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Quantitative techniques cr kothari pdf

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Quantitative Techniques book. Read 2 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Download as PDF · Download Quantitative Print Quantitative techniques / C.R. Kothari Send to Email Quantitative techniques / C.R. Kothari. Print Version. Meaning of quantitative techniques, Classification of QT-application of QT in 7. Quantitative Techniques, CR. Kothari. 8. Quantitative methods, caite.infol.


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This is a reformatted version of Prof C R Kothari's all-time great book Quantitative Techniques (Third Revised Edition). Students and teachers will find the. and published by S. Chand & Company Pvt. Ltd., , Ram Nagar, New Delhi - Created with tools of Quantitative Techniques are essential for every Commerce and Management student of the .. C.R. Kothari. 2. Quantitative. C.R. KOTHARI Two explains the technique of defining a research problem. .. Qualitative:Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity.

Dazier, Simulation in Business and Economics, p. Even the government adopts this in very rare cases such as population census conducted once in a decade. Research inculcates scientific and inductive thinking and it promotes the development of logical habits of thinking and organisation. Research can also be classified as conclusion-oriented and decision-oriented. Chapter Two explains the technique of defining a research problem. An Introduction to Educational Research. There may.

Many more factors such as directives of government, employment conditions, curiosity about new things, desire to understand causal relationships, social thinking and awakening, and the like may as well motivate or at times compel people to perform research operations.

Descriptive research includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries of different kinds. The major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs as it exists at present. In social science and business research we quite often use. The main characteristic of this method is that the researcher has no control over the variables; he can only report what has happened or what is happening.

Most ex post facto research projects are used for descriptive studies in which the researcher seeks to measure such items as, for example, frequency of shopping, preferences of people, or similar data. Ex post facto studies also include attempts by researchers to discover causes even when they cannot control the variables.

The methods of research utilized in descriptive research are survey methods of all kinds, including comparative and correlational methods. In analytical research, on the other hand, the researcher has to use facts or information already available, and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of the material. Research can either be applied or action research or fundamental to basic or pure research. Similarly, research studies, concerning human behaviour carried on with a view to make generalisations about human behaviour, are also examples of fundamental research, but research aimed at certain conclusions say, a solution facing a concrete social or business problem is an example of applied research.

Research to identify social, economic or political trends that may affect a particular institution or the copy research research to find out whether certain communications will be read and understood or the marketing research or evaluation research are examples of applied research. Thus, the central aim of applied research is to discover a solution for some pressing practical problem, whereas basic research is directed towards finding information that has a broad base of applications and thus, adds to the already existing organized body of scientific knowledge.

Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount. It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity. Qualitative research, on the other hand, is concerned with qualitative phenomenon, i. For instance, when we are interested in investigating the reasons for human behaviour i. This type of research aims at discovering the underlying motives and desires, using in depth interviews for the purpose.

Other techniques of such research are word association tests, sentence completion tests, story completion tests and similar other projective techniques. Attitude or opinion research i. Qualitative research is specially important in the behavioural sciences where the aim is to discover the underlying motives of human behaviour.

Through such research we can analyse the various factors which motivate people to behave in a particular manner or which make people like or dislike a particular thing.

It may be stated, however, that to apply qualitative research in. Research Methodology practice is relatively a difficult job and therefore, while doing such research, one should seek guidance from experimental psychologists. Conceptual research is that related to some abstract idea s or theory. It is generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or to reinterpret existing ones. On the other hand, empirical research relies on experience or observation alone, often without due regard for system and theory.

It is data-based research, coming up with conclusions which are capable of being verified by observation or experiment. We can also call it as experimental type of research. In such a research it is necessary to get at facts firsthand, at their source, and actively to go about doing certain things to stimulate the production of desired information.

In such a research, the researcher must first provide himself with a working hypothesis or guess as to the probable results. He then works to get enough facts data to prove or disprove his hypothesis. He then sets up experimental designs which he thinks will manipulate the persons or the materials concerned so as to bring forth the desired information.

Empirical research is appropriate when proof is sought that certain variables affect other variables in some way. Evidence gathered through experiments or empirical studies is today considered to be the most powerful support possible for a given hypothesis. All other types of research are variations of one or more of the above stated approaches, based on either the purpose of research, or the time required to accomplish research, on the environment in which research is done, or on the basis of some other similar factor.

Form the point of view of time, we can think of research either as one-time research or longitudinal research. In the former case the research is confined to a single time-period, whereas in the latter case the research is carried on over several time-periods. Research can be field-setting research or laboratory research or simulation research, depending upon the environment in which it is to be carried out. Research can as well be understood as clinical or diagnostic research. Such research follow case-study methods or indepth approaches to reach the basic causal relations.

Such studies usually go deep into the causes of things or events that interest us, using very small samples and very deep probing data gathering devices. The research may be exploratory or it may be formalized. The objective of exploratory research is the development of hypotheses rather than their testing, whereas formalized research studies are those with substantial structure and with specific hypotheses to be tested.

Historical research is that which utilizes historical sources like documents, remains, etc. Research can also be classified as conclusion-oriented and decision-oriented.

While doing conclusionoriented research, a researcher is free to pick up a problem, redesign the enquiry as he proceeds and is prepared to conceptualize as he wishes.

Decision-oriented research is always for the need of a decision maker and the researcher in this case is not free to embark upon research according to his own inclination. Operations research is an example of decision oriented research since it is a scientific method of providing executive departments with a quantitative basis for decisions regarding operations under their control.

DAI The above description of the types of research brings to light the fact that there are two basic approaches to research, viz. The former involves the generation of data in quantitative form which can be subjected to rigorous quantitative analysis in a formal and rigid fashion. This approach can be further sub-classified into inferential, experimental and simulation approaches to research. The purpose of inferential approach to research is to form a data base from which to infer characteristics or relationships of population.

This usually means survey research where a sample of population is studied questioned or observed to determine its characteristics, and it is then inferred that the population has the same characteristics.

Experimental approach is characterised by much greater control over the research environment and in this case some variables are manipulated to observe their effect on other variables. Simulation approach involves the construction of an artificial environment within which relevant information and data can be generated. This permits an observation of the dynamic behaviour of a system or its sub-system under controlled conditions. Given the values of initial conditions, parameters and exogenous variables, a simulation is run to represent the behaviour of the process over time.

Qualitative approach to research is concerned with subjective assessment of attitudes, opinions and behaviour. Such an approach to research generates results either in non-quantitative form or in the form which are not subjected to rigorous quantitative analysis. Generally, the techniques of focus group interviews, projective techniques and depth interviews are used. All these are explained at length in chapters that follow.

Increased amounts of research make progress possible. Research inculcates scientific and inductive thinking and it promotes the development of logical habits of thinking and organisation. The role of research in several fields of applied economics, whether related to business or to the economy as a whole, has greatly increased in modern times.

The increasingly complex nature of business and government has focused attention on the use of research in solving operational problems. Research, as an aid to economic policy, has gained added importance, both for government and business. Research provides the basis for nearly all government policies in our economic system.

The cost of needs has to be equated to probable revenues and this is a field where research is most needed.

Through research we can devise alternative policies and can as well examine the consequences of each of these alternatives. Robert C. Meir, William T. Newell and Harold L. Dazier, Simulation in Business and Economics, p. Motivational research of determining why people behave as they do is mainly concerned with market characteristics. Given knowledge of future demand. Morton Deutsch and Stuart W. Research is equally important for social scientists in studying social relationships and in seeking answers to various social problems.

Research Methods in Social Relations. The plight of cultivators. Research has its special significance in solving various operational and planning problems of business and industry. Once sales forecasting is done. On the other hand.. It provides the intellectual satisfaction of knowing a few things just for the sake of knowledge and also has practical utility for the social scientist to know for the sake of being able to do something better or in a more efficient manner.

Market analysis has become an integral tool of business policy these days. On the one hand. Another area in government. Research with regard to demand and market factors has great utility in business.

Such information indicates what is happening in the economy and what changes are taking place. In other words. Market research is the investigation of the structure and development of a market for the purpose of formulating efficient policies for purchasing.

Business budgeting. Research in social sciences is concerned both with knowledge for its own sake and with knowledge for what it can contribute to practical concerns. All these are of great help to people in business and industry who are responsible for taking business decisions. Operations research refers to the application of mathematical. Operations research and market research. These day nearly all governments maintain large staff of research technicians or experts to carry on this work.

Collecting such statistical information is by no means a routine task. Content analysis. It is the methods that generate techniques. Laboratory Small group study of random Research behaviour.

Statistical compilations and manipulations. Interviewer focuses attention upon a given experience and its effects.

C.R. Kothari Research Methodology Methods and Techniques 20091 Copy

Used as a survey technique for information and for discerning opinion. Research techniques refer to the behaviour and instruments we use in performing research operations such as making observations. For instance. Use of audio-visual recording devices. Interviewer uses a detailed schedule with open and closed questions. Use of attitude scales. Tape and Film listening and analysis. Library i Analysis of historical Research records ii Analysis of documents 2.

Identification of social and economic background of respondents. Interactional recording. Research Methodology: An Introduction 7 In addition to what has been stated above. Observational behavioural scales. Cross sectional collection of data for intensive analysis. Recording mass behaviour. Research methods refer to the behaviour and instruments used in selecting and constructing research technique.

Small groups of respondents are interviewed simultaneously. Field i Non-participant direct Research observation ii Participant observation iii Mass observation iv v vi vii viii ix Mail questionnaire Opinionnaire Personal interview Focused interview Group interview Telephone survey x Case study and life history 3. In the first group we include those methods which are concerned with the collection of data. These methods will be used where the data already available are not sufficient to arrive at the required solution.

Keeping this in view. Since the object of research. Research methods falling in the above stated last two groups are generally taken as the analytical tools of research.

All this means that it is necessary for the researcher to design his methodology for his problem as the same may differ from problem to problem. For example. Researchers not only need to know how to develop certain indices or tests.

The scope of research methodology is wider than that of research methods. Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. Why a research study has been undertaken. The second group consists of those statistical techniques which are used for establishing relationships between the data and the unknowns.

It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. The third group consists of those methods which are used to evaluate the accuracy of the results obtained. In it we study the various steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying his research problem along with the logic behind them. He has to specify very clearly and precisely what decisions he selects and why he selects them so that they can be evaluated by others also. From what has been stated above.

Researchers also need to understand the assumptions underlying various techniques and they need to know the criteria by which they can decide that certain techniques and procedures will be applicable to certain problems and others will not.

The scientific method is. In this context. But the conclusions drawn on the basis of experimental data are generally criticized for either faulty assumptions. Karl Pearson writes. It presupposes ethical neutrality. It utilizes relevant concepts.

Experimentation is done to test hypotheses and to discover new relationships. If any. The ideal of science is to achieve a systematic interrelation of facts.

It aims at formulating most general axioms or what can be termed as scientific theories. It results into probabilistic predictions. The Grammar of Science. It is committed to only objective considerations. As such the researcher must pay all possible attention while developing the experimental design and must state only probable inferences. It relies on empirical evidence.

The two terms. Part I. Its methodology is made known to all concerned for critical scrutiny are for use in testing the conclusions through replication. All this is done through experimentation and survey investigations which constitute the integral parts of scientific method. Statistics in Research. The purpose of survey investigations may also be to provide scientifically gathered information to work as a basis for the researchers for their conclusions.

The knowledge of methodology provides good training specially to the new research worker and enables him to do better research. The knowledge of methodology helps the consumer of research results to evaluate them and enables him to take rational decisions. A The study of research methodology gives the student the necessary training in gathering material and arranging or card-indexing them.

The Scientific Approach: Basic Principles of the Scientific Method. AII Before embarking on the details of research methodology and techniques. Research process consists of series of actions or steps necessary to effectively carry out research and the desired sequencing of these steps.

The chart shown in Figure 1. In fact. Essentially two steps are involved in formulating the research problem. One should remember that the various steps involved in a research process are not mutually exclusive.

Initially the problem may be stated in a broad general way and then the ambiguities. The formulation of a general topic into a specific research problem. Formulating the research problem: There are two types of research problems. They do not necessarily follow each other in any specific order and the researcher has to be constantly anticipating at each step in the research process the requirements of the subsequent steps.

If subsequent procedures have not been taken into account in the early stages. He may review two types of literature—the conceptual literature concerning the concepts and theories..

This task of formulating. The problem to be investigated must be defined unambiguously for that will help discriminating relevant data from irrelevant ones.

The basic outcome of this review will be the knowledge as to what data and other materials are available for operational purposes which will enable the researcher to specify his own research problem in a meaningful context.

At the very outset the researcher must single out the problem he wants to study. But such activities overlap continuously rather than following a strictly prescribed sequence. The researcher must at the same time examine all available literature to get himself acquainted with the selected problem.

Quantitative Techniques by C R Kothari

Professor W. Neiswanger correctly states that. After this the researcher rephrases the problem into analytical or operational terms i. At times. Care must. In private business units or in governmental organisations.

A brief description of the above stated steps will be helpful. In an academic institution the researcher can seek the help from a guide who is usually an experienced man and has several research problems in mind. It also indicates the type of data required and the type of methods of data analysis to be used. As such the manner in which research hypotheses are developed is particularly important since they provide the focal point for research.

At this juncture the researcher should undertake extensive literature survey connected with the problem. If there are certain pertinent terms. For this purpose. In most types of research. Academic journals. Extensive literature survey: Once the problem is formulated.

A good library will be a great help to the researcher at this stage. Working hypothesis is tentative assumption made in order to draw out and test its logical or empirical consequences. They also affect the manner in which tests must be conducted in the analysis of data and indirectly the quality of data which is required for the analysis.

It is compulsory for a research worker writing a thesis for a Ph. It may as well be remembered that occasionally we may encounter a problem where we do not need working. Development of working hypotheses: After extensive literature survey. An Introduction 13 the statement of the objective is of basic importance because it determines the data which are to be collected. The earlier studies. In this process. Working hypotheses are more useful when stated in precise and clearly defined terms.

Quantitative Techniques

How does one go about developing working hypotheses? The answer is by using the following approach: The role of the hypothesis is to guide the researcher by delimiting the area of research and to keep him on the right track.

It sharpens his thinking and focuses attention on the more important facets of the problem. Hypothesis should be very specific and limited to the piece of research in hand because it has to be tested. The researcher must decide the way of selecting a sample or what is popularly known as the sample design.

There are several research designs. But when the purpose happens to be an accurate description of a situation or of an association between variables. Not only this. Experimental designs can be either informal designs such as before-and-after without control. But in practice this may not be true. Research purposes may be grouped into four categories. Latin square design. The preparation of the research design. But as a general rule.

A flexible research design which provides opportunity for considering many different aspects of a problem is considered appropriate if the purpose of the research study is that of exploration. But how all these can be achieved depends mainly on the research purpose. The preparation of such a design facilitates research to be as efficient as possible yielding maximal information. Even the slightest element of bias in such an inquiry will get larger and larger as the number of observations increases.

The items so selected constitute what is technically called a sample. Preparing the research design: The research problem having been formulated in clear cut terms. It can be presumed that in such an inquiry when all the items are covered no element of chance is left and highest accuracy is obtained.

Determining sample design: When population elements are selected for inclusion in the sample based on the ease of access. Probability samples are those based on simple random sampling. Using the random number tables is another method of random sampling.

With probability samples each element has a known probability of being included in the sample but the non-probability samples do not allow the researcher to determine this probability.

Techniques kothari quantitative pdf cr

Samples can be either probability samples or non-probability samples. This type of sampling is also known as chance sampling or probability sampling where each and every item in the population has an equal chance of inclusion in the sample and each one of the possible samples. In case of infinite population. Since the numbers were placed in the table in a completely random fashion.

This procedure gives each item an equal probability of being selected. Judgement sampling is used quite frequently in qualitative research where the desire happens to be to develop hypotheses rather than to generalise to larger populations.

A brief mention of the important sample designs is as follows: Deliberate sampling is also known as purposive or non-probability sampling. This procedure is useful when sampling frame is available in the form of a list. In such a design the selection process starts by picking some random point in the list and then every nth element is selected until the desired number is secured.

To do this we select some random starting point and then a systematic pattern is used in proceeding through the table.

On the other hand. We might start in the 4th row. In some instances the most practical way of sampling is to select every 15th name on a list. An element of randomness is usually introduced into this kind of sampling by using random numbers to pick up the unit with which to start.

This would be an example of convenience sample of gasoline buyers. At times such a procedure may give very biased results particularly when the population is not homogeneous.

To select the sample. When a number exceeds the limit of the numbers in the frame. This sampling method involves purposive or deliberate selection of particular units of the universe for constituting a sample which represents the universe. Sampling of this type is known as systematic sampling. If a researcher wishes to secure data from. It has issued its cards to The sample size must often be larger than the simple random sample to ensure the same level of accuracy because is cluster sampling procedural potential for order bias and other sources of error is usually accentuated.

Under multi-stage sampling the first stage may be to select large primary sampling units such as states. The clustering approach can. In practice. This design is usually adopted under acceptance sampling plan in the context of statistical quality control. Area sampling is specially helpful where we do not have the list of the population concerned. This is called quota sampling. The sample size is to be kept say Area sampling is quite close to cluster sampling and is often talked about when the total geographical area of interest happens to be big one.

This technique is meant for big inquiries extending to a considerably large geographical area like an entire country. This is a further development of the idea of cluster sampling. Cluster sampling involves grouping the population and then selecting the groups or the clusters rather than individual elements for inclusion in the sample.

Quota sampling is thus an important form of non-probability sampling. Under area sampling we first divide the total area into a number of smaller non-overlapping areas. It may be pointed out here that normally one. The size of the quota for each stratum is generally proportionate to the size of that stratum in the population. In stratified sampling the cost of taking random samples from individual strata is often so expensive that interviewers are simply given quota to be filled from different strata.

Suppose some departmental store wishes to sample its credit card holders. If the population from which a sample is to be drawn does not constitute a homogeneous group. This is somewhat a complex sample design where the ultimate size of the sample is not fixed in advance but is determined according to mathematical decisions on the basis of information yielded as survey progresses.

If the technique of random-sampling is applied at all stages. Quota samples generally happen to be judgement samples rather than random samples. Three clusters might then be selected for the sample randomly. It also makes the field interviewing more efficient since interviewer can do many interviews at each location. If the items selected from each stratum is based on simple random sampling the entire procedure. For cluster sampling this list of In this technique.

Before applying this method. Collecting the data: In dealing with any real life problem it is often found that data at hand are inadequate. If the researcher conducts an experiment.

They are provided with schedules containing relevant questions. Under this method the enumerators are appointed and given training. Questionnaire to be used must be prepared very carefully so that it may prove to be effective in collecting the relevant information. Primary data can be collected either through experiment or through survey. These enumerators go to respondents with these schedules.

Some occasional field checks on the work of the enumerators may ensure sincere work. The information obtained relates to what is currently happening and is not complicated by either the past behaviour or future intentions or attitudes of respondents. The researcher and the respondents do come in contact with each other if this method of survey is adopted. There are several ways of collecting the appropriate data which differ considerably in context of money costs.

Much depends upon the capability of enumerators so far as this method is concerned. As such this method is not suitable in inquiries where large samples are concerned. This method is no doubt an expensive method and the information provided by this method is also very limited. But in the case of a survey. Data are collected by filling up the schedules by enumerators on the basis of replies given by respondents.

It is the most extensively used method in various economic and business surveys. The investigator follows a rigid procedure and seeks answers to a set of pre-conceived questions through personal interviews. This method of collecting data is usually carried out in a structured way where output depends upon the ability of the interviewer to a large extent.

Quantitative Techniques by C.R. Kothari

An Introduction 17 should resort to random sampling so that bias can be eliminated and sampling error can be estimated. The sample design to be used must be decided by the researcher taking into consideration the nature of the inquiry and other related factors.

This method of collecting information involves contacting the respondents on telephone itself. This is not a very widely used method but it plays an important role in industrial surveys in developed regions.

Questionnaires are mailed to the respondents with a request to return after completing the same. But purposive sampling is considered desirable when the universe happens to be small and a known characteristic of it is to be studied intensively.

Computers not only save time but also make it possible to study large number of variables affecting a problem simultaneously. If the execution of the project proceeds on correct lines. A careful watch should be kept for unanticipated factors in order to keep the survey as much realistic as possible. Coding operation is usually done at this stage through which the categories of data are transformed into symbols that may be tabulated and counted.

Execution of the project: Execution of the project is a very important step in the research process. Bowley very aptly remarks that in collection of statistical data commonsense is the chief requisite and experience the chief teacher. With coding the stage is ready for tabulation.

Though he should pay attention to all these factors but much depends upon the ability and experience of the researcher. If the data are to be collected through interviewers. The analysis of data requires a number of closely related operations such as establishment of categories..

The training may be given with the help of instruction manuals which explain clearly the job of the interviewers at each step. A great deal of data. Tabulation is a part of the technical procedure wherein the classified data are put in the form of tables.

In the process of analysis. If the survey is to be conducted by means of structured questionnaires. Analysis work after tabulation is generally based on the computation of various percentages.

The mechanical devices can be made use of at this juncture. One method of dealing with the non-response problem is to make a list of the non-respondents and take a small sub-sample of them. Through the use of statistical tests we can establish whether such a difference is a real one or is the result of random fluctuations.

In this context Dr A. If some of the respondents do not cooperate. Editing is the procedure that improves the quality of the data for coding. The unwieldy data should necessarily be condensed into a few manageable groups and tables for further analysis.

In such a situation. Occasional field checks should be made to ensure that the interviewers are doing their assigned job sincerely and efficiently. Analysis of data: After the data have been collected.

The researcher should see that the project is executed in a systematic manner and in time. If the difference happens to be real. The main text of the report should have the following parts: It should contain a clear statement of the objective of the research and an explanation of the methodology adopted in accomplishing the research. Various tests. The layout of the report should be as follows: Writing of report must be done with great care keeping in view the following: Preparation of the report or the thesis: In its preliminary pages the report should carry title and date followed by acknowledgements and foreword.

As a matter of fact. After introduction there would appear a statement of findings and recommendations in non-technical language. Then there should be a table of contents followed by a list of tables and list of graphs and charts.

Towards the end of the main text. If the researcher had no hypothesis to start with. If the findings are extensive. Generalisations and interpretation: If a hypothesis is tested and upheld several times. Index should also be given specially in a published research report.

The main body of the report should be presented in logical sequence and broken-down into readily identifiable sections. The process of interpretation may quite often trigger off new questions which in turn may lead to further researches.

The hypotheses may be tested through the use of one or more of such tests. An Introduction 19 come from different universes and if the difference is due to chance. After analysing the data as stated above. If the researcher had no hypotheses to start with. It is known as interpretation. Hypothesis-testing will result in either accepting the hypothesis or in rejecting it. In brief. Do the facts support the hypotheses or they happen to be contrary? This is the usual question which should be answered while testing hypotheses.

At the end of the report. The scope of the study along with various limitations should as well be stated in this part. The validity and reliability of the data should be checked carefully. Charts and illustrations in the main report should be used only if they present the information more clearly and forcibly.

Good research is systematic: It means that research is structured with specified steps to be taken in a specified sequence in accordance with the well defined set of rules.

The analysis of data should be sufficiently adequate to reveal its significance and the methods of analysis used should be appropriate. Criteria of Good Research. Bellenger and Barnett. The procedural design of the research should be carefully planned to yield results that are as objective as possible. D Whatever may be the types of research works and studies.

The research procedure used should be described in sufficient detail to permit another researcher to repeat the research for further advancement. Greater confidence in research is warranted if the researcher is experienced.

Techniques kothari quantitative pdf cr

The purpose of the research should be clearly defined and common concepts be used. One expects scientific research to satisfy the following criteria: The researcher should report with complete frankness.

Induction is the process of reasoning from a part to the whole whereas deduction is the process of reasoning from some premise to a conclusion which follows from that very premise. Danny N. James Harold Fox. Conclusions should be confined to those justified by the data of the research and limited to those for which the data provide an adequate basis.

Systematic characteristic of the research does not rule out creative thinking but it certainly does reject the use of guessing and intuition in arriving at conclusions. Phi Delta Kappan. Good research is logical: This implies that research is guided by the rules of logical reasoning and the logical process of induction and deduction are of great value in carrying out research. Research studies overlapping one another are undertaken quite often for want of adequate information.

Many researchers take a leap in the dark without knowing research methods. This results in duplication and fritters away resources. Some of the important problems are as follows: Good research is empirical: It implies that research is related basically to one or more aspects of a real situation and deals with concrete data that provides a basis for external validity to research results.

Due attention should be given toward identification of research problems in various disciplines of applied science which are of immediate concern to the industries. There is need for developing some mechanisms of a university—industry interaction programme so that academics can get ideas from practitioners on what needs to be researched and practitioners can apply the research done by the academics.

There is insufficient interaction between the university research departments on one side and business establishments. The lack of a scientific training in the methodology of research is a great impediment for researchers in our country.

Most of the business units in our country do not have the confidence that the material supplied by them to researchers will not be misused and as such they are often reluctant in supplying the needed information to researchers. The concept of secrecy seems to be sacrosanct to business organisations in the country so much so that it proves an impermeable barrier to researchers.

There does not exist a code of conduct for researchers and inter-university and interdepartmental rivalries are also quite common. There is paucity of competent researchers.

The consequence is obvious. An Introduction 21 3. Good research is replicable: This characteristic allows research results to be verified by replicating the study and thereby building a sound basis for decisions. Efforts should be made to develop satisfactory liaison among all concerned for better and realistic researches. This problem can be solved by proper compilation and revision.

Before undertaking research projects. As such. Most of the work. Research to many researchers and even to their guides. Distinguish between Research methods and Research methodology.

There may. State the problems that are usually faced by such researchers. What do you mean by research? Explain its significance in modern times.

University Grants Commission must play a dynamic role in solving this difficulty. Library management and functioning is not satisfactory at many places and much of the time and energy of researchers are spent in tracing out the books.

All possible efforts be made in this direction so that efficient secretarial assistance is made available to researchers and that too well in time. Researcher also faces the problem on account of the fact that the published data vary quite significantly because of differences in coverage by the concerning agencies. Write short notes on: Many researchers in our country also face the difficulty of adequate and timely secretarial assistance.

I Briefly describe the different steps involved in a research process. Describe the different types of research. This causes unnecessary delays in the completion of research studies.

There is also the difficulty of timely availability of published data from various government and other agencies doing this job in our country. Account for this state of affairs and give suggestions for improvement. An Introduction 23 8. It is often said that there is not a proper link between some of the activities under way in the world of academics and in most business in our country. Give reasons in support of your answer. Like a medical doctor.

To define a problem correctly. In simple words. The individual or the organisation. One should make a clear statement to this effect. For example.. A course of action is defined by one or more values of the controlled variables. N represents the probability that an outcome Oj will occur.

Exploratory or formulative research studies do not start with a problem or hypothesis. Usually we say that a research problem does exist if the following conditions are met with: All such elements or at least the important ones may be thought of in context of a research problem.

If our eyes need glasses. We can. If one wants nothing. This means that there must be at least two means available to a researcher for if he has no choice of means. Help may be taken from a research guide in this connection. The task is a difficult one.

We have to see ourselves and enable him to prescribe for us the right number by cooperating with him. The Design of Social Research. Chicago University Press. Defining the Research Problem 25 Over and above these conditions.

There are several factors which may result in making the problem complicated. This means that research must answer the question concerning the relative efficiency of the possible alternatives. In this way he should make all possible efforts in selecting a problem. If the subject for research is selected properly by observing the above mentioned points. Even then it is quite difficult to supply definitive ideas concerning how a researcher should obtain ideas for his research.

A proper definition of research problem will enable the researcher to be on the track whereas an ill-defined problem may create hurdles. He may as well read articles published in current literature available on the subject and may think how the techniques and ideas discussed therein might be applied to the solution of other problems.

This statement signifies the need for defining a research problem. The problem to be investigated must be defined unambiguously for that will help to discriminate relevant data from the irrelevant ones. He may discuss with others what he has in mind concerning a problem. Questions like: What data are to be collected? What characteristics of data are relevant and need to be studied? What relations are to be explored. This may not be necessary when the problem requires the conduct of a research closely similar to one that has already been done.

The subject or the problem selected must involve the researcher and must have an upper most place in his mind so that he may undertake all pains needed for the study. What techniques are to be used for the purpose? If the answers to all these questions are in the affirmative. But when the field of inquiry is relatively new and does not have available a set of well developed techniques.

The usual approach is that the researcher should himself pose a question or in case someone else wants the researcher to carry on research. Defining a research problem properly and clearly is a crucial part of a research study and must in no case be accomplished hurriedly. The next step in defining the problem is to understand its origin and nature clearly. In case of social research. At the same time the feasibility of a particular solution has to be considered and the same should be kept in view while stating the problem.

The best way of understanding the problem is to discuss it with those who first raised it in order to find out how the problem originally came about and with what objectives in view. For a better. How to define a research problem is undoubtedly a herculean task. A brief description of all these points will be helpful. Defining the Research Problem 27 solution. But such an approach generally does not produce definitive results because the question phrased in such a fashion is usually in broad general terms and as such may not be in a form suitable for testing.

In case there is some directive from an organisational authority. Then the researcher can himself state the problem or he can seek the guidance of the guide or the subject expert in accomplishing this task. The answer may be that one wants to state the problem along with the bounds within which it is to be studied. It is only on careful detailing the research problem that we can work out the research design and can smoothly carry on all the consequential steps involved while doing research.

If the researcher has stated the problem himself. First of all the problem should be stated in a broad general way. The problem stated in a broad general way may contain various ambiguities which must be resolved by cool thinking and rethinking over the problem.

The technique for the purpose involves the undertaking of the following steps generally one after the other: Pawan Jadhao rated it liked it Apr 19, Popon Siti rated it it was amazing Feb 25, Rohit rated it liked it Sep 30, Pooja Pitale rated it really liked it Apr 07, Ped Barbosa rated it liked it Nov 17, Preeti rated it it was ok May 25, Phygma Rider rated it really liked it Nov 27, Patrick Novatchek rated it really liked it Oct 20, Nyokro Mukti rated it it was amazing Mar 18, Ramesh rated it did not like it Nov 27, Sibani Hazarika rated it really liked it Mar 26, Pramod Mane rated it it was amazing Sep 18, Maria Nababan rated it it was amazing Mar 17, Bella rated it really liked it Jun 24, Abdul Karim rated it really liked it Jul 30, Newton rated it it was ok Jan 19, Sandeep Kaur rated it it was amazing Oct 24, Daniel Owino marked it as to-read Mar 30, Meshack Kimanthi marked it as to-read Jul 06, Monal Singhai marked it as to-read Jan 03, Arun marked it as to-read Jan 18, Ashok Rawat marked it as to-read Feb 17, Easwaran marked it as to-read Feb 25, Rekhagupta marked it as to-read May 12, Ugo Ifezue marked it as to-read Sep 03, Aditya marked it as to-read Sep 11, Karthikeyan marked it as to-read Oct 06, Anil marked it as to-read Oct 07, Kharika marked it as to-read Oct 13, Sridhar Gopalan marked it as to-read Oct 23, Sadei marked it as to-read Oct 24, Taj Bedi added it Dec 01, Faasys is currently reading it Dec 16, Kehaliw marked it as to-read Dec 17, Muhammad marked it as to-read Jan 01, Srinivasan marked it as to-read Jan 03, Amita Singh marked it as to-read Feb 06, Push Kashyap marked it as to-read Feb 19, Mrinal Das marked it as to-read Feb 22, Adamontheweb marked it as to-read Feb 25, Anibhav Singla marked it as to-read Apr 03, Sandhiya marked it as to-read May 27, Rehan Abbas marked it as to-read Jul 01, Rajeshwar Tyagi marked it as to-read Sep 09,