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Me urge mucho. Predominance of C5 for brachiocephalicus nerve formation was also reported for domestic feline WORK - https: Atkinson - https: Open Preview See a Problem?
Their fibres run across short distances and are distributed in variable combinations in order to supply the skin and muscles of the thoracic limbs 8. Comparative studies of the brachial plexus between species have been developing since the 19th century 9. According to the study by Johnson et al. Variations in the origins of the brachial plexus can be related to embryonic factors or can reflect phylogenetic features and features of evolution 11, Furthermore, the anatomophysiological study of this plexus facilitates diagnosing neuromuscular dysfunctions 13 , and also guides loco-regional and plexus anaesthetic blocking techniques For these reasons and because of the scarcity of anatomical studies in this species, the aim of this study was to describe origin and distribution of the main brachial plexus nerves of L.
Materials and Methods Six brachial plexuses were evaluated four from left antimer and two from right antimer from four dead female specimens of L. Posteriorly, after at least 14 days fixation, the six limbs were in ideal condition for studying and were dissected to evidence muscles as well as origin and branching of the nerves forming the brachial plexus.
Then, after removing the skin and fascia, a medial incision was made through the pectoral musculature, which allowed exposure of the axillary area to facilitate dissecting the nerves individually.
Results Macrodissections allowed the identification and schematisation of the components of L. Five plexuses From these, suprascapularis, subscapularis, axillary, musculocutaneous, radial, median and ulnar nerves arose to the intrinsic musculature and brachiocephalicus, thoracodorsal, lateral thoracic, long thoracic, cranial and caudal pectoral nerves arose to the extrinsic musculature Fig.
Schematic disposition of nerves and innervated muscles is illustrated on Fig. Altogether, ventral branches formed 78 nerves, thus each nerve arose, on average, by the combination of practically two branches 1.
Nerves were monosegmental in The formation of nerve trunks was not recognised in the specimens of this current study. C5; C6; C7; C8 and T1. Plexuses composed of at least five segments reflect versatile thoracic limbs which can act, for example, in scalation, excavation, running, swimming, food manipulation and catching of prey.
Often these movements are made naturally by L. Mammals of other orders which have a brachial plexuses formed by at least five ventral branches include the Cienc. According to the study by Allam et al.
In Carnivora order, the contribution of C5 to the plexus was not reported for Leopardus pardalis 31 , and it was considered unusual only 2. However, the dissections of these studies did not include the brachiocephalicus nerve. Allam et al. For wild canines specialised cursorial such as Atelocynus microtis 33 , Cerdocyon thous 34 and Lycalopex gymnocercus 35 and mustelids such as Martes foina 36 , the brachial plexus was restricted to four segments, being those between the C6 and T1 segments.
For the procyonid Nasua nasua that uses the limbs for different functions, the plexus was also formed between the segments C5 and T1 According to Ghoshal 38 and Roos and Vollmerhaus 39 , thin contributions of T2 can occur in domestic felines. However, this was not alluded for domestic cat by Aubert et al. In the majority of cases, the most cranial point of origin of the brachial plexus of L.
Parada et al. Nevertheless, the presence of C4 forming the brachial plexus of Ornithorhynchus anatinus and Tachyglossus aculeatus 16 , B.
These results give coherence to the hypothesis by Carpenter 11 , which suggests that variations in the most cranial origin of the plexuses result from the position of the insertion of limb buds compared to the neuro-axis of each species.
Some variations in the formation of nerves among antimers were verified in one specimen dissected. This was also usual for domestic felines 38 and H. In a study with plexuses of human foetuses, less than half presented a typical organisation, where variations prevailed For human and non-human primates 10, 41 , monotremes 16 , Hippopotamus amphibius 5 and B.
For L. The absence of the trunk is emphasised for domestic 30 and wild canids 34, Among nerves that supply the intrinsic muscles of the thoracic limbs, those that end their innervation area proximal to the humeral-radial-ulnar joint suprascapularis, subscapularis, axillary and musculocutaneous had their origins concentrated in the cranial branches C5, C6 and C7 and were Cienc.
The other nerves radial, median and ulnar , which run to distal limb areas of the extensor and flexor muscles of the carpus and digits, had their origins concentrated in C7, C8 and T1 and were always plurisegmental. Thus, a largest contingent of nervous fibres to the complex musculature can be necessary, which move the elbow, carpus and digits, especially for felids, which depends on limb precision and strength for catching preys.
Ventral branches of C7 participated in forming Also, it was the branch that most originated the nerves of C. Even though a small number of studies determined the participation percentage of each ventral branch, the findings in L.
The suprascapularis nerve of L. C6 participation in the forming of this nerve occurs in all species of the Carnivora order already described, although C7 frequently contributes instead of C5 for canids 30, 31, , Fioretto et al.
However, even for those carnivores with capacity for swimming, such as Arctocephalus australis and felids, generally the suprascapularis nerve is formed by two branches 31, 38, The suprascapularis nerve follows suprascapularis vessels, crossing medially at distal region between the subscapularis and supraspinatus muscle, where it branches to the last muscle.
The nerve follows its tract surrounding medially the neck of the scapula, crossing to the lateral surface of the limb, where it innervates the infraspinous muscle. This innervation area is similar to the domestic dog 6, 8, 30 , domestic feline 38 , A. The subscapularis nerve is formed by ventral branches of C6 and C7 in all L. This origin agrees with all species described in the Carnivora order 30, 31, 34; 35, 36 37, 38 , except for A. This nerve presents two main branches, one cranial branch running all the way to the distal intermuscular region between subscapularis and teres major muscles, innervating them and one caudal innervating the teres major muscle.
For domestic felines, this subscapularis nerve originates three branches and innervates also the latissimus dorsi muscle The axillary nerve originates necessarily from C7, although the contribution of C6 occurs in half of the branchial plexuses. This origin agrees with what was described for domestic felines 38 and L. The nerve presents two portions, which transit between the caudoventral border of the subscapularis and teres major muscles, one of them sending branches to the last muscle.
The second one passes to the lateral aspect of the limb, supplying the teres minor muscle as well as the acromial and scapular parts of the deltoid muscle. Except for the teres major muscle, this innervation area is similar to what was described for domestic felines 38 , Puma concolor and Panthera onca 43 , domestic dog 8 and A. The musculocutaneous nerve of L. This constitution is similar to the majority of species from the Carnivora order studied, except for L.
The nerve forms delicate branches to the coracobrachial muscle and originates two main branches, one proximal to the biceps brachialis muscle and one distal to the brachial muscle, as for domestic dog 8 , domestic cat, P. All studied plexuses sent communicating branches to the median nerve, as for domestic dog This is functionally important because it allows the continuity of stimulus conduction even after injury in one of these nerves This junction is described as a common variation among humans 45 , and Iwamoto et al.
The radial nerve originates predominantly from C7, C8 and T1 branches. This formation also prevails for domestic felids 38 and L.
In our results, there was no contribution of T1 for the canid A. Thus, the radial nerve is the nerve having the major tendency of plurisegmentation of the Carnivora order due to its extensive area of motor and sensorial innervation.
It innervates all four heads of the triceps muscle, as well as anconeus and tensor of the antebrachial fascia muscles. Posteriorly, it divides into superficial and deep branches: From the lateral branch, the lateral cutaneous antebrachial nerve arises. The lateral portion is distributed to the hand and to the dorsal aspect of the digits, and the medial one is distributed to the medial aspect of the digit I.
According to Arlamowska-Palider 47 , the presence of a well-developed cutaneous branch originating from the radial nerve is typical for inferior placental beings. For two evaluated limbs, the lateral cutaneous nerve of antebrachium branches to the brachioradialis muscle. The deep branch of the radial nerve inserts itself between brachioradialis and the origin of the extensor carpi radialis muscle, innervating the first muscle and distributing to all craniolateral musculature of the antebrachium extensor carpi radialis, extensor digitorum communis, extensor digitorum lateralis, ulnar lateralis, abductor digit I longus and supinator muscles.
In general, the innervation area and branching of the radial nerve are similar to domestic feline 48 , P. The difference is for the last one; the medial splitting of superficial branching supplies the digit II, while the lateral supplies digit III Other carnivores in which the radial nerve contains the same motor innervation area are domestic dog 6, 8 , A. The median nerve emerges from two distinct branches; one from C7, and another from C8 and T1.
The latter also originates the ulnar nerve. The nerve receives a communicating branch from the musculocutaneous nerve at the middle third of the limb in all plexuses and it runs with the ulnar nerve to the distal limb, where it crossed between long and medial head of triceps brachii muscle, reaching the supracondylar foramen.
Then, it distributes to the caudal musculature of antebrachium pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis, flexor digitorum profundus, flexor digitorum superficialis, flexor capri ulnaris and pronator quadratus muscles. Except for flexor ulnaris carpus, it has similar distribution of domestic feline 38 , P. Located caudally to the median nerve, the ulnar nerve dissociates from the median nerve in the middle third of the arm, passes above the medial epicondyle of the humerus and penetrates over the ulnar head of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle, where it sends branches to the humeral head of the same muscle and to ulnar, humeral and radial heads of flexor digitorum profundus muscle, as for domestic cat 38 , C.
The nerve exhibited a short path distally to rudimentary clavicle to innervate the cleidobrachialis muscle. Even if it is not listed at ICGVAN 15 , the nerve is included in this study for the authors who describe it in the plexuses of domestic carnivores 6, 8, 30, 38 and for C. In some cases, it was named as the subclavius nerve Predominance of C5 for brachiocephalicus nerve formation was also reported for domestic feline In domestic dogs 30 , C.
For Carnivora order, it seems to originate from the most cranial branch of the plexus. Originating invariably from ventral branches of C7, the long thoracic nerve follows deeply to the scalenus muscles and to the lateral aspect of serratus ventralis thoracis muscle, innervating it.
Its origin, tract and innervation area are similar to those of domestic carnivores 8, 38 , C. For A. The thoracodorsal nerve arises predominantly from C7 and C8, also a characteristic that prevailed for domestic carnivores 30, 38 , M.
Among wild canids, it originates between C8 and T1 33, 34 , although for L. The nerve follows satellite vessels until supplying the deep aspect of latissimus dorsi muscle, as for carnivores in general 8, , 38, The lateral thoracic nerve is formed by C7 and T8 in most of the L. For the majority of species in Carnivora order, its origin predominates between C8 and T1 30, 34, 35, 38, 42 , this configuration being found only in one plexus from this study.
As for domestic felines 38 , it arose through the angle between the caudal border of triceps brachii and latissimus dorsi muscles, innervating the last and following the medial aspect of cutaneous trunci muscle, branching to thoracic and abdominal skin.
The cranial pectoral nerve of L. C7 participation for this nerve formation is very usual for Carnivora order, except for A. The caudal pectoral nerve originates always in C8, even if frequently receiving C7 contributions and, in one case, from T1. In fact, the ventral branch of C8 is described for caudal pectoral nerve origin in all plexus descriptions for Carnivora order, even if C7 and T1 also appeared although less frequently 8, 30, 31, , The innervation area of cranial pectoral nerve concentrates to the pectorales superficialis muscle, while the caudal one innervates the pectorals profundus muscle, as described for carnivores in general 8, 30, 31, , Conclusions Comparing the description of other species with those of Carnivora order, greater similarity of brachial plexus origin can be observed.
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