Rural and Urban Problems in India. Many scholars have referred to characteristic differences between the rural and urban areas and social problems are often. SECOND EDITION FULLY REVISED & UPDATED. Social. Problems in India. RAM AHUJA. Page 2. Page 3. Page 4. Page 5. Page 6. Page 7. Page 8. Page 9. Social Problems. Introduction. India is one of the developing nations of the modern world. It has become an independent country, a republic, more than.
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Objectives. 2. Introduciton of Social Problem, Types of Social Problems. 3. The problems of poverty. 4. Nature of poverty. 5. Extent of poverty in India. 6. Casteism. PDF | This book discuss about various social problems and its probable solution. NPTEL Syllabus. Indian Society - Issues and. Problems - Web course. COURSE OUTLINE. This course proposes to problematise social problems in the Indian.
It is no longer enough simply to identify 'transport difficulties', for example, as the main issue in rural areas: Despite increasing argument, there is still no firm agreement about the fair allocation of resources to meet the distinctive needs of rural communities. I Illegal immigration to India. It also reviewed recent literature and current activity in rural-based social care, particularly drawing on evidence which is just emerging or not widely available. This will affect social care supported by local authorities and associated agencies. Postal questionnaire data from these authorities were analysed to identify particular issues for rural areas. Some findings showed similarities across rural and urban settings.
Reorganisation often entailed additional administrative costs and few economies of scale. This led to increases in charges to users and reviews of contracts with providers of social care. The costs associated with reorganisation could not be absorbed within already stretched budgets.
To update this data, telephone interviews were conducted with a sample of those local authorities defined as rural for the purposes of this study. This survey of 20 rural authorities provided information about the changing and complex set of inter-agency relationships.
Most social services authorities were significantly smaller in size than they had been prior to reorganisation yet had to relate to larger Health Authorities and Trusts as well as emerging Primary Care Groups. Telephone interviews with representatives of NHS organisations and voluntary sector groups confirmed this imbalance. Nonetheless, it is clear that there is an increasing range of interesting developments in rural health care and that these need to be better connected to social care issues.
From the interviews, for example, both health and the voluntary sector were found to be experimenting with mobile services but these initiatives did not always appear integrated with local authority initiatives or even known about in some instances.
The interviews confirmed an issue widely understood by those working in rural areas but infrequently referred to in policy discussions about rural social care, that is the differences between rural areas. A series of case studies was used to illustrate this point.
One focused on an island - with its sense of identity and key geographical characteristics. Another explored a large rural authority with pockets of both affluence and deprivation and incorporating towns ranging from seaside and retirement centres to urban industrialised areas with economic problems. In contrast, social care in another rural authority was greatly influenced by the proximity of towns and reasonable communication networks.
In some rural areas, good practice in collaboration and community initiatives appears to have been occurring quietly. A final case study explored a small, scattered authority where transport difficulties affect services, staff and those users wanting a choice of support.
It is clear that policy and service development needs to incorporate a rural dimension which reflects other influential factors such as service traditions, the pattern of local economic activity and the characteristics of ordinary life and support. Social care services in rural areas often appear to follow policy lines developed in more urban areas.
One priority for research could be the collection of examples of good practice and innovation to establish evidence about what works and why. The researchers found numerous examples of initiatives but less reflection on their key lessons.
Little work appears to have been done to evaluate training in this area or to establish what training and development models are used among practitioners or volunteers working in rural areas.
Despite general agreement that service users and carers are important guides to the effectiveness of services there is equally little evidence about their own priorities, their ways of coping and their resourcefulness. It is no longer enough simply to identify 'transport difficulties', for example, as the main issue in rural areas: The allocation of funds to rural areas is also part of a wider European debate.
This will affect social care supported by local authorities and associated agencies. This research shows that the mixed economy of social care at local level remains highly variable between and within rural areas.
New moves to give fair access to care will need to incorporate a specific rural dimension. There is much evidence at local level of the use of funding mechanisms to develop social care initiatives.
There is also anecdotal evidence on how local economies, dependent on low wages and the changing holiday trade, encourage or subdue specific care initiatives.
Patterns of seasonal work may place year-round support in jeopardy. Useful work could be developed to explore the inter-relationships between social care and other local social and economic development and the opportunities for developing local care provision which goes with the grain of rural economies.
This research found that issues in rural social care are evoking interest, not before time perhaps, in research, policy and practitioner debates. At local level there is a variety of service developments. New initiatives may well have been tried elsewhere but lessons have not been widely disseminated. The researchers conclude that involving service users and local community organisations should be central to the construction of a rural agenda for social care.
The study comprised four components: The work was carried out in and sets out, for a range of interested parties, a programme of work needed in research, policy development and practice.
Social care in rural areas: They found that: Rural areas are sometimes associated with high levels or pockets of deprivation and social exclusion.
Difficulties with access, low levels of service provision, isolation, higher costs and lack of choice or quality all contribute to health and social care problems. Despite increasing argument, there is still no firm agreement about the fair allocation of resources to meet the distinctive needs of rural communities.
A variety of ways of bringing in funding are used, patchily, to help with resource problems.
G Gambling in India. I Illegal immigration to India. N Nakusha.
P Laloorinu Parayanullathu. S Superstition in India. W Indian states and union territories ranked by availability of toilets Indian states and union territories ranked by prevalence of open defecation Water supply and sanitation in India. Retrieved from " https: Hidden categories: Commons category link is on Wikidata.
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