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In general, from its earliest days foreign Muslim culture was imported and patronised in the subcontinent by Turks and Afghans, laying the firm basis for what would, eventually, develop further under the Mughals. They also argued that the Urdu language originated in India, asserted that Urdu could also be spoken fluently by most of the people and disputed the assertion that official status of language and script is essential for the spread of education. Distributing your curated content through a newsletter is a great way to nurture and engage your email subscribers will developing your traffic and visibility. Figure 5. Results 1 - 12 of 13 Download Teori atribusi kelley pdf: Hindi movements advocating the growth of and official status for Devanagari were established in Northern India. Survei morbiditas yang dilakukan oleh Subdit Diare, Departemen Kesehatan Prevalensi diare dalam Riskesdas diukur dengan menanyakan apakah responden Adanya kesepakatan Internasional pada tahun dan untuk.
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The present notion among some Muslims about this dispute is that Hindus abandoned the Urdu language, whereas some Hindus claim that Urdu was artificially created during Muslim rule. Hindi is a literary register of the Hindustani language, derived from the Khariboli dialect of the Hindi languages. Although the need to have a language for Hindus developed in the s, the irrevocable momentum of the Hindi language movement occurred around Urdu is a name derived from the Turkic word ordu army or orda.
When the Turco-Persian Mughals who invaded the Indian subcontinent made camps, the colloquial Persian spoken by the soldiers, known as the "language of the camp", or " Zaban-i-Ordu ", became gradually more and more Indianised, as they themselves settled and married into the local communities, until the dialect they spoke was readily intelligible to the native Hindu population. The last few decades of the nineteenth century witnessed the eruption of the Hindi—Urdu controversy in the United Provinces present-day Uttar Pradesh , then known as "the North-Western Provinces and Oudh ".
Hindi movements advocating the growth of and official status for Devanagari were established in Northern India. This, consequently, led to the development of Urdu movements defending Urdu's official status; Syed Ahmed Khan was one of its noted advocates.
In , the government issued a decree granting symbolic equal status to both Hindi and Urdu, which was opposed by Muslims and received with jubilation by Hindus. Deploring this Hindu-Muslim divide, Gandhi proposed re-merging the standards, using either Devanagari or Urdu script, under the traditional generic term Hindustani. Bolstered by the support of the Indian National Congress and various leaders involved in the Indian Independence Movement , Hindi, in the Devanagari script, along with English, replaced Urdu as the official language of India during the institution of the Indian constitution in The main cause of this divide may be attributed to the aspirations of both communities Hindu and Muslim to spread their cultural views, which became open contention during Indian independence.
Muslims have mostly looked towards their Muslim Ummah for cultural inspiration whereas Hindus generally get inspiration from the ancient cultures such as that of the Vedic. During the rule of Muslims in the subcontinent, often having been Turkic and Afghan , a number of people who converted to Islam readily adopted aspects of the culture of the Turko-Afghan conquerors and rulers brought with them. Persian at that time was considered a prestigious and important language in many parts of Islamic world like Central Asia, which they thus brought with them.
The founders of Islamic rule in India were from different ethnic backgrounds viz. Turks, Mongols, Arabs, Iranians, Afghans, etc.
In general, from its earliest days foreign Muslim culture was imported and patronised in the subcontinent by Turks and Afghans, laying the firm basis for what would, eventually, develop further under the Mughals. With the passage of time things like Sanskrit language, Dhoti , Ayurveda etc. As the Muslim rule spread in the northern subcontinent, Hindustani interacted with various vernaculars and introduced Persian and Arabic words into local languages and absorbed local vocabulary, and over a period of time developed into a distinct spoken language.
Urdu in the Persian script became the language of the courts of Muslim rulers during the eighteenth century. It developed from the Khariboli dialect of the Delhi area with an infusion of words from Arabic and Persian. The modern vocabulary is derived from Persian, Arabic and Sanskrit, together with Prakrit.
Several factors contributed to the increasing divergence of Hindi and Urdu. In time, Hindustani written in Perso-Arabic script also became a literary language with an increasing body of literature written in the 18th and 19th century.
A division developed gradually between Hindus who chose to write Hindustani in Devanagari script and Muslims and some Hindus who chose to write the same in Urdu script. The development of Hindi movements in the late nineteenth century further contributed to this divergence. Sumit Sarkar notes that in the 18th and the bulk of the 19th century, "Urdu had been the language of polite culture over a big part of north India, for Hindus quite as much as Muslims".
He gives the example of the author Premchand who wrote mainly in Urdu till , until he found it difficult to publish in the language. Professor Paul R. The Hindi-Urdu controversy by its very bitterness demonstrates how little the objective similarities between language groups matter when people attach subjective significance to their languages. Willingness to communicate through the same language is quite a different thing from the mere ability to communicate.
In , the British East India company replaced Persian with local vernacular in various provinces as the official language of government offices and of the lower courts. However, in the northern regions of the Indian subcontinent, Urdu in Urdu script was chosen as the replacement for Persian, rather than Hindi in the Devanagari script.
Why exactly this decision was taken is unclear. The most immediate reason for the controversy is believed to be the contradictory language policy in North India in the s. Although the then government encouraged both Hindi and Urdu as a medium of education in school, it discouraged Hindi or Nagari script for official purposes.
This policy gave rise to conflict between students educated in Hindi or Urdu for the competition of government jobs, which eventually took on a communal form. In a Memorandum on court characters written in , he accused the early Muslim rulers of India for forcing them to learn Persian.
In , Madan Mohan Malaviya published a collection of documents and statements titled Court character and primary education in North Western Provinces and Oudh , in which, he made a compelling case for Hindi. The Department of Higher Education requested various universities to arrange mock parliamentary debates in colleges, and the University Grants Commission UGC arranged an all-India quiz competition at Ambedkar University, Lucknow , where quiz winners of all states participated.
The Ministry of External Affairs directed all overseas Indian schools to celebrate 26 November as Constitution Day and directed embassies to translate the constitution into the local language of that nation and distribute it to various academies, libraries and faculties of Indology.
The work of translating the Indian constitution into Arabic has been completed. The Parliament House complex was also illuminated on this occasion.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Constitution Day Original text of the Preamble of the Indian constitution. Retrieved 20 November The Hindu. Supreme Court of India.
Facts on the Constitution of India". India Today. The Economic Times.