Manufacturing. Facilities Design and. Material Handling. FIFTH EDITION. Matthew P. Stephens. Fred E. Meyers. Purdue University Press. West Lafayette. Thank you very much for reading manufacturing facilities design and material handling 3rd edition. Maybe you have knowledge that, people have look. Thank you for reading manufacturing facilities design and material handling 3rd edition. As you may know, people have look numerous times for their chosen.
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The fifth edition of Manufacturing Facilities Design and Material Handling embraces the same practical approach to facilities planning as the previous edi- tions. Manufacturing Facilities Design and Material Handling Third Edition - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Read here caite.info?book= Read [PDF] Download Manufacturing Facilities Design & Material.
The operations chart 3. Create a pleasing atmosphere in order to promote pride and productivity. Step 9. The receiving report is the notice to the rest of our company that a product has been received and contains the following information: Offices in manufacturing plants often have a second floor.
The parts that are purchased are called buyouts. Walking feet in 1. Time or labor standards are used for a variety of purposes in an organization. Time standards are among the most basic yet important pieces of information required by the facilities planner.
Dealing 52 cards into four equal stacks in 0. Filling a pin board in 0. Normal level of effort is one in which the operator can maintain a comfortable pace. Experience is usually what makes a qualified. Normal pace is the pace at which a trained operator. The uses include: Time study and time standards are defined and basic methods for obtaining time standards are explained. Chapter 3 Time Standards Objectives In this chapter the importance and uses of time standards as relate to facilities planning are discussed.
Evaluate new equipment purchases to justify their expense. Evaluate cost reduction ideas. The prescribed work method 2. How many pieces do we need to manufacture per shift? Schedule the machines. Develop operation personnel budgets to measure management performance. Determine manufacturing costs and selling prices. Additional requirements such as safety. A specific task is a detailed description of what must be accomplished and must include: Determine individual worker performance and identify bottleneck operations.
The material specification 3. Determine the assembly line balance. It is used to develop answers for the following problems: The positions of incoming and outgoing material 5. Determine the number of production people to employ. How many machines do we need? The answer depends on two pieces of information: Determine the number of machine tools to buy.
The tools and equipment being used 4. Pay incentive wages where applicable. How much time does it take to make one part? This is the time standard. Time standard 0. There are minutes per shift available at percent. There are minutes per shift 8-hour shift times 60 minutes per hour. It takes us 0. For the data below. Less 50 minutes downtime per shift breaks. There are Hours No. At 75 percent performance based on history or expectation. Each employee will work 8 hours. Make 2.
Work sampling 4. Predetermined time standard systems 2. Determine the Conveyor Belt Speed. Balancing work cells has the same objective. How Do We Measure Productivity? Productivity is a measure of output divided by input. Determine the Assembly Line Balance.
Standard data 5. Assembly line balancing is discussed in detail in Chapter 4. Expert opinion standard and historical data. Stopwatch time study 3. Select 4. Step 1. Search 3. Unavoidable delay Step 6. Divide the job into elements. Predetermined Time Standards Systems When a time standard is needed during the planning phase of a new product development program. Position 8.
Step 8. Preposition 7. Step Hold Avoidable delay Use Check for logic. Collect information about the job. Assemble 9. Determine the number of cycles to be timed. Extend the time study. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth developed the basic philosophy of predetermined time motion systems. Step 3. Step 7. Transport loaded 6. Step 2. Grasp 5. Publish the time standard. They divided work into 17 work elements known as therbligs: Rest to overcome fatigue Stopwatch Time Study Stopwatch time study is the method that most manufacturing employees think of when talking about time standards.
Apply allowances. Release load Step 9. Time study is defined as the process of determining the time required by a skilled. Transport empty 2. Step 5. Do the actual time study. Inspect Select the job to study. Step 4. Plan Disassemble The element should be as descriptive as possible. New products can be added.
Elements should be as short as possible. If you can sidestep a potential problem. Es can improve methods. The slowest person on the job. The job could change.
It is better to have too many elements than too few. Separate the machine-controlled from the operator-controlled elements. The fastest person on the job. Time study elements should be as small as possible. Once a reason for studying a job has been determined.
Cost reduction programs can require new standards. New jobs may have been added to the plant. The other employees may think you are going to require them to keep up. Employees with negative attitudes that will affect their performance while being studied. Principles of Elemental Breakdown 1. Elements that end in sound are easier to time. Unions can question time standards and request a restudy. Natural breaking points are best. These are units of work that are indivisible. The best answer is two or three.
Now that the job has been identified. Request for time study can come from every direction: Constant elements should be segregated from variable elements.
No matter how you rate the job and no matter how good the time standard is. Breaking down the job into elements allows for moving a part of the job. Do the actual time study: This is the main part of the stopwatch time study. The reasons for breaking down a job into elements are as follows: It makes the job easier to describe. Foreign elements should be listed in the order of occurrence. Different parts of the job have different tempos. The element description should describe the complete job.
Standard data can be more accurate and more universally applied. Average time: Average time is the result of dividing total time by the number of cycles. Normal Time Normal Time 1. The total refers to the total time of the appropriate cycles timed. As a rule of thumb. Normal time: The accuracy of time study depends on the number of cycles timed. Percent R: Percent rating refers to our opinion of how fast the operator was performing. Personal allowance is that time an employee is allowed for personal activities such as 1.
Pieces per hour Standard minutes. Talking to friends about nonwork subjects 2. Apply allowances Hours per unit 3. Personal 2. Any other operator-controlled reason for not working. Types of Allowances Allowances fall into three categories: Rating an operator includes four factors: Going to the bathroom 3.
Three numbers are required to communicate a time standard: Fatigue 3. Getting a drink 4. Delay Personal allowance. Allowances are added to a time study to make the time standard practical.
Decimal minutes 2. Fatigue allowance is the time an employee is allowed for recuperation from fatigue. Examples include: Attending meetings. Fatigue allowance.
Gallup polls. Instructing others training new employees 5. Machine breakdown or maintenance 4. The industrial engineer samples a department and finds the following statistics: Waiting for setup. Sharpening tools New jobs that have not been time-studied yet Work Sampling Work sampling is the same scientific process used in Neilson ratings. Waiting for instructions or assignments 2. Injury or assisting with first aid 8. Waiting for material or material handling equipment 3.
Fatigue allowance time is given to employees in the form of work breaks. We observe people working and draw conclusions. Union work 9. Nonstandard work—wrong machine or other problem Delay allowances. Standard Data Standard data are the fastest and cheapest technique of setting time standards.
Starting with many previously set time standards, the industrial engineer tries to figure out what causes the time to vary from one job to another on a specific machine or class of machine.
Expert Opinion Time Standards and Historical Data An expert opinion time standard is an estimation of the time required to do a specific job. This estimate is made by a person with a great experience base. Historical data are an accounting approach to expert opinion time standard systems. A record is kept of how much time was used on each job. When a new job comes along, it is compared to a previous job standard.
The stopwatch method of setting time standards is not very useful in manufacturing facilities design because we need to know the required time for each element of work before production begins. For this reason, predetermined time standards or standard data systems are used.
Time standards are used for five main purposes in facilities design: Determining the number of workstations and machines 2. Determining the number of people 3. Determining conveyor line speeds 4. Balancing assembly and packout lines 5. Loading work cells. Chapter 4 Process Design Objectives The concepts and procedures for process design, or how the product and each component are made, and the impact of these decisions on the layout of the facility is discussed in this chapter.
The process engineer or designer determines how the product and all its components will be made.
The information includes the following: The machinery, equipment, tools, fixtures, and so on 3. The sequence of operations in assembly and packout 4. The time standard for each element of work 5. The conveyor speed for cells, paint, assembly and packout lines 6. The balance of the work loads of assembly and packout lines 7. The development of a workstation drawing and layout for each operation Process design can be divided into two broad categories: The form used to describe this routing is called the route sheet.
Route Sheets A route or routing sheet is required for each individual fabricated part. It lists the operations required to make that part in the proper sequence and accompanies the material from operation to operation.
The route sheet ends with the last operation prior to being assembled with other parts. The number of finished units needed per day 2. It includes the part number. The time standard for each operation Example: To build 2. Divide the time standard decimal minute by the R value. Which machine runs what parts 3.
Once all the machine requirements for each operation are determined. There are two ways to change the sequence in order to make the flow through the plant smoother: Change the route sheet. The resultant number of machines should be in two decimal places. Change the physical layout of the machines The Number of Machines Needed This question can be answered when we know: The sequence of assembly may have several alternatives.
Eliminate all storage between operations 3. Reduce inventory work-in-process reductions 7. Using the exploded drawing and the parts list. Reduce cost 6. Eliminate most of the moving time between operations 4. A work cell is a collection of equipment required to make a single part or a family of parts with similar characteristics.
This equipment is placed in a circle around an operator or operators. Significantly reduce setup time 2. Advantages of work cells: The Assembly Chart The assembly chart shows the sequence of operations in putting the product together. This process is known as assembly line balancing. Time standards are required to decide which sequence is best.
Eliminate delays spent waiting for the next machine 5. Conveyor belt speed is recorded in feet per minute. Charcoal grills are in cartons 30 X 30 X 24 inches high. We are going to paint the following parts on one overhead conveyor system: A total of 2.
Plant Rate and Conveyor Speed Conveyor speed is dependent on the number and units needed per minute. Assembly Line Balancing The purpose of the assembly line balancing technique is: If the hooks were one foot apart. To establish the speed of the assembly line 4. To assist in plant layout 8. To establish the percentage workload of each operator 7.
To determine the number of workstations 5. This conveyor speed also determines the size of your drying oven and baking oven. To determine the labor cost of assembly and packout 6. A total of 4. To equalize the work load among the assemblers 2.
To identify the bottleneck operation 3. To reduce production cost. Material flow will be much smoother in product-oriented flow plans 2. Less floor space is required for all the above reasons.
Flow analysis is the heart of plant layout and the beginning of the material handling plan. Users and makers of parts can see and talk to each other 3. This layout eliminates excessive handling of materials 5. The flow of a part is the path that the part takes while moving through the plant.
One concern with the product-oriented layout is the restriction of the machine capacity. Quality problems are easier to identify and quicker to fix 6.
This layout provides the foundation for continuous improvement The following list summarizes the differences between the material flow in a process-oriented layout and a product-oriented layout: The purpose is to minimize 1 distance traveled. There is less work-in-process inventory 4. Product-oriented vs. Advantages of product-oriented flow are: There is less confusion about which process sequence to use 4. The distance material has to travel will be much shorter.
There is simplified coordination and production scheduling 2. A multi-column process chart 3. A string diagram 2. A from-to chart 4. A process chart String Diagram Circles represent equipment and the line between circles will indicate flow.
Routing for Five Parts Part No. Multi-Column Process Chart Using the same routing information used in the string diagram for our five parts. From-To Chart The from-to chart is a quantitative technique and is the most exact technique of the three. The quantity and weight for each part is established. How many were moved at a time. Can I change the routing to reduce distances traveled?
The process chart symbols 11 Distance in feet: Can I justify production aids to increase effectiveness? Process chart should invoke these questions: How many pieces are in a container e. How many pieces are there per storage unit. Can I automate this step? Can I combine this step with another one? The summary is used only for the proposed solution 6 Analysis: A description of what happens in each step 9 Method: Can I eliminate this step?
How much does this part cost to produce? Get in the documentation habit! How many pieces per hour or frequency of inspection.
Can I move workstations closer together? Process Chart A process chart is produced for every fabricated part. The pieces per hour would be recorded here. It is an aid: Computer-Aided Flow Design and Analysis The use of this technology allows the user to consider and evaluate many configurations without the expense of physically rearranging the facility to achieve an optimum level of efficiency in material flow.
It shows the raw material. The operations chart uses only one symbol—the circle or operations symbol. Line thickness indicates frequency. The operations chart 3. The flow diagram 2. The flow process chart Flow Diagrams The flow diagrams show the path traveled by each part from receiving to stores.
Critical paths. The flow diagram will point out problems with such factors as cross traffic. The software produces actual path diagrams showing how materials travel among various activity centers.
Flow Process Chart The flow process chart combines the operations chart with the process chart. It helps with the analysis of the relationship among all activity centers. The techniques in this chapter will help us to establish the optimum placement of everything that needs space and include: In addition to manufacturing flow.
The worksheet 3. The dimensionless block diagram 4. The activity relationship diagram 2. Follow the rule-of thumb: Step-by-step procedure for developing an activity relationship diagram: Reason codes can be for clarification Reason Code 1 2 3 and so on Reason For better flow All material moves between these two departments People movement and so on Determining the Relationship Code Do not overstate the relationship between the work centers. Establishing these relationship codes requires an understanding of all the 3.
Starting with line 1. List all departments in a vertical column on the left-hand side of the form 2. Starting with receiving. Each activity center is represented by one square. Make six columns to the right of the activity column and title these six columns.
Taking one square at a time. Taking one activity at a time. Cut up a sheet of paper into about 2-inch 3 2-inch squares. List all the activities down the left-hand side of a sheet of paper. Place an activity number in the center of each square. Arrange the templates so as to satisfy as many activity codes as possible. Operators space and access to equipment 5. The following information must be included in any workstation design: Chapter 7 Ergonomics and Workstation Design Space Requirements Objectives In this chapter the basic concepts of ergonomics as it relates to workstation design are discussed.
It is the study of workplace design and the integration of workers with their environment. Outgoing material 4. Considerations for operator space needs are introduced.
Fixture and tools 7. Scale of drawing. Location of waste and rejects 6. Incoming materials materials packaging and quantity must be considered 3.
Efficiency is using the job right. These principles enable the workstation designer to achieve these goals. Principle 1: Hand Motions 1. Eliminate as many hand motions as possible. Combine motions together to eliminate other motions. Make motions as short as possible, discourage leaning excessive reaching 4. Reduce the force required as much as possible.
Keep both hands equally busy. Use mirror image moves. Do not use the hand as a holding device. Locate frequently used tools and materials closer to the point of use. Principle 2: Basic Motion Types Ballistic motions are fast motions created by putting one set of muscles in motion and not trying to stop those motions by using other muscles. Ballistic motions should be encouraged. Controlled or restricted motions are the opposite of ballistic motions and require more control especially at the end of the motion.
They should be eliminated when possible—they are costly, fatiguing, and unsafe. Continuous motions are curved motions and are more natural than straight-line motions. Principle 3: Location of Parts and Tools 1. Have a fixed location for everything. Place everything as close to the point of use as possible. Principle 4: Fixtures and jigs are designed to hold parts.
Foot-operated control devices can be designed to activate equipment. Conveyors or powered round tables can move parts. Fixtures can be electric, air, hydraulic, and manually activated. Principle 5: Use Gravity Gravity is free power. Use it! Gravity can move parts closer to the operator by putting an incline in the bottom of parts hoppers.
Gravity can also be used to remove finished parts from the workstation by using chutes or slides. Principle 6: Operator Safety and Health Considerations Keep safety hazards in mind and anticipate emergency action requirements while designing the workstation. Design the workstation to eliminate straining the neck to look at things, to eliminate stooping or bending, to eliminate turning sideways or turning around, and to eliminate excessive reaches and moves.
Adequate lighting may not be available in the normal lighting of a manufacturing department, so additional lighting should be added—much like a desk lamp. Operator space should be 3 3 3 feet, which is normal unless the workstation is wider.
Xstations Square Feet Strip shear 12 X 8. Chapter 8 Auxiliary Services Requirement Space Objectives In this chapter the need for the auxiliary or support services in a manufacturing facility is introduced and space determinations for these departments are discussed.
Manufacturing departments need support services, and these services need space. Receiving and shipping 2. Storage 3. Warehousing 4. Maintenance and tool room 5.
The receiving department is the start of the material flow, whereas the shipping department is the end of the material flow. Common equipment 2. Common personnel 3. Improved space utilization 4. Reduced facility cost. The disadvantages of centralized shipping and receiving are space congestion and material flow.
It would be a costly mistake to ship out some of the newly received parts. Multiple receiving locations is also a possibility. This is known as less than truck load quantities LTL.
The Functions of a Receiving Department The functions of a receiving department are: To assist in locating a trailer at the receiving dock door 2. To assist in the unloading of the material 3.
To record the receipt of the number of containers 4. To open, separate, inspect, and count the material being received 5. To develop an overage, shortage, or damage reports as needed 6. To develop a receiving report 7. To send material to raw material stores or straight to production if needed.
Record receipt. When material is unloaded, it is checked in on a log. This log is often called a Bates log. Damage suffered in shipment and quality problems are also reported on this form. Receiving reports. The receiving report is the notice to the rest of our company that a product has been received and contains the following information: Send to stores or production. A significant portion of the problems associated with these manual operations of identification, counting, sorting, routing, and inventory management, and the resulting human errors can be alleviated through the use of automatic identification and data capture AIDC technologies.
Spotting trailers 6. Facilities Required for Receiving Departments Dock doors. Creating bills of lading. Space Requirements for the Receiving Department 1 Visualization of the receiving job based on the number of finished products produced per day and the weight of those units.
Packaging finished goods for shipping 2. Outside areas. It is based on the following data: Collecting orders for shipping stage 5. Roadways are 11 feet one way or 22 feet for two-way traffic. Usually square feet per clerk are necessary. Space considerations should be given to the following: Bates logs. Trailer parking alone can take up 65 feet out from the plant wall. The number of dock doors needed is dependent on the arrival rate at peak time. Weighing each container 4. Aisles leading from the trailers into the plant must be sized for the material handling equipment.
Dock plates. These tools are used to bridge the gap between the floors of buildings and the floors of trailers so that material can be moved on and off the trailer easily. The Functions of a Shipping Department 1. Loading trailers 7.
Space for a desk. Addressing cartons or containers 3. Maneuvering space is the space between the road and parking area and is usually about 45 feet. Bills of lading. A space of 8 feet times 40 feet times 60 percent equals square feet for staging. Proper work height. Space for shipping must include areas for packaging. The bill of lading lists every order and the weight of that product. Packaging workstation design must also consider the principles of motion economy.
Two thousand toolboxes per day times 5 pounds per toolbox equals Packaging finished goods for shipping. This process varies with the product and the kind of company. Only 60 percent. How many cubic feet do 2. To provide for the safekeeping of the inventory including. To provide immediate access to everything selectivity 3. Adjust or eliminate receiving. JIT will affect the plant layout in many ways: Eliminate incoming quality control checks.
The goals of any stores department should be: There are many different types: To maximize the use of the cubic space 2. Eliminate or greatly reduce stores area requirements. The concept of aisle feet is very useful. In our example: State required quantity divided by 2 allow room for average inventory. Shelves are 3 cubic feet each 1 X 1 X 3 feet.
Laying out the storage area Step 1. A pallet is 4 X 4 X 4 feet high or 64 cubic feet per unit load. Aisle feet will help to determine the space needed. How many aisle feet of pallet racks do we need?
For each part. Place aisle feet of shelving serviced by 4-foot aisles. To store 1. Calculate cubic feet required. Determine the number of storage units required for each part. Storage facilities requirement spreadsheet. List all the raw materials and buyout parts.
Start with a wall. Determine number of shelves or racks needed Example: Place aisle feet of pallet rack with 8-foot service aisles. Every part must be measured for cubic size. Determine the linear feet of space needed to store the racks. Fixed locations 2. To safekeep the finished product 2. Seasonality could require us to stockpile our finished product for months in order to meet market demands. To prepare customer orders for shipment.
To maintain some stock of every product sold by our company 3. Warehouse Design Criteria Two requirements may affect the layout of a warehouse: As in the storeroom. Provide a warehouse to store a day supply of toolboxes at the rate of 2.
The size of the parking lot is directly proportional to the number of employees. Break areas and lounges The location and quality of these services affect the efficiency and productivity of our employees. Parking lots 2. Office employee parking 3. Drinking fountains 8. Recreation areas 7. Locker room 4. Visitor parking Convenience and the efficient use of space are very important considerations when determining the parking lot design.
Employees space requirements for doing work and personal needs are discussed. Aisles 9. Toilets 5.
Manufacturing employee parking 2. Employee services include. Medical services Cafeteria 6. Chapter 9 Employee Services—Space Requirements Objectives In this chapter the students are sensitized to the needs of the employees as relate to facilities planning.
Employee entrance 3. The entrances to the plant will determine where the parking lots are located. Employees 1. As the angle. The wider the parking spots to 10 feet are. Providing special and properly designed parking spaces and creating a barrier-free environment in all aspects of the facility in a matter of law. Local building codes often dictate the number and location of handicapped spots. As the width of the parking spots increases. The facilities planner must comply with the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act ADA of in all aspects of planning and design.
The size and shape of the available space may be the deciding factor. As a general rule of thumb. Local building codes often dictate parking spot size. The size depends on the number of persons using the door at any given time. About one personnel person per employees and one security person per employees are normal.
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