Kakuzo Okakura - The Book of caite.info - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File . txt) or read online. The Book of Tea. Free PDF, epub, Kindle ebook. The Book of Tea is a long essay linking the role of tea (teaism) to the aesthetic and cultural aspects of Japanese life. Addressed. Free download of The Book of Tea by Kakuzo Okakura. Available in PDF, ePub and Kindle. Read, write reviews and more.
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THE BOOK OF TEA. BY. KAKUZO OKAKURA. NEW YORK: PUTNAM'S. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED IN In the Public Domain because a) was published. OF TEA by Kakuzo Okakura Typography, book design and binding by The Philosophy of Tea is not mere æstheticism in the or- .. Converted caite.info Free kindle book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg. The Book of Tea by Kakuzo Okakura. No cover available. Download; Bibrec.
A more lasting style. In the tea-room it is left for each guest in imagination to complete the total effect in relation to himself. She welded the five-coloured rainbow in her magic cauldron and rebuilt the Chinese sky. Change is the only Eternal. Some of the best commentaries on the Book of Laotse have been written by Zen scholars.
We must know the whole play in order to properly act our parts. Vacuum is all potent because all containing.
Taoism accepts the mundane as it is and. It is in us that God meets with Nature. The Present is the moving Infinity. Even in that grotesque apology for Taoism which we find in China at the present day.
Adjustment is Art. To keep the proportion of things and give place to others without losing one's own position was the secret of success in the mundane drama. The reality of a room.
He claimed that only in vacuum lay the truly essential. The matter-of-fact Confucius found it sour. This Laotse illustrates by his favourite metaphor of the Vacuum. We may ride the wind with Liehtse and find it absolutely quiet because we ourselves are the wind. The tale will not be without its quota of instruction and amusement. Meditation is one of the six ways through which Buddhahood may be reached.
He tempers his own brightness in order to merge himself into the obscurity of others. In jiu-jitsu one seeks to draw out and exhaust the enemy's strength by non-resistance. He who had made himself master of the art of living was the Real man of the Taoist.
He is "reluctant. The first teaching of Zen as we know it at the present day must be attributed to the sixth Chinese patriarch Yeno A vacuum is there for you to enter and fill up the full measure of your aesthetic emotion. In the discussions It claims that through consecrated meditation may be attained supreme self-realisation. In its philosophical aspect early Zennism seems to have affinity on one hand to the Indian Negativism of Nagarjuna and on the other to the Gnan philosophy formulated by Sancharacharya.
BodhiDharma came to Northern China in the early half of the sixth century and was the first patriarch of Chinese Zen. He is closely followed by the great Baso died who made of Zen a living influence in Celestial life. At birth he enters the realm of dreams only to awaken to reality at death. According to their tradition Kashiapa. In leaving something unsaid the beholder is given a chance to complete the idea and thus a great masterpiece irresistibly rivets your attention until you seem to become actually a part of it.
There is much uncertainty about the history of these patriarchs and their doctrines. Hiakujo the pupil of Baso. In art the importance of the same principle is illustrated by the value of suggestion. Zen is a name derived from the Sanscrit word Dhyana. If now we turn our attention to Zennism we shall find that it emphasises the teachings of Taoism.
One day Soshi was walking on the bank of a river with a friend. Hiakujo was walking in the forest with a disciple when a hare scurried off at their approach. One master defines Zen as the art of feeling the polar star in the southern sky. One said "It is the wind that moves. The followers of Zen aimed at direct communion with the inner nature of things. Whatever sectarian pride may assert to the contrary one cannot help being impressed by the similarity of Southern Zen to the teachings of Laotse and the Taoist Conversationalists.
His friend spake to him thus: In the Tao-teking we already find allusions to the importance of self-concentration and the need of properly regulating the breath—essential points in the practice of Zen meditation.
Nothing is real except that which concerns the working of our own minds. To the transcendental insight of the Zen. Some of the Zen even became iconoclastic as a result of their endeavor to recognise the Buddha in themselves rather than through images and symbolism. Some of the best commentaries on the Book of Laotse have been written by Zen scholars. Truth can be reached only through the comprehension of opposites. It was this love of the Abstract that led the Zen to prefer black and white sketches to the elaborately coloured paintings of the classic Buddhist School.
We find Tankawosho breaking up a wooden statue of Buddha on a wintry day to make a fire. It held that in the great relation of things there was no distinction of small and great. Such services formed a part of the Zen discipline and every least action must be done absolutely perfectly.
The organisation of the Zen monastery was very significant of this point of view. Zennism made them practical. To every member. Taoism furnished the basis for aesthetic ideals. The whole ideal of Teaism is a result of this Zen conception of greatness in the smallest incidents of life. The seeker for perfection must discover in his own life the reflection of the inner light. A special contribution of Zen to Eastern thought was its recognition of the mundane as of equal importance with the spiritual.
Thus many a weighty discussion ensued while weeding the garden. The proportions of the tea-room had been previously Latterly the various tea-masters substituted various Chinese characters according to their conception of the tea-room. Such being the case as regards our classic architecture. It is but quite recently that a competent student of Western architecture has recognised and paid tribute to the remarkable perfection of our great temples.
The tea-room the Sukiya does not pretend to be other than a mere cottage—a straw hut. The first independent tea-room was the creation of Senno-Soyeki. It is an Abode of Fancy inasmuch as it is an ephemeral structure built to house a poetic impulse. The original ideographs for Sukiya mean the Abode of Fancy.
It is an Abode of Vacancy inasmuch as it is devoid of ornamentation except for what may be placed in it to satisfy some aesthetic need of the moment. The ideals of Teaism have since the sixteenth century influenced our architecture to such degree that the ordinary Japanese interior of the present day. It is an Abode of the Unsymmetrical inasmuch as it is consecrated to the worship of the Imperfect. Chapter 4 The Tea-Room To European architects brought up on the traditions of stone and brick construction.
The portion partitioned off was called the Kakoi enclosure. Yet we must remember that all this is the result of profound artistic forethought. A good tea-room is more costly than an ordinary mansion. The Sukiya consists of the tea-room proper. These buildings have practically stood intact for nearly twelve centuries. The few that have been spared in the disastrous conflagrations of centuries are still capable of aweing us by the grandeur and richness of their decoration.
Our ancient noble edifices. The tea-room is unimpressive in appearance. The interior of the old temples and palaces was profusely decorated. The early tea-room consisted merely of a portion of the ordinary drawingroom partitioned off by screens for the purpose of the tea-gathering.
Huge pillars of wood from two to three feet in diameter and from thirty to forty feet high. In the Hoodo temple at Uji.
It is smaller than the smallest of Japanese houses. The tea-room is not only different from any production of Western architecture. The material and mode of construction. On the altar. One may be in the midst of a city. The simplicity and purism of the tea-room resulted from emulation of the Zen monastery. All our great tea-masters were students of Zen and attempted to introduce the spirit of Zennism into the actualities of life.
We might add here that the altar of the Zen chapel was the prototype of the Tokonoma. Thus the room. One who has trodden this garden path cannot fail to remember how his spirit. Vikramadytia welcomes the Saint Manjushiri and eighty-four thousand disciples of Buddha in a room of this size. Again the roji. The room is bare except for a central alcove in which.
The roji was intended to break connection with the outside world. A Zen monastery differs from those of other Buddhist sects inasmuch as it is meant only to be a dwelling place for the monks.
Its chapel is not a place of worship or pilgrimage. In that interesting work. The size of the orthodox tea-room. We have already said that it was the ritual instituted by the Zen monks of successively drinking tea out of a bowl before the image of Bodhi Dharma. This proceeding was incumbent on all guests. Everything is sober in tint from the ceiling to the floor. The host will not enter the room until all the guests have seated themselves and quiet reigns with nothing to break the silence save the note of the boiling water in the iron kettle.
The nature of the sensations to be aroused in passing through the roji differed with different tea-masters. The order of precedence having been mutually agreed upon while resting in the machiai. The kettle sings well.
He wished to create the attitude of a newly awakened soul still lingering amid shadowy dreams of the past. Enshiu said the idea of the garden path was to be found in the following verses: Even in the daytime the light in the room is subdued.
The mellowness of age is over all. Not a particle of dust will be found in the darkest corner. However faded the tea-room and the tea-equipage may seem.
Great was the ingenuity displayed by the tea-masters in producing these effects of serenity and purity. Thus prepared the guest will silently approach the sanctuary. Then he will bend low and creep into the room through a small door not more than three feet in height. With the predominance of Zen individualism in the fifteenth century. Another early custom was that a newly built house should be provided for each couple that married. What Rikiu demanded was not cleanliness alone.
Dripping water from a flower vase need not be wiped away. Abode of Fancy. The steps have been washed for the third time. The observance of these customs was only possible with some form of construction as that furnished by our system of wooden architecture.
It is not intended for posterity and is therefore ephemeral. Perhaps there may have been some unrealized sanitary reason for this practice. Shinto superstition ordaining that every dwelling should be evacuated on the death of its chief occupant. The tea-room is made for the tea master.
A more lasting style. A piece of antique metal work must not be attacked with the unscrupulous zeal of the Dutch housewife. It is on account of such customs that we find the Imperial capitals so frequently removed from one site to another in ancient days. Rikiu stepped into the garden. The name.
The rebuilding. One of the first requisites of a tea-master is the knowledge of how to sweep. Rikiu was watching his son Shoan as he swept and watered the garden path. The idea that everyone should have a house of his own is based on an ancient custom of the Japanese race.
After a weary hour the son turned to Rikiu: In this connection there is a story of Rikiu which well illustrates the ideas of cleanliness entertained by the tea-masters. It is not that we should disregard the creations of the past. Perhaps we are passing through an age of democratisation in art.
Slavish conformity to traditions and formulas fetters the expression of individuality in architecture.
We marvel why. It is not that we should ignore the claims of posterity. The body itself was but as a hut in the wilderness. Some special art object is brought in for the occasion. To a Japanese. That the tea-room should be built to suit some individual taste is an enforcement of the principle of vitality in art.
Would that we loved the ancients more and copied them less! It has been said that the Greeks were great because they never drew from the antique. We can but weep over the senseless imitations of European buildings which one beholds in modern Japan.
In the tea-room fugitiveness is suggested in the thatched roof. The term.
Thus it will be seen that the system of decoration in our tea-rooms is opposed to that which obtains in the West. The tea-room is absolutely empty. The eternal is to be found only in the spirit which. Abode of Vacancy. One cannot listen to different pieces of music at the same time. The Taoist and Zen conception of perfection. The virility of life and art lay in its possibilities for growth. The dynamic nature of their philosophy laid more stress upon the process through which perfection was sought than upon perfection itself.
The absence of symmetry in Japanese art objects has been often commented on by Western critics. Uniformity of design was considered fatal to the freshness of imagination.
As a matter of fact. The pillar of the tokonoma should be of a different kind of wood from the other pillars. If you are using a round kettle. The decoration of our classical interiors was decidedly regular in its arrangement. In placing a vase of an incense burner on the tokonoma. It calls for a mighty wealth of appreciation to enjoy the constant sight of even a masterpiece.
True beauty could be discovered only by one who mentally completed the incomplete. The various objects for the decoration of a room should be so selected that no colour or design shall be repeated.
In the tea-room the fear of repetition is a constant presence. In the tea-room it is left for each guest in imagination to complete the total effect in relation to himself. Since Zennism has become the prevailing mode of thought. We are often too much in evidence as it is. If you have a living flower.
A cup with a black glaze should not be associated with a tea-caddy of black lacquer. The "Abode of the Unsymmetrical" suggests another phase of our decorative scheme. Why the display of family plates. Why these pictured victims of chase and sport. In the sixteenth century the tea-room afforded a welcome respite from labour to the fierce warriors and statesmen engaged in the unification and reconstruction of Japan. The simplicity of the tea-room and its freedom from vulgarity make it truly a sanctuary from the vexations of the outer world.
Before a great work of art there was no distinction between daimyo. In the seventeenth century. In Western houses we are often confronted with what appears to us useless reiteration.
We find it trying to talk to a man while his full-length portrait stares at us from behind his back. There and there alone one can consecrate himself to undisturbed adoration of the beautiful.
Many a time have we sat at a festive board contemplating. We wonder which is real. Here again the Japanese method of interior decoration differs from that of the Occident. Do we not need the tearoom more than ever? Nowadays industrialism is making true refinement more and more difficult all the world over. For long the instrument was treasured by the Emperor of China. Again the mode was changed.
Now winter reigns. He sang of nature and the seasons. And it came to pass that a mighty wizard made of this tree a wondrous harp. Once more the sweet breath of spring played amidst its branches. Once in the hoary ages in the Ravine of Lungmen stood a Kiri tree. The harp refused to recognise a master. On high. Anon were heard the dreamy voices of summer with its myriad insects. At last came Peiwoh.
Peiwoh sang of war. It reared its head to talk to the stars. In response to their utmost strivings there came from the harp but harsh notes of disdain. And in the harp arose the tempest of Lungmen. It is autumn. Then Peiwoh changed the key and sang of love. The forest swayed like an ardent swain deep lost in thought.
With tender hand he caressed the harp as one might seek to soothe an unruly horse. The young cataracts. The master calls forth notes we know not of. To the sympathetic a masterpiece becomes a living reality towards which we feel drawn in bonds of comradeship.
A master has always something to offer. The masters are immortal. Our mind is the canvas on which the artists lay their colour. The tea-master. Memories long forgotten all come back to us with a new significance. The sympathetic communion of minds necessary for art appreciation must be based on mutual concession. At the magic touch of the beautiful the secret chords of our being are awakened. We listen to the unspoken. An eminent Sung critic once made a charming confession.
In ecstasy the Celestial monarch asked Peiwoh wherein lay the secret of his victory. The masterpiece is a symphony played upon our finest feelings. I left the harp to choose its theme. The masterpiece is of ourselves.
True art is Peiwoh. Mind speaks to mind. It is rather the soul than the hand. Hopes stifled by fear. Said he: The spectator must cultivate the proper attitude for receiving the message. It is because of this secret understanding between the master and ourselves that in poetry or romance we suffer and rejoice with the hero and heroine.
In our stubborn ignorance we refuse to render them this simple courtesy. We have an old saying in Japan that a woman cannot love a man who is truly vain.
Who can contemplate a masterpiece without being awed by the immense vista of thought presented to our consideration? How familiar and sympathetic are they all. In the former we feel the warm outpouring of a man's heart. Nothing is more hallowing than the union of kindred spirits in art. It is thus that art becomes akin to religion and ennobles mankind. In the old days the veneration in which the Japanese held the work of the great artist was intense. He catches a glimpse of Infinity.
Rarely was the object exposed to view. At the moment of meeting. It was a play somewhat resembling the Comedy of Errors. Engrossed in his technique. Like the musicians who vainly invoked the Lungmen harp.
It knows where the mistake lies. At once he is and is not. At the time when Teaism was in the ascendency the Taiko's generals would be better satisfied with the present of a rare work of art than a large grant of territory as a reward of victory. In art vanity is equally fatal to sympathetic feeling. It is this which makes a masterpiece something sacred. His works may be nearer science. The tea-masters guarded their treasures with religious secrecy.
The public is permitted to know more than the actors. Freed from the fetters of matter. For instance. Several of his pupils submitted plays for his approval. Many of our favourite dramas are based on the loss and recovery of a noted masterpiece.
It is true that with cultivation our sense of art appreciation broadens. Our very individuality establishes in one sense a limit to our understanding. In this democratic age of ours men clamour for what is popularly considered the best. One is reminded in this connection of a story concerning Kobori-Enshiu. Among the smoking embers is found a half. Enshiu was complimented by his disciples on the admirable taste he had displayed in the choice of his collection. Thinking only of the picture.
To the masses. We must remember. It might be a universal language if we ourselves were universal in our sympathies. They want the costly. Rikiu was one in a thousand among teamasters. It shows that you had better taste than had Rikiu. Said they. Our finite nature. Resolved at all hazards to rescue the precious painting. The great Rikiu dared to love only those objects which personally appealed to him.
Horrible as such tales are. The fire is at last extinguished. The veneration born of antiquity is one of the best traits in the human character. We offer flowers of approbation when the artist is safely laid in his grave.
We say that the present age possesses no art: It is indeed a shame that despite all our rhapsodies about the ancients we pay so little attention to our own possibilities.
Another common mistake is that of confusing art with archaeology. Struggling artists. The nineteenth century. Would that some great wizard might from the stem of society shape a mighty harp whose strings would resound to the touch of genius. The name of the artist is more important to them than the quality of the work. In condemning it we but condemn ourselves. A collector is anxious to acquire specimens to illustrate a period or a school.
We are destroying the beautiful in life. The old masters are rightly to be honoured for opening the path to future enlightenment. The sacrifice of the aesthetic to the so-called scientific method of exhibition has been the bane of many museums.
The past may well look with pity at the poverty of our civilisation. But we should be foolish indeed if we valued their achievement simply on the score of age.
The art of to-day is that which really belongs to us: The claims of contemporary art cannot be ignored in any vital scheme of life. In our self. Yet we allow our historical sympathy to override our aesthetic discrimination. We classify too much and enjoy too little. The mere fact that they have passed unscathed through centuries of criticism and come down to us still covered with glory commands our respect.
As a Chinese critic complained many centuries ago. Scratch the sheepskin and the wolf within us will soon show his teeth.
Surely with mankind the appreciation of flowers must have been coeval with the poetry of love. In joy or sadness. Shrine after shrine has crumbled before our eyes. He became human in thus rising above the crude necessities of nature. We have worshipped with the lily.
How could we live without them? It frightens one to conceive of a world bereft of their presence. Sad as it is. Chapter Flowers 6 In the trembling grey of a spring dawn. Perhaps he becomes a criminal because he has never ceased to be an animal. We eat. Addressed to a western audience, it was originally written in English and is one of the great English tea classics.
Okakura had been taught at a young age to speak English and was proficient at communicating his thoughts to the Western mind. In his book, he discusses such topics as Zen and Taoism , but also the secular aspects of tea and Japanese life.
The book emphasizes how Teaism taught the Japanese many things; most importantly, simplicity. That was in Sein und Zeit Being and Time was published in , and made Heidegger famous. I have heard many stories of this kind from Professor Ito and checked their veracity. I recounted this story at a recep- tion held after a series of lectures I gave in at the University of Heidelberg at the invitation of Hans-Georg Gadamer.
I must have said too much and may even have said that Heidegger was a plagiarist Plagiator. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Click to Preview. Kakuzo Okakura Downloads: Book Description In in turn-of-the century Boston, a small, esoteric book about tea was written with the intention of being read aloud in the famous salon of Isabella Gardner. You may also like Feb Philosophical Essays Reads: Apr