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Ip Book for Class Xii - Cbse - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File . txt) or read book online for free. Download CBSE class 12 Informatics Practices study material in PDF format. MyCBSEguide provides solved papers, board question papers, revision notes and. ĉ, ASSIGNMENT 2 SQL doc. View Download, 48k, v. 1, Mar 28, , AM, shivali jaggi. Ċ, CHAPTER INFORMATIC PRACTICES XII

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(Download) CBSE Text Books: A Text Book on INFORMATICS PRACTICES ( Class XII) (Class XII). To Download Click Following link: Part Courtesy: CBSE. The books can be download in pdf format for Class 12 Informatics Practices. Download entire CBSE Class 12 Informatic Practices Advanced Programming. Download CBSE Class 12 Informatic Practices MySQL, NCERT Book for Informatics Practices and other books free in pdf format.

The process of writing source code of programs requires expertise in subject, knowledge of desired application domain, a formal logic and knowledge of syntax of the relevant programming language. Project File Students in group of are required to work collaboratively to develop a project using Programming and Database skills learnt during the course. Bluetooth can be used for a. Have you ever transferred songs from your computer to a cell phone or vice-versa? This printer is able to print documents from multiple users on the network.

Do you ever find that when you are talking to someone else, another person is secretly trying to listen to your talks? What that person is doing is 'eavesdropping'. Have you ever tried to secretly listen to the conversation between two teachers regarding your class? If yes, then what you have done is 'eavesdropping'. In context of network security Eavesdropping refers to unauthorised access to another person's or organization's data while the data is on its way on the network.

By setting up parallel telephone lines. By installing some software spyware in the target computer. By installing some receiver which captures the data while on its way. The term Network Security refers to all activities undertaken to protect a computer network from attacks to its security.

This covers protection of computers in the premises and data on the network from both internal and external attacks. To protect a network from security attacks, a number of steps are taken. These steps include: By assigning login names and strong passwords to the users of a system, it can be ensured that only authorized people access a computer.

This helps in increasing the computer as well as network security. A strong password is the one which is easy to. Eavesdropping - Login-Password: On the other hand a weak password is generally the name of a person or organization, the registration number of a vehicle, year of birth of a person and so on.

A weak password can be cracked in a few attempts. Examples of strong passwords may be raavanisdead raavan is dead - with spaces removed , 2aur2paanch name of an old Hindi movie or anything like that. These days anti-virus softwares work against not only the virus but also against almost all kinds of malware. Therefore by installing a full version legal not the pirated one or freeware anti-virus software network security can be increased.

A data file on a computer can be created, read, or modified. An application file can be run or executed. Accordingly, different rights privileges can be given to different users of a computer to perform one or more of these tasks. For example, suppose there is a data file containing students' marks in a school. The system administrator has created that file.

If there is a need to create another such file, then again only the system administrator can create it. So, system administrator is given the 'Create' right. A teacher can read this file to go through the marks of the students. She can also enter or alter the marks in this file. Therefore a teacher has 'Read', 'Write', and 'Modify' rights to this file. The students can only view their marks; therefore, the students are given only the 'Read' right to this file.

If report cards have to be printed for a class, the class teacher makes a request to the computer operator, who can run a program to print the report cards. This computer operator has been given the 'Execute' right to the application program which prints the report cards.

This way by giving appropriate rights to respective users, computer security as well as network security can be increased. Let us now take an example to see how can a computer network be setup. Anti Virus Software: File Permissions: Setting up a computer network 30 office in Chennai Tamil Nadu and schools in various parts of the globe.

The 'SF School' will have 3 computer labs with 30 computers in each, 1 Accounts office with 3 computers, 1 Administrative block with 5 computers, and 1 Principal's office with 1 computer.

Let us see how a computer network can be set up in the school.

First of all we can draw a rough sketch of the school with computers at various locations as follows: Independent LANs can be set up in each of the following buildings: For this 1 switch with suitable number of ports will be required in each of these buildings.

More than one switches can be used in computer labs if a switch with more than 30 ports is not available. Two internet connections broadband for high speed can be procured in Administrative Office. Two connections should be procured from two different ISPs so that i Internet connection in Administrative office can be kept separate from the other Computer labs where students may do a lot of experimentation.

This interconnection will ensure that each building is directly connected to Admisnistrative block. This way internet connection will be available in each building irrespective of the status of the other building. Server if any of the school may be placed in Administrative block so that it remains safe physically and a firewall can be set up so that the whole network remains safe from any kinds of virus or intrusion attacks. There is no need to do any extra efforts or expenses to link the school to its head office.

This can be taken care of using the internet connections. Communication Media are the links over which the data is sent from one node to another over a network. Hardware devices used to form a network are: Repeaters are used to regenerate the signal which gets weakened during its transmission.

Repeater are generally used to connect two networks which are more than 80 m apart. Gateway is a device which connects two different types of networks. Basic network topologies are bus, star and tree. Each machine on a network is identified by its IP address. Network security can be increased by applying some preventive methods. The scenario of how computers are networked is changing very fast. Before full implementation of a technology, a new technology is visible at the horizon.

One such new technology is 4G. Change from one generation to another involves a major advancement in the technology used. Today we are living in the world of 3G. Soon, 4G will rule the mobile market. Unlike previous generations of mobile technology, 4G mobile technology will be used for internet access on computers also, and it will be totally wireless! You can explore more about 4G technology on the internet. This is also referred to as 'Green IT'. You can explore more about Cloud Computing on the internet.

Which of the following topologies is a combination of more than one topologies? Bus b. Tree c. Star d. None of these 2. Which of the following is used for wireless communication? Optical Fiber b. UTP cable c. Radio Waves d. Coaxial Cable 3. Which of the following is not a transmission medium?

Telephone Network b. Coaxial Cable c. Modem d. Microwaves 4. IP addresses of two computers on a network: Can be the same b. Cannot be the same c. Are not defined d. Must match with a third computer 5. Bluetooth can be used for a. Long distance communication b. Short distance communication c. In mobile phones only d. None of the above 6. Micro waves are a. Uni directional b.

Omni directional c. Guided media d. Not used for communication. Snooping is a. A threat to data security b. Not a threat to data security c. Good for laptops d. A topology 8. A repeater a. Regenerates the received signal b. Destroys the received signal c.

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Can be used as a hub d. None of the above 9. Satellite links are generally used for a. PANs b. LANs c. MANs d. All of the above A domain name maps to a. A URL b. An IP address c. A website d. All of the above 1. What is a computer network? What are its advantages? What is meant be communication channels? Give two examples of guided media and two examples of unguided media. Setting up a LAN b.

Transfer of data from a laptop to a mobile phone. Transfer of data from one mobile phone to another. Creating a remote control that can control multiple devices in a home.

Very fast communication between two offices in two different countries. Communication in a hilly area g. Communication within a city and its vicinity where cost of cabling is too high.

Why is a switch called an intelligent hub? When is a repeater used in a computer network?

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Diagramatically show how would you connect 6 PCs, 1 server, 1 printer, and 2 scanners in a. Star topology b. Bus topology 7. Two engineers in the same room have connected their Palm-tops using bluetooth for working on a Group presentation. Out of the following, what kind of Network have they formed? What is a MAC address? Give some examples of domain names and URLs. How is a domain name different from a URL? What is domain name resolution?

Define Network security? What kind of attacks can be made on data and computer networks? List some methods which are used for network security.

Differentiate with examples wherever possible between: Hub and Switch d. Guided and Unguided media Write one advantage of star topology over bus topology and one advantage of bus topology over star topology. Ishika Industries has set up its new production unit and sales office at Ranchi. The company compound has 4 buildings as shown in the diagram below: Suggest a cable layout of connections between the buildings so that each building is directly connected to Administrative Office.

Suggest the most suitable place i. Suggest the placement of the following devices with justification: The Administrative office of this unit is to be linked with the head office situated in Patiala Punjab. What will be the most economical way to do this?

Justify your answer. Find the IP addresses of at least five computers in your school. Find the MAC addresses of at least 2 computers in your lab. Then verify their manufacturer's name on the net. Find the layout of LAN in your school's labs. If you think some modifications can be done in the layout, note these down in your notebook.

Find the name of Internet Service Provider of your school. Find the IP address of your school's web site. Team size recommended: A school building is divided into 4 blocks A, B, C, and D. Each block is at a distance of 25m from its adjacent blocks. Each block has 1 computer lab with 15 computers each. Each block also has some other rooms maximum 10 with 1 computer each.

The school has only one internet connection. The computer network in the school has to be restructured with the following goals in mind: Each lab has to have an independent LAN.

All the computers in the school should have internet access. The school does not want to have any other new internet connection. For internet access a computer should be dependent only on one point and not on multiple points. It means that if the internet connection is active, any computer should be able to access it directly irrespective of whether some other computer in the school is ON or OFF.

Any two computers in the school should be able to communicate with each other irrespective of whether any other computer in the school is ON or OFF. The job of each team is to design a layout for this new network structure. Each team has to specify The layout of the network structure diagrammatically. How the design will be able to fulfill all the mentioned requirements.

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Find the average price and specifications of each of the following network devices in the market: Each team has to specify: Different types of switches available in the market, their prices, and number of ports. Names of brands of UTP Cable available in the market, along with their prices.

Different types of LAN cards available in the market along with their prices. Computers and internet have transformed our lives.

It is next to impossible to modify the compiled version of the software. At times we feel the need to change certain features of the software but are unable to do so. In this chapter we will study about software which are developed collaboratively and they can be modified as well. Well, have you noticed something common in all these terms. That's right! It is the word free. People often correlate this word with the cost.

They think that these software are available for free. Practically, these software can be acquired at very little or no cost. But, here, "free" means freedom to use. These software can be studied, copied, redistributed freely and even modified according to one's need without seeking any kind of permission. In order to modify such software the developers also provide the source code to the users.

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There do exist software which are actually "free" in the sense of price. These are known as Freeware. Lots of freeware can be downloaded from the internet for various different purposes such as currency converters, drawing graphs and charts etc.

But freeware may not come with the source code. Therefore freeware differ from free software. The focus in this chapter is on free software rather than freeware. The first formal definition of "free software" was given in by Richard Stallman, a long time member of the hacker community at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.

He insisted that a free software should give the following four freedoms to users: Freedom 0: The freedom to run the program for any purpose. Freedom 1: The freedom to study how the program works, and change it to make it do what you wish. Freedom 2: The freedom to redistribute copies so as to help your neighbour. Freedom 3: The freedom to improve the program, and release your improvements and modified versions in general to the public, so that the whole community benefits.

You can get more information on open source software from opensource. Operating systems and Desktop environments Linux - Operating system kernel Ubuntu - Linux distribution with full complement of software for everyday use.

Songbird - similar to iTunes with built-in browser. Comparable to Microsoft Office. Unix-like operating systems are built from a collection of libraries, applications and developer tools, plus a kernel to allocate resources and to talk to the hardware.

CBSE - Class 12 - Informatics Practices

GNU is often used with the Linux kernel. Firefox is a free and open source web browser produced by Mozilla Foundation. Open Office is the leading open source office suite for word processing, spreadsheets, presentations, databases etc. It is available in many languages. It stores files in open document format ODF for data interchange that is its default file format. The NetBeans community has since continued to grow, thanks to individuals and companies using and contributing to the project.

A commonly voiced concern about open source software: Open Source Software Security "If anyone can contribute to open source software, doesn't it become a free-for-all full of loopholes? Getting a change incorporated into an open source project is thus rather like getting an article published in a scientific journal.

Open source software is more heavily tested than their commercial counterparts as it can be downloaded by anybody around the world and any one of them can discover a bug or security flaw and submit those reports back to the project.

Also the loop-hole or bug is available to every one and the customer can take the preventive measure accordingly and fix comes faster. The Open Document format ODF is a format for office documents, such as spreadsheets, databases, presentations and word-processing documents.

Open Document is a free and open format. For governments, businesses, archivists and others, it's critical to store documents in a way that can be read for years to come. Proprietary digital file formats are typically changing with every new version of the software, so there should be some format which supports files created in any application.

The data should be the center of importance not the application. Office suite applications, as always, need a file format that is designed to organize the data when it moves away from the application. People with different machines in different places should be able to open and edit the data in a file. ODF offers an open alternative to the formats used by all of the existing Office application versions for text, spreadsheet, presentation, and other kinds of documents.

Open Document's main file extensions are. These will be more commonly recognized when more people and organizations adopt Open Document-ready software. Ogg Vorbis is a new audio compression format developed by Xiph. It is an open, patent-free, professional audio encoding and streaming technology with all the benefits of Open source.

Let us recall from Annexure I of Class XI that in order to communicate with the computers some kind of a binary code is required. In this regard, a detailed study was made on BCD code which is a 4 bit code. However, BCD code is not sufficient enough to accommodate even all the characters of English alphabet and digits. To accommodate all these, a higher bit code is required.

In the earlier days most computers were using an 8 bit system. This extra bit gave computer developers lot of empty spaces which was used for different purposes.

In order to work with Indian languages, these unspecified spaces were used for Indic characters. The efforts were very creative and gave good results despite the fact that there was no or very little support from the operating systems.

Since no general rules and methodologies were adopted in developing Indic characters, different developers developed these characters in their own ways. This created compatibility issues across different programs and across different operating systems. For example browsers like Internet Explorer did not support all Indic characters and displayed distorted texts.

On one hand, more and more work had been undertaken to facilitate the use of Indian languages on computers but on the other hand it was becoming difficult to maintain consistency across different programs developed for the same set of Indic characters.

In such a scenario, it was important to have a common standard for coding Indian scripts. The Indic scripts are a family of abugida alphabetic-syllabary writing systems. They are used by languages of several linguistic families: They were also the source of the dictionary order of Japanese kana. Similarly, to work with other languages of the world, people were making efforts to use ASCII along with the extra 8th bit.

Unicode was developed with the aim to conceive a single standard code which could manage to represent all languages of the world. Unicode characters are represented in one of the three encoding forms: With the usage of Unicode, single versions of software were developed instead of language-specific versions that reduced the complexity. This ensures platform, vendor and application independence. Incorporating Unicode into applications and websites offers significant cost savings than proprietary solutions.

It allows data to be transported through several different systems without distortion. This font format was developed by Adobe in 's.

This font consists of two parts which are both necessary for the font to be properly printed and displayed on screen. With most operating systems, these fonts can be installed simply by being placed in the system's folder.

This format was jointly developed by Apple and Microsoft in the late 80s. These fonts contain both the screen and printer font data in a single component, making the fonts easier to install. And that is why these are a good choice for those who find the installation of fonts difficult. This is the latest font format which is a joint effort by Apple and Microsoft.

Like True Type fonts, this contains both the screen and printer font data in a single component. However, open type fonts support multiple platforms and expanded character sets. Additionally, open type format allows the storage of upto 65, characters. This additional space provides freedom to include add-ons such as small caps, old style figures, alternate characters and other extras that previously needed to be distributed as separate fonts.

However, not all open type fonts contain additional characters. Many fonts have been converted from either PostScript or TrueType formats without expanded character sets to take advantage of the cross-platform functionality benefits of Open Type. OpenType fonts that do contain expanded character sets are referred to informally as OpenType Pro fonts. Support for OpenType Pro fonts is increasing, but the format is yet to be fully supported by all applications.

Every time printing takes place, same character will appear with same shape e. Times New Roman, Arial etc. Dynamic font is a web browser technology used when visiting any website that uses fonts which are not installed on client's machine. The web browser would not be able to display the page properly, but will select one of fonts available on client machine.

In this the characters are redefined at each occurrence everytime they are displayed or printed. All hand written fonts such as handwritten alphabets, calligraphic letters, graffiti etc are dynamic fonts because of individual variations. This technology is helpful in displaying multilingual websites. Many tools have been developed to facilitate the typing of Indian language text. These tools broadly support two types of text entries: But while typing, the Indian alphabets are written phonetically i.

For e.

The whole arrangement of mapping the keyboard keys to specific language characters is known as keymap. A keymap is internally stored as a table.

Multiple keymaps are used to store complete keymapping e. Entering Indian language text. When Nukta "-" is typed after character, the character shown to its left on the key, is obtained.

Future Trends You can get more information on Indian script keymaps from http: At present very few open source endeavors which involve few people are there and are largely unstructured and undisciplined. But as this concept matures in future more OSS projects will come up and will adopt more structured methodologies to code, control and coordinate.

In future this concept will be adopted at a big level by private and government sector. This will force companies to embrace open source and will force the open source community to innovate in line with more complex need of government and business.

ODF Open Document Format offers an open alternative to the formats used by all of the existing software. Ogg Vorbis is open audio compression format. Post Script font consists of two parts which are both necessary for the font to be properly printed and displayed on screen. True type fonts contain both the screen and printer font data in a single component. Open type fonts support multiple platforms and expanded character sets.

On the basis of their configuration, fonts are categorized as static fonts and dynamic fonts. For entering text in Indian script keymap based or phonetic text based entry can be done. Give at least two examples of OSS. Justify that free software is not open source software. Write down its components, their areas of applications, their file extensions.

Identify and name the various methods and properties associated with the various form controls Create simple applications in Java using NetBeans IDE. Create GUI applications using the concepts of variables and control structures.

The GUI builder automatically takes care of the correct spacing and alignment of the different components relative to each other. The JFrame acts as a container for the elements like the JLabel, JButton, JTextArea and allows direct editing of their associated properties at the design time and run time. The related methods are used in the code to develop applications for a specific task. The concept of variables and control structures are used to simplify the code of the applications.

This group of phrases has something amazing hidden in it. Try and find out what is so unusual about this group of phrases?

Is there any specific pattern in each line? Delia failed. Evil olive Pull up if I pull up. Step on no pets. Ten animals I slam in a net. Was it a bat I saw? Was it a car or a cat I saw? We found an interesting pattern in the puzzle and we will use this concept to develop an application in netbeans. Let us take a journey back in time and think as to what the world was like 15 years ago. Amazon was a large river in South America. Yahoo was a term from Gulliver's Travels.

A googol was a very large number one followed by a hundred zeroes and to get our tickets booked we had to go to shops called 'travel agents'. In case we fell sick and went to a hospital, our records were maintained on paper.

If the doctor wanted to refer to a particular patient's record, he had to instruct a assistant to hunt for information from the pile of files. Nowadays hospitals use computers to keep the records of patients - medical history, details on what medication to give to a patient, the prescribed dosage and also personal details that can be accessed at the click of a button. The entire information is entered into a computer using a front end that accepts the different patient details.

This chapter will help us recapitulate all the concepts learnt in class XI. Figure 3. Title Bar 2. Menu Bar with pull down menus 3. Toolbars 4. GUI builder: It is an area to place components on the form visually.

We can switch over from one view to another by simply clicking on the source and design tabs directly above the Design Area. Palette contains controls or components used to create GUI applications. Inspector Window: This window is used to display a hierarchy of all the components or controls placed on the current form. Properties Window: Using this window we can make changes in the properties of currently selected control on the form.

Code Editor Window: Components also known as "widgets" are the basic interface elements the user interacts with: Components are placed on a container like the jFrame. There are two types of controls: They act as a background for other controls.

For example-Frame. When we delete a parent control, all its child controls get deleted. When we move a parent control all its child controls also move along with it. For example-Text Field, Label, Button etc. Components Parent or container controls: Child controls:. Parent or container controls Child controls Figure 3.

Select New Project from the File menu. In the Categories pane, select the General node. In the Projects pane, choose the Java Application type. Click the Next button. Enter the name of the project in the Project Name field and specify the project location. Do not create a Main class here. Click the Finish button.

Let us recap the relation between a Project, Form and Components. Each application is treated as a Project in NetBeans and each project can have one or multiple forms and this fact is clear from the Projects window as shown in Figure 3.

The visible components are all shown under the Frame Component and the non-visible components are part of Other components. We use the drag and drop feature of NetBeans to place components on the form to design an effective interface for our applications. The first step that we undertook while designing our applications was adding a new jFrame form. Some of the properties of the jFrame form are defaultCloseOperation and Title.

Title Sets the text to be displayed in the Title bar of the form window. Each of these objects belongs to its corresponding class predefined in Java. For example, a form is an object of JFrame class, all the textfields are objects of JTextField class, and so on. Each object has some properties, methods, and events associated with it using which you can control the object's appearance and behaviour.

Properties of an object are used to specify its appearance on the form. For example to set the background colour of a textfield you change its background property; to set its font you change its font property; and so on. Methods are used to perform some action on the object. For example to display something in a textfield you can use its setText method, to extract the contents of a textfield you can use its getText method.

Methods can be divided into two categories- getters and setters. Getters are the methods which extract some information from the object and return it to the program.

Getters start with the word get. Examples of getters are: Setters are the methods which set some properties of the object so that the object's appearance changes. Setters start with the word set. Examples of setters are: Events are the actions which are performed on controls.

Examples of events are: When the user performs any action on a Property Description. After setting the properties of the jFrame we can start placing components like jButton on the jFrame form. A button is a component that the user presses or pushes to trigger a specific action.

When the user clicks on the button at runtime, the code associated with the click action gets executed. The various methods and properties associated with the jButton are summarized in Figure 3. Background Sets the background color. Enabled Contains enabled state of component - true if enabled else false. Font Sets the font. Foreground Sets the foreground color. Label Sets the display text.

Text Sets the display text getText Retrieves the text typed in jButton. It displays a single line of read-only text, an image or both text and image. The various methods and properties associated with the jTextField and jLabel are summarized in Figure 3.

Border Sets the type of border that will surround the text field. Default is true. Well can you recall the name of the component. Exactly the component is Text Area component. This component allows us to accept multiline input from the user or display multiple lines of information. This component automatically adds vertical or horizontal scroll bars as and when required during run time.

The various methods and properties associated with the jTextArea are summarized in Figure 3. Default is false rows Sets number of rows preferred for display. That's right the component is jPassword. We can suppress the display of input as this component allows us to input confidential information like passwords. Each character entered can be replaced by an echo character.

The properties of jPassword are summarized below: But radio buttons occupy a lot of space. Thus, in case of too many options we used Combo boxes as they help save space and are less cumbersome to design as compared to radio button. We used check box and list when we wanted to display multiple options like selecting favourite sports or ordering multiple food items in a restaurant.

The list is a preferred option over check box in situations wherever multiple options are required to be selected from a large number of known set of options as they help save space and are less cumbersome to design as compared to check boxes. The properties and methods of jRadioButton are summarized below: Selected Sets the button as selected, if set to true, default is false. When you click on it, it changes from checked to unchecked or vice versa automatically.

The properties and methods of jCheckBox are summarized below: The properties and methods of jComboBox and jList are summarized below: It required an import statement at the top of the program. Well can you recollect the import statement? That's right it is: JOptionPane; OR import javax. The difference is that the latter will import the entire library as denoted by the star whereas the first statement will just import the JOptionPane library. User can respond by pressing any of the suitable buttons.

It prompts the user with a text box in which the user can enter the relevant input. Well, we used variables when we required containers to store the values for some input, intermediate result or the final result of an operation. The characteristics of a variable are: It has a name. It is capable of storing values. It provides temporary storage. It is capable of changing its value during program execution. Variables help us to hold value for some input coming from the user or to hold intermediate result of some calculation or the final result of an operation.

In other words, variables are like containers that can be used to store whatever values are needed for a specific computation. However, as different materials require different containers, and so we used different data types to hold different values.

When programming, we store the variables in our computer's memory, but the computer has to know what kind of data we want to store in them, since it is not going to occupy the same amount of memory to store a simple number or to store a single letter or a large number, and they are not going to be interpreted the same way so variables were used along with datatypes.

The data types supported by java are summarized as follows: Data type states the way the values of that type are stored, the operations that can be done on that type, and the range for that type. These data types are used to store integer values only i. The storage size and range is listed below: These data types are used to store characters.

Character data types can store any type of values - numbers, characters and special characters. When we want to store a single character, we use char data type and when we want to store a group of characters we use string data type.

For example to store grades A, B, C, D, E of a student we will use char type but to store name of a student, we will use string type. The char data type value is always enclosed inside ' ' single quotes , whereas a string data type value is enclosed in " " double quotes. Operators are symbols that manipulate, combine or compare variables. Character Data Types: Operators With the introduction of variables and constants there arose a need to perform certain operations on them.

We performed operations on variables and constants using operators. The operators available in java are summarized below: We assign the value given on the right hand side to the variable specified on the left hand side.

The value on the right hand side can be a number or an arithmetic expression. These symbols are similar to mathematical symbols. Arithmetic Operators: A mathematical expression created using a relational operator forms a relational expression or a condition. The following table lists the various relational operators and their usage: Logical operators and relational operators are used together to form a complex condition. Logical operators are: Operator Meaning Usage Logical Operator: The unary operators perform different kind of operations on a single operand.

In both conditions 1 is added to the value of the variable and the result is stored back to the variable. However, in a prefix expression, value is incremented first then this new value is restored back to the variable.

In postfix expression the current value is assigned to a variable then it is incremented by 1 and restored back to the original variable. Let us now try and recollect the conversion methods that we have used in java. When a Java program receives input data from a user, it must often convert it from one form e.

To convert a string value to a number For example, to convert the String value in a text field jTextField1 to an int, long, float or double , we can use parse methods. Assume the following declarations: Assume the following code: To convert a number to string, we also used toString method.

If either operand of a concatenation is a string, the other operand is converted to string. We learnt two types of control structures in class XI namely, Selection statements and Iteration statements.

Control structures allow us to control the flow of our program's execution. If left unchecked by control-flow statements, a program's logic will flow through statements from top to bottom. We can have some control on the flow of a program by using operators to regulate precedence of operations, but control structures provide the power to change statement order and govern the flow of control in a program.

A selection statement selects among a set of statements depending on the value of a controlling expression.

The selection statements are the if statement and the switch statement, which are discussed below: The if statement allows selection decision making depending upon the outcome of a condition. If the condition evaluates to true then the statement immediately following if will be executed and otherwise if the condition evaluates to false then the statements following the else clause will be executed. The selection statements are also called conditional statements or decision statements.

The syntax of if statement is as shown below: The conditional expression is always enclosed in parenthesis. The conditional expression may be a simple expression or a compound expression. Each statement block may have a single or multiple statements to be executed. The else clause is optional and needs to be included only when some action is to be taken if the test condition evaluates to false.

These control structures are used to test for multiple conditions as against the simple if statement which can be used to test a single condition. The syntax of nested if else is as follows: Nested if. Add a label set its Text as Enter Number 3.

Add a jTextField and set its initial Text as "" 4. Add three radio buttons on the form - Set the text of each of them as "Multiple of 3", "Multiple of 5" and "Multiple of 7". Group the radio buttons so that only one can be selected. In this application we ask the user to enter a number and then the user will select one of the radio buttons and depending upon the button selected the multiple check for that number will be performed.

Let us now write the code for the above mentioned application. Code to check for multiple of 3 is given. Try and write the code to perform a similar check for multiple of 5 and multiple of 7.

Create question papers online in minutes with your name and logo. In each of the above domains, identify at least two real-life problems, list the expected outputs and the input s required for the output, and describe the problem solving approach and develop relevant front-end interface and back-end database.

Student is required to solve programming problems based on all concepts covered in theory throughout the year and maintain a record of these in the practical file. Student will be given a problem to be solved using Java during final practical examination to be conducted at the end of the academic session. Student will be asked to write four queries based on one or two tables during final practical examination to be conducted at the end of the academic session.

A practical record file is required to be created during the entire academic session.

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It should be duly signed by the concerned teacher on regular basis and is to be produced at the time of Final Practical Examination for evaluation.

It should include the following:. Students in group of are required to work collaboratively to develop a project using Programming and Database skills learnt during the course. The project should be an application in any one of the domains — e-Governance, e-Business and e-Learning - with GUI front-end and corresponding database at the back-end.

Students will be asked oral questions during practical examination to be conducted at the end of the course.

The questions will be from the entire course covered in the academic session. You can print these questions papers with your own Name and Logo. This product is best fit for schools, coaching institutes, tutors, teachers and parents who wish to create most relevant question papers as per CBSE syllabus for their students to practice and excel in exams. Creating question papers online with your own name and logo takes less than 2 minutes. Just follow few steps, customise header and footer and download the question paper in PDF format.

Buy chapter wise online MCQ tests for day to day practice. Work from home with us Create questions or review them from home No software required, no contract to sign.

Simply apply as teacher, take eligibility test and start working with us. Required desktop or laptop with internet connection. Test Generator for Teachers. Test Generator. CBSE Syllabus. User Submitted Papers. Practice Papers. Unit 1: Networking and Open Standards Computer Networking: