Akbar-Nama - Volume 1. Uploaded by acabator. Copyright: Attribution Non- Commercial (BY-NC). Download as PDF or read online from Scribd. Flag for. The Akbarnama which translates to Book of Akbar, is the official chronicle of the reign of Akbar, . "The Akbarnama of Abu-l-Fazl" Translation from Persian by H. Beveridge. ^ Andrea Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. The Ain i Akbari English by Abdul Fazl Allami Pdf Free Download The Ain i The Ain e Akbari is the English translation of the Akbar Nama by Shaikh Abulfazl.
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Every day has a particular name as given below 1. Thus, the epoch must be BC. It was extraordinary as large as a man's head, and smoke issued from the top of it. The Jewish era: This calendar era came into popular use only after AD.
Mayis May 6. Shahriyur Kanya 6. Haziran June 7. Mihr Tula 7. Temmuz July 8. Aban Vrishchika 8. Azar Dhanu 9. Ayloul September Dai Makara Tishreen al Awwal October Bahman Kumbha Tishreen al Sani November Isfandaramaz Mina Muharram 2.
Safar 3. Rabi al-Awwal 4. Rabi al-Sani or Rabi-al-Akhiri 5. Jumada al-Awwal 6. Jumada al-Akhiri 7. Rajab 8. Shaban 9. Ramzan Shawwal Every day has a particular name as given below 1. Ormuz 2. Bahman 3. Ardibihisht 4. Rash Kosh Sarosh Rashn Bahram Shab The Persian lunar calendar used by Akbar and Abul Fazal had 12 months without any intercalary months. Every month used to commence on Full moon day and it consisted of 29 or 30 days. It is evident that Akbar used a Purnimanta lunar calendar and did not use Amamnta Islamic calendar at all.
II, Chapter 2. Mesha 19 2. Makara 8 III.
Makara 26 1. Makara 11 31 1. Not a single date out of 97 dates can be explained with reference to the epoch of CE and Islamic lunar calendar. The observational records of Comets mentioned by Abul Fazl Interestingly, Abul Fazl mentions certain historical observations of comets.
It was extraordinary as large as a man's head, and smoke issued from the top of it.
Japanese medieval documents Genpei Josuiki record the observation of a comet in CE. The Japanese narrative indicates that the comet appeared around 10th Dec and was visible at least up to 26th January CE. There is also documentary evidence from Chinese and Korean sources that clearly indicate the apparition of the comet in late and early CE.
Interestingly, Abul Fazal mentions that for a long time people reckoned their years and months from the epoch of this comet. It seems that an epoch of CE was in use in Bengal but needs further research. Japanese identified this comet as the appearance of Benzaiten, the Japanese Buddhist goddess In fact, Benzaiten is the Japanese name of Indian goddess Saraswati. A tailed comet also appeared in the first degrees of the Sign of Libra near the Northern Crown in the year CE.
It used to rise and set there. Historians calculated the year in Islamic lunar Hijrah era and speculated that a comet appeared in France in July CE and remained visible to the end of Sep CE. But Abul Fazal unambiguously used Solar Hijrah years and not lunar years. Evidently, the comet records of Abul Fazal cannot be explained if we place him in 16 th century. The epoch of ancient eras Abul Fazal records the epochs of various eras with reference to the 40 th year of Illahi era CE.
The epoch of the Astrological era: This epoch was used by Astrologists. The years are solar and total years have been elapsed on 22nd Mar CE. The era of Adam: There were a divergence of opinion in this regard.
The Jewish era: Thus, the epoch must be BC. In modern times, Jews start this epoch from BC because it is traditionally believed that the epoch of Jewish era commenced year before the epoch of the Syro-Macidonian era. Historians wrongly fixed the epoch of Syro-Macidonian era around BC considering it to be Seleucid era. The chronological error is years. The era of Deluge: Total years have been elapsed up to Mar CE. Thus, the epoch of this era started in BC.
According to Abul Fazal, Ptolemy in his Almagest computed the planetary motions on this epoch. Thus, this era commenced in BC. The era of Philipus: Theon of Alexandria used it. The years and months were artificial but close to solar calendar. Ptolemy has recorded some of his observations regarding it, in the Almagest.
According to modern historians, Theon lived around CE but he must be dated in third century BC. The era of Syro-Macedonian era: This era dates from the death of Alexander the great Alexander of BC was the forth but was not employed till 12 years after his death.
Others assert that he established it in the 7th year of his reign when he set out from Macedonia, his kingdom, bent on foreign conquest. This era was in use both with the Jews and Syrians. They relate that when Alexander the son of Philip marched from Greece to the conquest of Persia, he passed through Jerusalem. Summoning the learned Jews of Syria he directed them to discontinue the Mosaical era and to employ his own.
They thus answered him. And this took place in Alexander's 27th year of Reign. Some maintain that this Grecian era is of Hebrew origin. This happened formerly when the sun was in the 4th degree of Libra, and now falls on the 11th. Thus, there was divergence of opinion even during the time of Abul Fazal.
Therefore, it is extremely difficult to conclude anything about the origin of the Syro-Macedonian era. Abul Fazal says that years of this era have been elapsed up to Mar CE.
Thus, the Syro-Macedonian era commenced in BC. The Augustan era: Total years have been elapsed. The era of Antoninus of Rome: This era begins with the accession of Antoninus. Ptolemy determined the position of the fixed stars in his Almagest on this era. The era of Diocletian: This era begins with the accession of Diocletian.
Thus, this era commenced in 77 BC. The Solar Hijra era: The era of Yazdajird: Hurmuz b. After him every succeeding monarch renewed its designation by his own accession and Yazdajird also re- instituted it from his assumption of sovereignty. When the era was renewed under the name of Yazdajird, and his authority terminated in disaster, the continuity of intercalation was neglected. Thus, this era commenced in 30 BC. The Jalali era or Maliki era: Though the Persian solar Hijrah era was in use but the interruption of continuity in intercalation, the commencements of the years fell into confusion.
The beginning of the year was determined from the sun's entry into Aries. The years and months were at first Natural, but now the month is the ordinary Artificial. Thus, this era commenced in AD. The Khani era: The years and months are natural, solar. Before its adoption the State records bore date from the Hijrah and the lunar year was current. By this means the road was opened to grievous oppression, because 31 lunar years are equal to only 30 solar years and great loss occurred to the agriculturists, as the revenue was taken on the lunar years and the harvest depended on the solar.
Total years have been elapsed up to mar CE. The first volume of Akbarnama deals with the birth of Akbar , the history of Timur 's family and the reigns of Babur and Humayun and the Suri sultans of Delhi. Volume one of Akbarnama encompasses Akbar's birth and his upbringings. According to the Abul Fazl Humayuan, the second Mughal emperor and Akbar's father, is praying to the Ka'ba, an islamic holy place, for a successor to the Mughal empire.
After this prayer, Maryam Makani showcases different signs that she is pregnant with Akbar such as having a shining forehead that others believe to be a mirror on her face or the warmth and joy that enters her bosom when a light shines on her. Miryam believes the light to be God's Light blessing her and her unborn child.
Nine months later while Humayuan is away, Maryam gives birth to Akbar under what is considered an auspicious star and there is great celebration. It also deals with Akbar's household, army, the revenues and the geography of the empire. It also produces rich details about the traditions and culture of the people living in India. It is famous for its rich statistical details about things as diverse as crop yields, prices, wages and revenues. Here Abu'l Fazl's ambition, in his own words, is: I know not whether the love of my native land has been the attracting influence or exactness of historical research and genuine truthfulness of narrative He also gives several Indian accounts of geography, cosmography, and some tidbits on Indian aesthetic thought.
Most of this information is derived from Sanskrit texts and knowledge systems. Abu'l Fazl admits that he did not know Sanskrit and it is thought that he accessed this information through intermediaries, likely Jains who were favoured at Akbar's court. Many of the orthodox Muslims thought that the Hindus were guilty of two of the greatest sins, polytheism and idolatry. He writes that only serving and worshipping God is required. Abul Fazl also describes the Caste system to his readers.
He writes the name, rank, and duties of each caste. He then goes on to describe the sixteen subclasses which come from intermarriage among the main four. First, he writes many of the different ways in which a person from one class can be born into a different class in the next life and some of the ways in which a change in gender can be brought about.
He classifies the second kind as the different diseases and sicknesses one suffers from.
The third kind is actions which cause a woman to be barren, or the death of a child. And the fourth kind deals with money and generosity, or lack thereof. The only original elements in this work are a few verses and some interesting stories. Very little is known about the writer of this Akbarnama.
He accompanied his employer and patron Shaikh Farid Bokhari who held the post of the Bakhshi-ul-Mulk on his various services. His most important work is a dictionary, the Madar-ul-Afazil , completed in He started writing this Akbarnama at the age of 36 years.