bring lymph to the node, and a single vessel carries it away. Submental Cervical nodes nodes A chain of lymph nodes that receive the lymph from the head and neck. Thoracic duct. Parasternal nodes Axillary nodes Drain upper trunk and arm.
Cross section of a lymph node Intercostal nodes Lymph nodes possess a capsule stained pink in this section , an outer cortex packed full of lymphocytes deep purple , and an inner medulla made up of lymphatic channels blue. Supratrochlear nodes Drain the inner side of the Pre-aortic arm and forearm nodes. Common iliac nodes Internal iliac nodes.
Skin forms a physical barrier to infection, and the antibacterial sebum secreted onto it is a chemical barrier. There are. AND IMMUNE also important immune molecules, including antibodies, and a great range of immune cells, including lymphocytes, that are all made in the bone marrow. Some lymphocytes mature in the bone marrow,. The thymus is a large gland, low in the neck in children see p. Popliteal nodes be seen in a section of lymphoid tissue. The blue circle in the.
Blood vessels of lymph node. A mass of muscles, the tongue moves food around in the mouth, and also carries the taste buds. Teeth A range of different teeth bite, slice, and grind up the food referred to as the digestive tract. It usually takes between one and that comes into the mouth food into a moist ball that can be swallowed. The mouth, pharynx,. This process begins in the.
One of three pairs of large salivary glands which empty their secretions into the mouth through their ducts Pharynx Connects the mouth to the esophagus Epiglottis Flap of cartilage at the base of the tongue that folds backward during swallowing to cover the larynx. Gallbladder Stomach This baglike organ stores An expandable bag, the stomach bile until it is needed in the holds food and releases it bit by small intestine bit into the small intestine. It also secretes hydrochloric acid, which kills dangerous ingested bacteria.
Pancreas Partially hidden behind the stomach, the pancreas produces hormones including insulin , and makes enzymes that aid digestion, which it secretes into the small intestine Large intestine This comprises the cecum and the colon. The large intestine is where water is absorbed from digested food. Small intestine Comprising the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, the small intestine is where food is digested and nutrients are absorbed. Appendix Rectum Dead-end tube attached to This is a holding station for the the last part of the large waste products of digestion, intestine, with no function in which are known as feces modern humans.
A branch from the Left renal artery. Left renal vein Left kidney. Abdominal Left ureter.
The kidneys lie high up in the abdomen, on its back wall. Inferior vena cava Large vein that lies right at the back of the abdomen, carrying deoxygenated blood from the legs and trunk back to the heart Right ureter.
The upper part of both kidneys is tucked under the twelfth rib. They also get rid of unwanted substances from the blood, playing an important role in excreting nitrogen-containing urea, for example. The urine made by the kidneys is carried by the ureters down to the bladder, which lies in the pelvis. The urethra runs from the bottom of the bladder and opens to the Right renal artery Right kidney Sits a little lower than the left kidney, under the liver. Right renal vein Drains into the inferior vena cava Right suprarenal gland.
In a woman, the urethra is short—only a few inches long—and opens at the perineum, between the legs. The urethra of a man is longer, running through the length of the penis to open at the tip. Common iliac Common artery iliac vein. Bladder A muscular bag that can hold up to 1 pint 0. Prostate gland Surrounds the commencement of the male urethra. Ureters Urethra The male urethra is about 8 in 20 cm long Bladder. However, when it comes to the reproductive organs, there is a world of difference.
In a woman, the ovaries, which produce eggs and female sex hormones, are tucked away, deep inside the pelvis. Also located within the pelvis are the vagina, uterus, and paired oviducts, or fallopian tubes, in which eggs are conveyed from the ovaries to the uterus. MALE In a man, the testes, which produce sperm and sex hormones, hang well outside the pelvis, in the scrotum. The rest of the male reproductive system consists of a pair of tubes called the vasa deferentia singular, vas deferens , the accessory sex glands the seminal vesicles and the prostate , and the urethra.
Lactiferous duct A series of 15 to 20 ducts each drain a lobe of the breast. Nipple Lactiferous ducts open on highest point apex of the nipple, which extends from center of the breast. Secretory lobule containing alveoli One of several small compartments housed within each lobe of the breast. A lobule is composed of grapelike clusters of milk-secreting glands called alveoli.
Fimbriae Fingerlike Ovary projections that Female gonad; is form a feathery end hidden away, deep to each oviduct within the pelvis. Shaft of penis Cervix of uterus Formed by masses of erectile The cervix, or neck of the tissue, which become engorged uterus, projects down into with blood during erection the vagina. Urethra Conveys sperm and Vagina urine through penis Flexible muscular tube that accommodates the male Epididymis penis during coitus; during A much-coiled tube on the childbirth, it expands to allow back of the testis; sperm are the fetus to pass through stored and mature here.
Testis Male gonad; hangs outside body cavity, in the scrotum. Four pea-sized glands at the Part of the brain, lying under. Parathyroid gland including melatonin.
Pituitary gland Hypothalamus. Thyroid gland Pineal gland. The autonomic nervous system uses nerve impulses and neurotransmitters to send information in a swift and localized way. The glands of the endocrine system produce hormones—chemical messengers, often carried in the blood—that act in a slower, more prolonged, and more generalized way. The pituitary gland produces hormones that affect other FRONT endocrine glands, which sometimes form discrete organs. There are also hormone-producing cells in the tissues of many other organs.
Adrenal gland Pancreas A pair of glands, also known Has cells that produce hormones as suprarenal glands, that controlling glucose metabolism: Ovary Ovaries produce sex hormones as well as gametes reproductive cells called ova. The Anatomy Atlas splits the body into seven regions, starting with the head and neck and working down to the lower leg and foot. MRI scans at the end of each section show a series of real-life images through the body. Frontal bone Parietal bones. TOP Paired bones forming most Coronal suture.
In a young adult skull, the sutures are.
The mandible of a In addition to the main bones labeled on these The skull comprises the cranium and mandible. The joint fuses during early infancy, pages, there are sometimes extra bones along the The cranium itself comprises more than 20 bones attachment for the muscles of the head and neck.
Glabella Area between the two superciliary arches; glabella comes from the Latin for smooth, and refers to the bare area between the eyebrows. Mental foramen Hole that transmits branches of the mandibular nerve; mental can refer to the chin mentum in Latin.
The hyoid bone is also vertebra, which supports the skull, is called the the posterior, mastoid part of the cranium at the. In this side view, we can also see more of the.
This small bone is a very important anchor Frontal bone. Nodding movements of the head occur The cervical spine includes seven vertebrae, the top jaw joint.
Greater wing of sphenoid bone. Lacrimal bone Takes its name from the Latin for tear; tears drain from the surface of the eye into the nasolacrimal duct, which lies in a groove in this bone. Nasal bone. Zygomatic bone From the Greek for yoke; it forms a link between the bones of the face and the side of the skull Occipital bone. Angle of mandible Where the body of the Mental foramen mandible turns a corner to become the ramus.
Superior nuchal line Occipital bone The trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles attach to this ridge External occipital protuberance Inferior nuchal line Slight ridge lying between the attachments of some of the deeper neck muscles Foramen magnum.
Digastric notch Stylomastoid The posterior belly foramen of the digastric The facial nerve muscle attaches emerges through to this pit this hole. Styloid process Mastoid process. Foramen spinosum Tympanic part of temporal bone Foramen ovale The mandibular Mandibular fossa division of the Socket for the trigeminal nerve goes temporomandibular through this hole jaw joint. Articular Lateral eminence pterygoid plate The condyle of the An anchor point mandible moves for jaw muscles forward onto this area as the jaw opens Pterygoid hamulus Medial pterygoid The word hamulus plate means small hook Forms the back of in Latin the side wall of the Zygomatic arch nasal cavity.
Choana Opening of the nasal Lesser palatine cavity into the pharynx; foramina from funnel in Greek The lesser palatine arteries and nerves Zygomatic process of maxilla enter here to supply the soft palate Vomer Greater palatine foramen Posterior nasal spine Entry point for the Interpalatine suture greater palatine Joint between the artery and nerve, Palatomaxillary suture horizontal plates of the which supply the two palatine bones hard palate Palate Incisive fossa Intermaxillary suture The nasopalatine nerve emerges here to supply sensation to the front of the palate.
In the middle, there is one large hole—the foramen magnum—through which the brain stem emerges to become the. But there are also many smaller holes, most of them paired. Through these holes, the cranial nerves from the brain escape to supply the muscles, skin, and mucosa, and the glands of the head and neck. Blood vessels also pass through some holes, on their way to and from the brain. At the front, we can also see the upper teeth sitting in their sockets in the maxillae, and the bony, hard palate.
Hypoglossal canal Mastoid foramen The hypoglossal nerve, An emissary valveless supplying the tongue vein passes out muscles, exits here through this hole Internal acoustic meatus The facial and Jugular foramen vestibulocochlear nerves The internal jugular vein pass through this hole and the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves emerge from this hole Basiocciput Part of the occipital bone, in front of the foramen magnum, Petrous part of that fuses with the body of the temporal bone sphenoid bone Foramen lacerum Foramen spinosum Entry point of the middle meningeal artery, which Foramen ovale supplies the dura mater and the bones of the skull Pituitary fossa.
Foramen rotundum Lesser wing of sphenoid bone The maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve passes through this round hole Optic canal Orbital part of Cribriform plate of ethmoid frontal bone Area of the ethmoid bone Part of the frontal bone pierced by holes, through that forms the roof of which the olfactory nerves the orbit, and also the pass. Some of those blood vessels leave deep grooves on the inner surface of the skull: We can also see that the skull bones are not solid, but contain trabecular bone or diploe , which itself contains red marrow.
Some skull bones also contain air spaces, like the sphenoidal sinus visible here. We can also appreciate the large size of the nasal cavity, hidden away inside the skull. Frontal bone Forms the anterior cranial fossa, where the frontal lobes of the brain lie, inside the skull. Frontal sinus One of the paranasal air sinuses that drain into the nasal cavity, this is an air space within the frontal bone.
Pituitary fossa Fossa is the Latin word for ditch; the pituitary gland occupies this small cavity on the upper surface of the sphenoid bone. Superior nasal concha Part of the ethmoid bone, which forms the roof and upper sides of the nasal cavity. Sphenoidal sinus Another paranasal air sinus; it lies within the body of the sphenoid bone. Middle nasal concha Like the superior nasal concha, this is also part of the ethmoid bone. Inferior nasal concha A separate bone, attached to the inner surface of the maxilla; the conchae increase the surface area of the nasal cavity.
Palatine bone Joins to the maxillae and forms the back of the hard palate. Grooves for arteries Meningeal arteries branch on the inside of the skull and leave grooves on the bones. Internal acoustic meatus Hole in petrous part of the temporal bone that transmits both the facial and vestibulocochlear nerves.
External occipital protuberance Projection from occipital bone that gives attachment to the nuchal ligament of the neck; much more pronounced in men than in women. Hypoglossal canal Hole through occipital bone, in the cranial base, that transmits the hypoglossal nerve supplying the tongue muscles. The extremely dense petrous parts of the temporal bones contain and protect the delicate workings of the ear, including the tiny ossicles malleus, incus, and stapes that transmit vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear.
With the opposite maxilla forms the parietal bones at Forms the front Frontal bone. Occipital bone Occipital bone Forms the lower part of the back of the skull. Zygomatic bone Cheek bone, also lateral border of the eye socket. Petrous part of temporal bone. Orbital plate of ethmoid bone.
Lacrimal bone. Zygomatic Orbital surface process of maxilla. Zygomatic Temporal bone bone Mastoid Articulates with process the parietal, Vomer sphenoid, and occipital bones and contains the ear Maxilla apparatus,including Articulates with the opposite the ossicles maxilla in the midline, with the nasal, frontal, and lacrimal bones above, and the sphenoid, ethmoid, and palatine bones Zygomatic bone This roughly triangular bone Alveolar process connects the frontal bone, maxilla, and of maxilla temporal bone Ramus of mandible Projects down from the maxilla and forms the sockets for the upper teeth.
The muscles of the face have very important Acromion of. The wrinkles and creases lie faces—our eyes, noses, and mouths. But they also. It is these muscles that allow. As we age, and our skin forms creases and noses in distaste, to smile gently or grin widely, and. They open and close the apertures in our. Levator labii superioris Raises the upper lip. Latin for circular. Literally, lifter of In Latin, lifter of alaeque nasi Levator labii.
Levator labii and the wing the upper lip. In this side view, we can see the two largest muscles of mastication, the temporalis and masseter muscles.
Two smaller muscles attach to the inner surface of the mandible. This makes the entire scalp movable on the skull. Epicranial aponeurosis Temporalis Attaches from the temporal bone of the skull to the coronoid process of the mandible jawbone Occipital belly of occipitofrontalis. Trapezius Depressor labii Levator scapulae inferioris This is Latin for lifter of The depressor the shoulder blade of the lower lip. Middle scalene Mentalis Anterior scalene This means of the The scalene muscles are chin in Latin shaped like scalene triangles where each Masseter side is a different length From the Greek for chewer Depressor anguli oris Posterior scalene Literally, the Anterior belly of digastric depressor Digastric means two-bellied of the corner of the mouth.
Posterior belly of digastric The digastric pulls the mandible upper jaw bone down to open the mouth, and pulls the hyoid bone up in swallowing. Thyrohyoid Attaches from the hyoid bone to the thyroid cartilage of the larynx. Superior belly of omohyoid Omo comes from the Greek for shoulder; this muscle is named after its attachments—from the hyoid bone to the shoulder blade. Sternohyoid Attaches from the sternum to the hyoid bone. Sternothyroid Attaches from the sternum to the thyroid cartilage.
Soft palate A pair of muscles sweep down from the base of the skull on either side, into the soft palate; two others leave the palate and run down into the tongue and the pharynx. Palatoglossal fold Genioglossus Attaches from the inside of the mandible and sweeps up into Palatine tonsil the tongue Palatopharyngeal fold Hard palate.
Epiglottis One of the cartilages of the larynx; it helps protect the laryngeal inlet during swallowing. Pharyngeal raphe process into the pharynx. The tongue is a great mass of a sphincter just before the Inferior constrictor start of the esophagus that muscle, covered in mucosa.
Some of its muscles arise from the hyoid bone and the of the pharynx stops you from mandible, and anchor it to these bones and move it around. The pharyngeal muscles are important larynx as you breathe in swallowing, and the laryngeal muscles control the vocal cords. The muscles that Longitudinal muscle Circular muscle of move the eye can be seen on p. Sternocleidomastoid Connecting the Glottis mastoid process of The gap between the the skull above to the vocal cords; muscles clavicle and sternum of the larynx act to below, this muscle turns change the position the head to the side and tension of the vocal cords Anterior scalene.
Trapezius Subcutaneous fat. The human brain has grown larger and larger over the course of evolution, and it is now so overblown that the frontal lobes of the brain lie right over the top of the orbits that contain the eyes.
Think about any other mammal, perhaps a dog or a cat for easy Middle frontal gyrus reference, and you will quickly realize what an odd shape the human head is—and most of that is a result of our huge brains. Looking at a side view of the brain, you can see all the lobes that make up each cerebral hemisphere: Tucked under the cerebral hemispheres at the back of the brain is the cerebellum Latin for little brain.
The brain stem leads down, through the foramen magnum of the skull, to the spinal cord. Olfactory bulb. Optic nerve The second cranial nerve.
Central Parietal sulcus lobe. Frontal lobe Parieto-occipital sulcus. Precentral gyrus The location of the primary motor cortex—where nerve impulses that lead to muscle movement originate. Precentral sulcus Divides off the precentral gyrus from the rest of the frontal lobe. Central sulcus The division between the frontal and parietal lobes. Postcentral gyrus Lies just behind the central sulcus. The primary somatosensory cortex, which receives sensory information from all over the body.
Postcentral sulcus Separates the postcentral gyrus from the rest of the parietal lobe. Lateral sulcus A deep cleft dividing the frontal and parietal lobes from the temporal lobe below. Superior temporal gyrus Includes the primary auditory cortex, where sensory information related to hearing is received. Superior temporal sulcus Sulcus is a Latin word meaning groove or furrow. Inferior temporal Cerebellum sulcus Sits under the occipital lobes at the back of the brain; responsible for coordinating movement and managing balance and posture Pons Derived from Latin for Medulla oblongata bridge, this is the part The lowest part of the brain of the brain stem stem; it continues down to between the midbrain form the spinal cord.
To the naked eye,. It looks rather like a large, pinkish gray, wrinkled walnut— there is little to suggest that the brain is the most complicated organ in the human body. Its true. The outer complexity is only visible through a microscope, layer of gray matter, called the cortex, is highly revealing billions of neurons that connect with folded. Underneath the brain we see some more each other to form the pathways that carry our detail, including some of the cranial nerves that senses, govern our actions, and create our minds.
Middle frontal gyrus Inferior frontal sulcus. Inferior frontal gyrus Superior frontal gyrus. Cingulate sulcus Precentral gyrus. Postcentral gyrus Superior parietal lobule. Intraparietal sulcus Divides the superior from the Central sulcus inferior parietal lobule.
This gyrus, Turns a corner around the end on the left, has been of the superior temporal sulcus. Inferior parietal lobule Postcentral sulcus Parieto-occipital sulcus Divides the parietal and occipital lobes. Parahippocampal gyrus Lateral cerebral fossa This part of the cortex, close to the hippocampus, plays an important role in Olfactory trigone memory and recognition The olfactory tract splays out into this triangular shape, just in front of Tuber cinereum the anterior perforated Small bump of substance gray matter under the brain; part of the Inferior temporal hypothalamus see p.
Frontal pole Olfactory bulb. Olfactory tract Lateral sulcus. Temporal pole. Optic chiasma Where the optic nerves partially cross each other Pituitary gland Pons. This division is clearly seen when viewing the brain from the front, back, or top.
Areas of the brain that receive and process certain types of information, or govern movements, can be very widely separated. The visual pathways from the eyes end in the cortex of the occipital lobe at the back of the brain, and visual information is also processed in this lobe. Fissures The grooves in the cerebellum. Folia The bulges in Occipital pole the cerebellum. Hypothalamus Plays an important role in regulating the internal environment of the body, by keeping a check on body temperature, blood pressure, and blood sugar level, for instance.
Pituitary gland Produces many hormones and forms a link between the brain and endocrine system. Mammillary body Part of the limbic system of the brain.
Interthalamic adhesion Connection between the thalami on each side of the brain. Cerebrum The largest part of the brain, consisting of the two cerebral hemispheres Thalamus Processes and relays sensory and motor information to higher brain centers.
Splenium of corpus callosum The posterior end of the corpus callosum. Pineal gland Produces the hormone melatonin and is involved in the regulation of sleep—wake cycles. Tectum of the midbrain The roof of the midbrain. Cerebral aqueduct A narrow channel connecting the third and fourth ventricles. We also see that the brain is not solid: Two spaces or ventricles lie inside each hemisphere, while the third and fourth ventricles are located on the midline.
Beneath and behind the cerebrum sits the cerebellum. Sliced through this way, the inside of the cerebellum reveals a beautiful, treelike pattern. In this section, we can also see clearly all the parts of the brainstem—the midbrain, pons, and medulla. Third ventricle. Mammillary body callosum Body of corpus. Mainly produced The brain is protected by three membranes.
The tough dura mater layer is. Under the dura mater AND NECK Anterior horn of lateral ventricle Part of the lateral ventricle located in the frontal lobe Inferior horn of lateral ventricle Front part of the lateral ventricle, which projects down into the temporal lobe Interventricular foramen Connects the two lateral ventricles Body of lateral ventricle Roofed by the corpus callosum. Pia mater A thin membrane that is the innermost of the meninges, lining the brain itself.
Arachnoid mater Middle layer of the meninges. Dura mater Outer layer of the meninges; dura mater is Latin for hard mother. Septum Caudate. Superior sagittal sinus pellucidum. The 12 pairs of cranial nerves the standard of cranial nerves emerge from the brain stem.
This has. A few also contain autonomic branches in the neck, but then continues on to supply organs in the thorax and right down in the abdomen. The olfactory nerve and the optic taste, and so on, can help doctors pinpoint nerve attach to the brain itself.
The other 10 pairs neurological problems in the head and neck. Olfactory bulbs Receive the olfactory nerves CN1. Olfactory tracts Pons. Hypoglossal nerve CN XII Vagus nerve CN X Formed from a series of rootlets Exits the cranium via the emerging from the groove jugular foramen, along between the olive and pyramid with the glossopharyngeal of the medulla and accessory nerves.
Temporal branch of facial nerve Supplies the Posterior frontal belly of auricular nerve occipitofrontalis A branch of the and orbicularis facial nerve, oculi muscles supplying the occipital belly of occipitofrontalis Optic nerve muscle CN II Carries sensory information from the retina of the eye. Zygomatic branch of facial nerve Supplies orbicularis oculi muscle. Infraorbital nerve Branch of the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve, supplying sensation over the cheek. Trigeminal nerve CN V Colored deep Buccal branch of orange on this facial nerve illustration; splits Supplies the into ophthalmic, muscles of maxillary, and the upper lip mandibular divisions.
Mental nerve Facial nerve Continuation of the CN VII inferior alveolar Colored bright nerve, supplying yellow on this sensation over illustration the chin Cervical branch Inferior alveolar of facial nerve nerve Supplies platysma Branches of this muscle in the neck nerve innervate the lower teeth, the gums, the lower lip, and the chin.
Marginal Lingual nerve Accessory nerve mandibular branch Branch of the mandibular CN XI of facial nerve division of the trigeminal Supplies muscles of the nerve, supplying sensation lower lip and chin to the tongue.
Glossopharyngeal nerve CN IX. Sclera Iris Upper eyelid. EYE Lacrimal caruncle. The eyes are precious organs. They are well protected inside the eye sockets, or Lacrimal papilla bony orbits, of the skull. They are also protected by the eyelids, and bathed in tears produced by the lacrimal glands.
Each eyeball is only 1 in 2. Other nerves supply the eye muscles and the lacrimal glands, and even continue on to the face to supply sensation to the skin of the eyelids and forehead.
Conjunctiva Sclera Lateral rectus Thin mucous membrane From the Greek for muscle covering the front of the hard; the tough, outer eyeball, as well as the inner coat of the eyeball surfaces of the eyelids, but not the cornea Choroid This layer is packed Iris with blood vessels From the Greek for rainbow; contains smooth muscle: Temporal bone Forms part of the side wall and Malleus base of the skull; This mallet-shaped ossicle houses the attaches to the back of the workings of tympanic membrane and the ear connects to the incus.
External acoustic meatus The outer third of this canal is made of cartilage, while the inner two-thirds is a channel within the temporal bone; the meatus is lined with thin skin, which continues on to the eardrum.
Tympanic membrane The eardrum vibrates as sound waves buffet it; the ossicles the malleus, incus, and stapes carry those vibrations through the.
HEAD middle ear to the inner ear. The middle ear is an air space inside the temporal bone. It contains the ossicles ear bones and is linked to the pharynx by the pharyngotympanic, or eustachian, tube.
Similar hair cells in the vestibular apparatus the semicircular canals, utricle, and saccule convert mechanical stimuli, produced by motions of the head, into nerve impulses see pp. The sensory nerves leaving the inner ear join to form the vestibulocochlear nerve. Lateral semicircular canal Anterior semicircular canal Antihelix This is positioned horizontally Positioned vertically, but at right Helix A curved angles to the plane of the posterior The outer rim prominence, semicircular canal of the auricle parallel to the helix.
Vestibular nerve Carries sensory information from the vestibular apparatus— including the semicircular canals. Cochlear nerve Conveys sensory information about sound from the External acoustic cochlea meatus. Intertragic notch. Section cut from cochlea From top to bottom shows vestibular canal, cochlear duct, and tympanic canal. Vestibulocochlear nerve The vestibular nerve and the cochlear nerve join to form the vestibulocochlear nerve. Tympanic membrane Cochlea As seen with an otoscope, Not surprisingly, a healthy eardrum has a cochlea means pearly, almost translucent snail in Latin appearance.
Lateral process of malleus. Handle of Vestibule malleus Contains the utricle and sacule, organs of balance.
Second cervical nerve C2 Along with C3 and C4, this nerve supplies sensation to the skin of the neck as well as supplying a range of muscles in the neck. Third cervical nerve C3. Fourth cervical nerve C4. The last four cranial nerves all appear in the neck.
The glossopharyngeal nerve supplies. The vagus nerve is sandwiched between the common carotid artery and the internal jugular vein,. The accessory nerve supplies the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles in the neck, while the last cranial nerve, the hypoglossal, dips down below the mandible, then curves back up to supply the muscles of the tongue. We can also see spinal nerves in the neck. The upper four cervical nerves supply neck muscles and skin, while the lower four contribute to the brachial plexus and are destined for the arm.
Sympathetic Larynx trunk Left common carotid artery The pulsation of this artery is easy to feel in the neck. Right common Sternocleidomastoid carotid artery muscle. Right internal Left internal jugular vein jugular vein.
Right vagus Cervical nerves nerve. Right phrenic nerve Body of cervical vertebra Spinal cord. Trapezius muscle. Spinal process of cervical vertebra. Cut edge of superior concha.
Middle meatus The frontal sinus, maxillary sinus, and the rest of the ethmoid air cells open into the nasal cavity here, beneath the middle concha. Atrium Cut edge of middle concha Vestibule Sphenoidal sinus Inside the sphenoid bone; one of the paranasal air sinuses. Inferior meatus The nasolacrimal duct— draining tears from the inner corner of the eye—opens into the nasal cavity here; that is why your nose tends to run when you cry Cut edge of inferior concha.
Nasopharynx Uppermost part of the Nostril pharynx, behind the nasal cavity—which ends level with the back of the hard palate—and above the oropharynx.
Laryngopharynx Lower part of the pharynx, behind the larynx. False vocal cord Cricoid Also known as the cartilage vestibular cord. Thyroid Trachea cartilage. Ethmoid Frontal sinus sinus. Here the air is cleaned, warmed, and moistened before its onward journey. The nasal cavities are divided by the thin partition of the nasal septum, which is composed of plates of cartilage and bone. The nasal cavity is lined with mucosa, which produces mucus.
This often undervalued substance does an important job of trapping particles and moistening the air. Below and in front of the pharynx is the larynx—the organ of speech.
The way that air passes through this can be modulated to produce sound. Hyoid bone Epiglottis Elastic piece of cartilage named after the Greek for upon the tongue; it sits behind the tongue, and helps protect the airway during swallowing. Vocal ligament or cord. Maxillary artery Supplies the maxilla, mandible, palate, nose, and teeth. Angular artery The continuation of the facial artery, lying near the inner angle of the eye.
Posterior auricular Infraorbital artery artery Emerges through the Supplies an area infraorbital foramen around the ear just under the orbit. Buccal artery Occipital artery Supplies the scalp Superior labial on the back of the artery head Branches from the facial artery to supply External carotid the upper lip artery Branches of this Inferior labial artery supply the artery larynx, thyroid gland, Branches from the mouth, tongue, facial artery to supply nasal cavity, face, the lower lip mandible, maxillae, teeth, and scalp Mental artery.
Internal carotid Submental artery A branch of the artery facial artery that runs on the underside Vertebral artery of the chin. Posterior Angular vein auricular vein Drains the scalp behind the Infraorbital vein ear; joins the retromandibular vein to form the external Pterygoid venous jugular vein network A network of veins lying under the ramus Occipital vein of the mandible Drains the back of the scalp and runs deep to join Maxillary vein other veins Drains the pterygoid venous network Retromandibular vein Travels down Superior labial vein behind the Drains from the upper mandible, through lip, into the facial vein the parotid gland alongside the external carotid artery Inferior labial vein Drains the lower lip External jugular vein Drains the face Mental vein and scalp.
Submental vein Internal jugular vein The largest vein in Facial vein the neck, lies close to the common carotid artery Superior thyroid vein. The main vessels supplying oxygenated blood to the head and neck are the common. The vertebral artery runs up through holes in the cervical vertebrae and eventually enters the skull through the foramen magnum.
The common. Veins of the head and neck come together like river tributaries, draining into the large internal jugular vein, behind the sternocleidomastoid muscle, and into the subclavian vein, low in the neck. Posterior communicating artery.
Posterior The brain has a rich blood supply, cerebral artery which arrives via the internal carotid and vertebral arteries. The vertebral Basilar artery arteries join together to form the basilar artery.
The internal carotid Internal carotid arteries and basilar artery join on artery the undersurface of the brain to form the Circle of Willis. From there, three pairs of cerebral arteries make External carotid their way into the brain.
The veins artery of the brain and the skull drain into Vertebral venous sinuses, which are enclosed arteries within the dura mater the Travel up through the foramina outermost layer of the meninges in the cervical and form grooves on the inner vertebrae, and enter the skull surface of the skull. The sinuses through the join up and eventually drain out foramen magnum of the base of the skull, into the internal jugular vein.
Common carotid artery. Internal carotid artery Middle cerebral artery. Posterior Superior cerebellar communicating artery artery Highest of three pairs of arteries supplying the Posterior cerebellum of the brain cerebral artery Basilar artery Pontine arteries Carries blood from Branch from the basilar vertebral arteries to the artery to supply the pons Circle of Willis and Circle of Willis supplies the midbrain.
Pterygoid venous Sigmoid sinus plexus Gets its name from the Greek for S-shaped. Sphenoparietal sinus Cavernous sinus. Inferior petrosal sinus Connects the cavernous sinus to the internal jugular vein. Superior petrosal sinus Connects the cavernous to the transverse sinus.
Parotid nodes Also called the preauricular nodes; Occipital nodes drain the forehead and Drain the scalp of temporal region around the back of the head and above the ear. Buccal node Mastoid nodes Also called the retroauricular nodes; drain the scalp above and behind the ear. Submandibular nodes Jugulodigastric node Around and often within One of the upper deep the submandibular cervical nodes, lying just salivary gland; they drain behind the angle of the the nose, cheeks, and jaw; receives lymph upper lip from the tonsil.
Infrahyoid nodes Internal jugular vein Jugulo-omohyoid node One of the lower deep cervical Paratracheal nodes lymph nodes; this receives Receive lymph from lymph from the tongue the larynx, trachea, and esophagus, and drain to deep nodes Pretracheal nodes Drain the trachea and thyroid gland. Pharyngeal tonsil This lymphoid tissue is prominent in children and referred to as the adenoid Nasal cavity Opening of pharyngotympanic Eustachian tube.
Soft palate. Palatine tonsil Pharynx Lies under the Runs from the area mucous membrane behind the nasal cavity or mucosa of the to behind the larynx oropharynx; the two and consists of three are often just called areas, named, from the tonsils top to bottom: Lingual tonsil Larynx Lymphoid tissue under the mucosa of the back of the tongue. A ring of lymph nodes lies close to the skin where sternocleidomastoid muscle. Lymph from all other the head meets the neck, from the occipital nodes nodes passes to these deep ones, then into the against the skull at the back to the submandibular jugular lymphatic trunk before draining back into and submental nodes which are tucked under veins in the base of the neck.
Lymphoid tissue, in the jaw. Tongue Manipulates Oral cavity food in the mouth, bears taste buds, and Parotid gland forms sounds. Lower lip Oropharynx. Geniohyoid This muscle Epiglottis raises the Helps close the hyoid during opening to the larynx swallowing during swallowing. Your teeth grind each mouthful, and you have three pairs of major salivary Oral part of glands—parotid, submandibular, and sublingual—that secrete saliva Fungiform papilla the tongue through ducts into the mouth.
Saliva contains digestive enzymes that Literally means mushroom-shaped; begin to chemically break down the food in your mouth. As you swallow, the tongue pushes up papillae; fungiform papillae that give against the hard palate, the soft palate seals off the airway, and the papillae also bear the tongue a taste buds velvety texture muscular tube of the pharynx contracts in a wave to push the ball of food down into the esophagus, ready for the next stage of its journey.
Lateral incisor Central incisor Eruption of teeth Around 8 years Around 7 years The ages given here are the approximate times of eruption of the permanent teeth.
Canine First premolar Around 11 years Around 9 years. First molar Second premolar Around 6 years Around 10 years. Second molar Enamel Around 12 years The hardest tissue in the human body. There is overlap between these two systems, and their functions are integrated and controlled within the hypothalamus of the brain. The pituitary gland has two lobes; its posterior lobe develops as a direct extension of the hypothalamus see pp.
Both lobes of the pituitary gland secrete hormones into the bloodstream, in response to nerve signals or blood-borne releasing factors from the hypothalamus. Many of the pituitary hormones act on other endocrine glands, including the thyroid gland in the neck, the suprarenal glands on top of the kidneys, and the ovaries or testes. Pituitary gland tissue Some hormone-secreting cells in the anterior pituitary appear stained red in this image, including those that produce growth hormone, others are stained blue.
Pineal gland. Thyroid blood supply This resin cast of the thyroid gland SIDE shows capillaries wrapped around secretory cells rounded , which release hormones into the bloodstream. Right superior parathyroid gland Four pea-sized glands sit at the back of the thyroid. Cerebral Cingulate cortex gyrus.
Eye Frontal sinus. Nasal septum. Nasal Maxillary cavity sinus. The discovery of X-rays at the end of the 19th century 4 suddenly created the possibility of looking inside the human body—without having to physically cut it open. Medical imaging is now an important 5 diagnostic tool, as well as being used for the study of normal anatomy and physiology. In computed tomography CT , X-rays are used to produce virtual sections or slices through the body.
MRI is very useful for 2 Larynx looking in detail at soft tissue, for instance, muscle, tendons, and the brain. Also seen clearly in these sections are the eyes 1 and 3 , the tongue 1 and 2 , the larynx, vertebrae, and spinal cord 2 and 5. Cerebral Skull cortex Skull. Corpus Lateral Third callosum ventricle ventricle. Thalamus Optic nerve Eye Hypothalamus.
Medulla Meninges oblongata Outer ear. Spinal cord Thyroid cartilage Vertebra. Second costal cartilage The upper seven ribs are true ribs, and all attach directly to the sternum via costal cartilages. Eighth to tenth ribs The costal cartilages of these ribs each attach to the costal cartilage above. Manubrium sterni The sternum is shaped like a dagger or short sword; manubrium means handle or hilt in Latin. Body of sternum Sternum comes from the Greek for breastbone.
Xiphoid process The tip of the sternum takes its name from the Greek word for sword. It not only acts as an anchor for muscle attachment, but during breathing the ribs also move up and out to increase the volume inside the thoracic cavity and draw air into the lungs. It also forms a protective cage around the precious organs inside: The bony thorax includes the 12 thoracic vertebrae, 12 pairs of ribs and costal cartilages, and the breastbone, or sternum.
The upper seven ribs all articulate with the sternum via their costal cartilages. The eighth to the tenth costal cartilages each join to the cartilage above, creating the sweeping curve of the ribcage below the sternum on ANTERIOR each side.
Twelfth rib The twelfth rib is even shorter than the eleventh, and tucked underneath muscles, so it cannot be felt. There are cartilaginous joints between the vertebrae at the back of the thorax, and between the parts of the sternum at the front. The joints between the ribs and the vertebrae at the back are synovial, allowing the ribs to move during breathing.
C1 atlas. Seven vertebrae make up the spine in the neck C7.