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INCLUDES. COLORED. PENCILI. Lee Hammond's big bask of. DRAWING. Fast and easy. TECHNIQUES for drawing people, animals, flowers and nature. Lee Hammond and her dog Penny in her studio in Overland Park, Kansas. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Hammond, Lee Paint realistic . BIG BOOK OF PC/SOFTWARE Bend Windows to your will! This collection of clever hacks and workarounds lets you modify you.


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to draw, and there are many techniques and attitudes for us to.. clutch pencil. Drawing in soft The Comp Lee Hammond's All New Big Book of Drawing. WINDBREAKER. 14" × 17" (36cm × 43cm). Graphite on smooth bristol. From How to Draw Lifelike Portraits from Photographs by Lee Hammond. Polly “Lee” Hammond is an illustrator and art instructor now living in Portland, Oregon. She specializes in portrait drawing, but practices, teaches and enjoys all .

This very soft hair creates smooth blends. Each area of the painting was created with a unique approach to achieve its varied textures and surfaces. You must first apply a layer of color. Mix Titanium White, Cadmium Yellow Medium and a tiny touch of Prussian Blue to create a green; apply this color around the pupil with a no. The Way Eyes Work This example shows how shiny and colorful cat eyes can appear. It will begin to look more realistic and colorful. Overlap the light on the dark colors to create the illusion of long fur.

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Two books in one. The first half is a comprehensive course on using pencils to capture shape, form and likeness. The second half explores adding color using colored pencils 88 step-by-step projects. You will learn to draw everything with this book! Starting with a simple sphere and working up to sea shells, sunsets, flowers, birds, horses, clothing, people—and so much more! A lifetime of know-how! Lee covers it all—from big picture concepts selecting tools, shading techniques, making sense of perspective down to techniques for creating the look of feathers, capturing skin tones, and making surfaces look shiny or transparent.

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Hammond pdf lee

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Once you have registered, you will receive a confirmation email to complete your account process. Manufactured in China. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means including information storage and retrieval systems without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages in a review. First Edition.

Other fine North Light Books are available from your local bookstore, art supply store or direct from the publisher. Box , S. Includes index. Animals in art. Acrylic painting--Technique. H34 Lee was raised and educated in Lincoln, Nebraska, but established her career in illustration and teaching in Kansas City.

Although she has lived all over the country, she will always consider the Kansas City area home. She currently lives in Overland Park, Kansas, with her family. Lee has been an author with North Light Books since Fine art and limited-edition prints of her work will also be offered soon. Acknowledgments Foreword This is my third book on acrylic painting techniques.

Capturing animals in artwork can be a wonderful experience, and painting them in acrylic is fun and exciting. North Light Books has been my family for more than a decade now. I look forward to many more years with them. I could never fully express my gratitude for all they have done for me as an artist. Thank you, Mary Burzlaff, for helping me once again to create an exciting new book.

It would be impossible without your wonderful editorial skill. A special thank you to Dustin Weant for helping me with the photography in my books. There are many books about painting, and there are many books on how to draw or paint animals. So what makes this book different from all of the others? If there were only one artistic approach to things, we would need only one book from which to learn.

But life and art is not that simple. The beauty of this book is that you will learn how to draw and paint. The lessons and examples in this book demonstrate my personal method for painting and capturing accurate shapes in my work. Drawing is an important foundation for painting.

However, even if you do not have a lot of drawing experience, the step-by-step approach to the projects in this book will guide you. The grid method will train you to see shapes accurately, allowing you to make your animal paintings look realistic. Take your time, and experiment. Acrylic is a very forgiving medium. Relax and enjoy the process, and have a wonderful time with your new adventure. Acrylic is a wonderful medium.

The more you use it, the more you will love it! Thank you also for providing me with many of the awesome photos I used for this book. This book is also dedicated to all of my fans and students. Without you, my career as an artist would not exist. I truly believe that art is wonderful therapy. Their happiness is obvious, and I cannot help but believe that this is a living testimonial to the world becoming a better place.

Thank you for your continued support and loyalty. You are more than appreciated; you are inspirational! Lee shows you basic brushwork, shading and drawing methods. Learn how to observe shape, color and texture in each animal. Become familiar with cat facial structure and learn to replicate the intensity of their stares.

These demonstrations will give you the necessary experience to create amazing dog portraits. Conclusion Index Lee shows you how to capture the horse as well as other fun farm animals in your paintings. Learn how to paint cute squirrels, rabbits and woodchucks in their natural surroundings. I love to paint! This is my third book about acrylic painting. The more I write about it, the more I come to love the medium. Acrylic painting is extremely versatile and user-friendly.

As an art instructor, I analyzed my techniques to see how my application differs when painting instead of drawing. This book is a collection of colorful projects designed to give you the opportunity to learn how to paint various animals with acrylics.

Use the grid method to help with the preliminary sketches. This technique is an easy way to obtain accuracy in your drawings. When I create my books, I often use the illustrations I am working on as demonstrations in my art classes. My students watch me work and ask questions, which I use to guide me as I write.

Most of the projects have three or four steps to follow. Although many of the projects may look complex, painting with acrylic is all about layers. If you look closely, you will see the layers of colors. Although Petey is a black dog, his coat reflects the colors of his surroundings. You can see the blue and green tones on his back. Reflective color is an important feature in realistic artwork.

You start with a basic foundation of color and then add layer after layer. The following examples will explain this concept in more detail.

This stage involves thinned paint with a consistency more like watercolor, applied loosely. All paintings go through the awkward stage. I always eagerly await the publication of every one of her new books. They have simply changed my life and my art.

Perhaps you are already familiar with her other books and her awesome techniques for graphite and colored pencil. In this book, you will learn more about her painting approach, and you will be hooked too!

You are in for a wonderful art experience. It was such a thrill to see all of the beautiful work she has created over the years as well as some of the illustrations from her many books up close. During the visit, I watched Lee work on many of the paintings for this book—what an informative treat that was! It was then that I awakened to one of my problems with art: Now I realize that, to bring my work to the level I desire, I have to patiently work through this awkward stage.

To all of my fellow students, I guarantee that you can draw and paint too! All you need to add is the desire, the time and, more importantly, the patience to bring your work to a professional state. This painting of a cute little dog looks unfinished. The paint is more like watercolor at this stage, and the canvas shows through.

By thickening the paint and adding the details one layer on top of another, I have made this painting look more realistic.

Everything pulls together in the final stages. The effort is definitely worth it. When painting with acrylics, I keep things to a minimum.

Lee Hammond's Big Book of Drawing

I use very few colors on my palette and only a few brushes. This makes me feel more relaxed and organized. When not in use, your tackle box will act as your storage unit.

Start-Up Kit Below is a list of essentials you should have on hand to get started on the painting projects in this book. Happy painting! I keep things to a minimum. Acrylic paints are made of dry pigment in a liquid polymer binder, which is a form of acrylic plastic. Acrylics are water-based, so they do not require paint thinners as oil paints do, though they can be diluted with water while painting.

Because of this quality, it can be used on a variety of surfaces. It is permanent, so items painted with it are washable. Student-grade paints and those in squeeze bottles generally have a lower concentration of pigment. The pigment is still high quality; there is just a little less of it. Many student-grade paints are so good that professionals use them as well. Professional-grade paints have a higher concentration of pigment.

They are usually a bit thicker than student-grade paints and their colors may seem deeper and more vivid. I prefer using paint from a jar rather than from a tube or bottle. Acrylic paint dries quickly, so if I have some uncontaminated color left over on my palette, I return it to the jar to avoid waste. This is not possible with paint from a tube or bottle.

I also like jars because I can mix my own custom colors for a painting and store them in separate jars. This is helpful if you are working on a large project and need to keep your colors consistent. Tubes, Jars or Bottles? I prefer to use acrylics that come in jars, so I can reuse leftover paint. I can also mix special colors for specific projects, and place those colors in empty jars.

Some colors cover surfaces better than others, appearing more opaque, while some will be more transparent. Some colors completely cover the canvas, while others seem streaky. This will give you a better understand- ing of how each color on your palette behaves.

Certain colors are more prone to fading over time than others. Most brands have a permanency rating on the package to let you know what to expect.

You can see this most often with yellows and certain reds. Try to avoid fugitive colors. Can you see the difference between this and Alizarin Crimson? This red is dark but transparent in nature. It has a streaky appearance, letting some of the canvas show through. By adding a touch of Titanium White to Prussian Blue, you can create an opaque version.

Ultraviolet rays in sunlight are the primary cause of fading. Good-quality paint brands will include some toxic colors. Some of the natural pigments that produce vivid colors are toxic, such as the cadmium pigments and some blues. Never swallow or inhale these colors. Certain colors should never be applied by spraying; check the label. Thinning Acrylics With Water Diluting acrylic paint with water makes it more transparent.

This is useful for the beginning stages of a painting, when you are establishing the basic pattern of colors. Thinned acrylics are often used to create a look very similar to that of watercolor paints.

The difference is that acrylic paint is waterproof when it dries. You can add more color without pulling up previous layers. Regular watercolor will rehydrate when wet paint is applied on top of it, usually muddying the colors. It looks very underdeveloped, but it gives me a good foundation to work on. The colors of the entire painting, including the background, are established first. The details come later. While this painting of a betta fish is pretty, it looks unfinished.

Finish With Purer Pigment Use undiluted paint or reduce the amount of water you mix with the paint for the finishing details of your painting.

The pigment will be much more opaque. The thicker paint will cover up the first layer. The painting now looks more realistic.

Good brush cleaning and care see page 13 are essential to making brushes last. Naturalhair brushes can be quite pricey. However, if cleaned properly, they will last longer than synthetic ones. Below is a list of the different brush shapes and the best uses for each. Its wide shape will cover a large area. A softer sable or synthetic bristle is good for smooth blending with less noticeable brush marks.

Use round brushes for details and smaller areas. A small soft round can be used in place of a liner brush for creating long straight or curved lines. This brush shape is my personal favorite. Brushes come in a variety of bristle types. Stiff bristle: These brushes are made from boar bristle, ox hair, horsehair or other coarse animal hairs.

These brushes are made from the tail hair of the male kolinsky sable, which is found in Russia. This very soft hair creates smooth blends. The scarcity of the kolinsky makes these brushes expensive, but they are worth it! Squirrel hair: These soft brushes are a bit fuller than sable brushes.

They are often used for watercolor because they hold a lot of moisture. Camel hair: This is another soft hair that is used frequently for both acrylic and watercolor brushes.

Most synthetic bristles are nylon. They can be a more affordable substitute for natural-hair brushes, but paint is very hard on them.

They tend to lose their shape and point faster than natural-hair brushes. From top to bottom: Bottom Set: You can create tiny lines and crisp edges with a liner. Brush Maintenance Acrylic paint is hard on brushes. Remember, once acrylic paint dries, it is waterproof and almost impossible to remove. If paint dries there, it can make the bristles break off or force them in unnatural directions. A brush left to dry with acrylic paint in it is as good as thrown away.

Follow these pointers to keep your brushes like new for as long as possible: See the sidebar for my favorite cleaning procedure. Some paint colors stain synthetic bristles. This staining is permanent, but normal and harmless.

This can bend the bristles permanently. It can also loosen the ferrule, causing the bristles to fall out. Before throwing a brush away, I always try to rescue it with the soap first. A good paintbrush will have a very long life if taken care of properly. How to Clean Your Brushes 1 Swish the brush in a jar of clean water to loosen any remaining paint.

At this point, you will notice some paint color leaving the brush. Allow the paste to dry on the brush. This keeps the bristles going the way they are intended and prevents them from drying out and fraying.

When you are ready to use the brush again, simply rinse the soap off with water. Long or Short Brushes? You will see brushes with both short handles and long. Short handles are more for painting while sitting, and working on small details. This depends on your preference and what kind of painting you are doing. For our purposes in this book, I will concentrate on surfaces normally used for paintings. Pre-stretched canvas can be regular cotton duck, which is excellent for most work; extrasmooth cotton, often used for portrait work; or linen, which also is smooth.

These are metal brackets that snap over the wooden stretcher frames and grip the inside edge of the frame with sharp teeth. Canvas panels 2 consist of canvas on cardboard backings. They are more rigid than stretched canvas, and the finished piece can be matted and framed. Canvas sheets 3 also can be matted and framed. They are found in single sheets, packages and pads.

They are a good alternative to pre-stretched canvas if you would prefer something less expensive. A canvas panel is very rigid and will not give you the bouncy feel of painting on stretched canvas.

With canvas panels, unlike pre-stretched canvas, you have the option of framing with a mat. A colored mat can enhance the appearance of framed artwork.

A canvas panel also allows you to protect your painting with glass. Another alternative is canvas sheets. Others are processed papers with a canvas texture and a coating that resembles gesso. Both kinds can be purchased individually, in packages or in pads. With canvas sheets, as with canvas panels, framing can be creative. Sheets are lightweight and easy to mat and frame. For the art in this book, I used mostly canvas sheets. Palettes and Other Tools The last few items to gather to make your painting experience more organized and pleasurable are not expensive, and usually can be found around the house.

Because acrylic paint is a form of plastic, dried acrylic can be peeled or soaked from a plastic palette. Use your creativity to make do with whatever you have on hand. Keep plenty of these handy. Keep one near your palette to wipe excess paint from your brush. You also need one to wipe excess water from your brush. Paper towels work too, but they can leave lint and debris.

Collect jars, cans and plastic containers to use as storage for brushes or as water containers as you work. Spray bottle: Use a spray bottle to mist your paints to prevent them from drying out as you work.

Palette knife: Use a palette knife to transfer acrylic paint from a jar to the palette and vice versa , and to mix the paint on the palette. Sometimes acrylic paint dries inside the cap of a tube of paint another reason I prefer jars. To loosen the paint, run the cap under very hot water. Drafting tape: If you use canvas sheets, tape them to a backing board as you work.

Palette Choices Additional Materials Palettes come in many varieties. It is easy to make your own with plates, egg cartons or plastic containers. Be creative! Look around your house for handy items such as jars, plates, plastic trays, wet wipes and rags. Artists tell a lot about themselves by the colors they choose. But understanding what color to use is much more than just experimenting or choosing colors because you like them.

Colors react to each other, and placing certain colors together can make quite a statement. Bright, Bold Acrylic Colors Acrylic paint is wonderful for creating bright, bold colors. It also shows how vibrant acrylic color can be. Its bright pigments are fun to experiment with.

Here are the basic color relationships to know. Primary colors: The primary colors are red, yellow and blue. All other colors are created from these three. Look at the color wheel and see how they form a triangle if you connect them with lines. Secondary colors: Each secondary color is created by mixing two primaries together. Blue and yellow make green; red and blue make violet; and red and yellow make orange. Tertiary colors: Tertiary colors are created by mixing a primary color with the color next to it on the color wheel.

For instance, mixing red and violet produces red-violet. Mixing blue with green makes blue-green, and mixing yellow with orange gives you yellow-orange. Complementary colors: Any two colors opposite each other on the color wheel are called complementary.

Pdf lee hammond

Red and green, for example, are complements. The painting on the facing page is an example of a complementary color scheme. The red and green contrast beautifully, each color making the other one really stand out. Hue simply means the name of a color. Red, blue and yellow are all hues. Intensity means how bright or dull a color is.

Cadmium Yellow, for instance, is bright and high intensity. Mixing Cadmium Yellow with its complement, violet, creates a low-intensity version of yellow. Colors are either warm or cool.

Warm colors include red, yellow, orange and any combination of these. When used in a painting, warm colors appear to come forward. Cool colors include blue, green, violet and all of their combinations. In a painting, cool colors will seem to recede. Often, there are warm and cool versions of the same hue. While both are in the red family, Cadmium Red is warm, with an orangey look, and Alizarin Crimson is cooler, because it leans toward the violet family.

Value means the lightness or darkness of a color. Lightening a color either with white or by diluting it with water produces a tint. Deepening a color by mixing it with a darker color produces a shade. Using tints and shades together creates value contrast. The Color Wheel The color wheel is a valuable tool for learning color theory. Red, yellow and blue are the primary colors; orange, green and violet are the secondaries. The rest are called tertiaries. For practice, make a color wheel of your own.

I love nothing more than a set of art supplies with a hundred different colors to choose from. Mixing the colors you need from just a few pigments is much more rewarding, educational and economical.

Mixing a palette color with black produces a shade. You can achieve green with yellow and blue, or with yellow and black. Adding white to these mixes will give you lavender, orchid, mauve and so on. Adding Titanium White to these colors will give you coral, peach, melon and so on. Earth Tones Earth tones can be created by adding different colors to Burnt Umber.

All of these colors can be turned into a pastel by adding Titanium White. These swatches show the earth tone mix top swatch , and what it looks like with white added bottom swatch. The wide variety of colors and hair types of the myriad animals in the world can be mind-boggling.

Some have very short hairs that are barely discernible. Some have very long hair, and some have a combination of the two consider a horse, with its short hair and long mane and tail. When painting an animal from a reference photo, study your picture carefully to discern how the light and shadows and layers of fur change the color.

The following paint swatches will give you some of the most common hair tones and the formulas for creating them.

Lee Hammond's All New Big Book of Drawing eBook

It is impossible to create a swatch for every color seen in nature. These swatches merely represent a few of the hues often seen in the animal kingdom. Create it with Titanium White and Burnt Umber. The value scale shows the range of tones that can be created with this simple color mixture.

Add a touch of Cadmium Red Medium to the brown mixture to create this reddish hue. Look at the wide variety of tones in the value scale.

Add more Titanium White to make it paler or more Burnt Umber to make it deeper.

The Cadmium Red Medium makes it much warmer. These two swatches show cool and warm variations of black. See page 24 for an example of how these colors are used. This color is similar to the original brown mixture, but it has a hint of Cadmium Yellow Medium.

Black and yellow make olive green, so the touch of Cadmium Yellow Medium gives the color a bronze hue. This value scale gives you a wide range of tones. The greenish color is easy to see. Hair Color, White Tones White fur is never pure white. It is a combination of white and hints of other colors. These swatches show both cool and warm variations. The first is made with a hint of Ivory Black to create gray tones. The second is made with a hint of Burnt Umber for a tan tint. See page 23 for an example of how these colors are used.

Color Schemes The right color scheme is one that represents the subject yet also adds interest for the viewer. Experiment with color to achieve the exact feel you want your painting to have. Orange and Blue This painting of my cat Burnie is an example of using complements. The orange colors in his fur are enhanced by the blue tones in the background. Remember the color wheel when creating your paintings, and allow the colors to work together for the best impact.

When complements are used near each other, they contrast with and intensify each other. When complementary colors are mixed, they gray each other down. You can use this information to darken a color without killing it. When darkening a color to paint shadows, you may instinctively reach for black. But black is a neutral color and will produce odd results in mixtures. Instead, darken a light color with its complement. When complements are used together in a painting, each helps the other stand out, as seen in the three examples on this page.

By mixing the complementary colors to create tones, the colors are deepened but not ruined. The warm color will come forward, and the cool color will recede. Red and Green A red color scheme can be made more vibrant by using green in the background. Adding green to the red paint gave me a good color to use in the shadow areas. Yellow and Violet The warm yellow tones in the rat are intensified by the violet colors in the background and shadow areas. The warm yellow tones seem to come forward, while the yellow mixed with the cool violet makes the shadow areas recede.

Working monochromatically is a good way for a new student to begin painting. The Drama of Black and White A monochromatic painting can look very dramatic, like this painting of a cat. He is extremely white in color, but, when he is lying out in the yard, the colors of his surroundings bounce off his white coat. You can see the blue of the sky, the green of the grass and some violet.

All of these reflected colors help make the painting more realistic.

Pdf lee hammond

Imagine what it would have looked like had I just used black for the shadow areas. It would have looked dull and inconsistent with the green grass surrounding the cat. You can clearly see the blue and aqua colors of the background reflecting off his sleek coat, giving it a beautiful colorful glow. The brown tones of the ledge he is resting on bounce up onto his side and front leg. Always study your reference photo for this type of color transfer on your subject.

As with anything else, the best teacher is experience—trial and error. This chapter will show you how to grab a brush, dip it in the paint and experiment. In no time you should feel comfortable enough to do the projects to come. Remember, acrylics are highly forgiving. Finally, you will see how the grid method of drawing will enable you to draw any subject. Practice Makes Perfect Practice holding each type of paint brush and learn the type of stroke it is designed for.

Practice is essential and will give you the confidence you need to move on to a finished piece of art. The colors seen here are Prussian Blue and Titanium White.

Try it again with different colors. A dab is a good-sized dip into the darker paint, which will usually cover the tip of the brush. A touch is a gentle dip of the corner of the bristles, picking up a slight amount. Always start mixes with the lighter pigment. Hold the brush flat against the canvas and evenly distribute the paint with long, sweeping strokes. Quickly go back and forth until the paint covers the canvas.

If your paint feels stiff and hard to move, dip just the tip of the brush in the water and mix the paint until it is creamier. I like to make my paint the consistency of thick hand lotion.

Stroke back and forth to blend the two blues as evenly as possible. Use a clean, dry flat to further blend and soften. Blending takes practice.

Scrub the paint in a circular fashion to get the swirled look often seen in photographs. The second is a smooth, blended approach, which gives the canvas complete, even coverage. The third is created with a scrubbing motion and fairly dry paint. This dry-brush approach creates the appearance of texture. A filbert can be used to apply a transparent layer of diluted paint.

This is an example of a smooth application that completely covers the canvas. The dry-brush application creates texture. A filbert brush makes filling in an animal shape much easier. They come in a variety of sizes and are essential for painting hair and fur.

They are also good for making small dots for highlights and textures. I use soft synthetics or sable brushes for these techniques. Use the tips of round and liner brushes. Here are some hints to guide you in using liner and round brushes. Note A small round brush, such as a no.

It is important to use thin paint and quick strokes or you will end up with lines like these. They are too harsh and even and do not look like fur. Use soft sable or synthetic brushes for these exercises. Dilute your paint until it has the consistency of thick ink.

It needs to be fluid but not transparent. Paint in the hair strands with quick strokes, lifting the brush up slightly as you go. This will make the line taper at the end, creating more natural-looking hair strands.

Never apply fur strokes directly to the white of the canvas. You must first apply a layer of color. The examples on this page are monochromatic in black and white. I applied a medium gray tone to the canvas first and then applied the brushstrokes to create fur.

The length of your brushstroke will represent the length of the hair. Many quick, overlapping strokes will create the illusion of layers. Remember to keep your paint fluid by adding a few drops of water as you work. This time you will be using very dry paint with a technique called drybrushing.

You can also drybrush to add a thin layer of color to an already painted area to subtly change the look. I use this technique a lot in animal paintings to add a hint of color or the glisten of a highlight to the outer surface of the fur.

Their shapes work well for both scrubbing and drybrushing. Once the shape and foundation of the animal are painted, I use a scrubbing motion to drybrush in the small details of color and tone. Wipe it back and forth on the palette to remove any excess, then lightly scrub the color onto the painting surface with short strokes. Because there is barely any paint on the brush, the paint will fade into what is already there.

Each area of the painting was created with a unique approach to achieve its varied textures and surfaces. Some surfaces are smooth, while some are richly textured. This painting is a good example of what you can expect when painting animals.

For this painting, I had to create smooth areas as well as more textured areas to replicate short and long hair. Contrasts in textures make more interesting paintings.

The lighting of this piece creates a sense of mystique. I seem to migrate toward extreme contrasts. The black background gives this piece dramatic intensity, making the face of the chimpanzee seem to rise out of the darkness. The value contrast causes the warm brown tones of the face and fur to glow. Identifying Brushes and Strokes This painting has a lot of interesting qualities due to its range of contrasting textures.

Identify the type of brush and stroke used in each area. Facial contours and fingers: Flat brush, drybrushing. Tops of the hands: Flat brush, scrubbing. Small round or liner brush, quick strokes.

Face and Fur: Filbert brush, smooth fill-in technique. So why is understanding the sphere so important when painting animals? This is the darkest tone on your drawing.

It is always opposite the light source. In the case of the sphere, it is underneath, where the sphere meets the table. This area is devoid of light because, as the sphere protrudes, it blocks light and casts a shadow.

This dark portion is not at the very edge of the object. It is opposite the light source where the sphere curves away from you. This is a medium value. This is a light tone. This is the lightest area on the object, where the light is hitting the sphere at full strength. It has a monochromatic color scheme. Compare this bunny to the sphere and you can see the similarities. Commit the five elements of shading to memory. They are essential to realistic painting. Value Scale I typically use a value scale like this to create my paintings.

Value 1 represents the lightest value and value 5 represents the darkest. Notice how the value scale with the brown tones on page 31 compares with the gray tones here. It is important to make the depth of tone for each swatch the same for both scales.

For example, the value 3 brown tone should be the same value, or darkness, as the value 3 gray. If the brown scale were copied on a black-and-white photocopier, it should look the same as the scale on this page.

Mix a very small amount of Titanium White with Ivory Black until you match the dark gray of value 4. When you are happy with your color, take some of the dark gray, and mix a little more Titanium White into that to create the halftone value 3. Add some more white to that to create the light gray value 2.

Value 1 is pure Titanium White. Create a border box around the sphere with a ruler, then draw a horizontal line behind the sphere. This will represent a tabletop, and give the illusion of a background area. This brush is pointy so it can get into the corner and go around the curved surface easily.

This deep gray will give you a foundation to build the rest of the painting on. To paint the tabletop, begin with the darkest area first. In this case, it is under the sphere in the cast shadow. Use the Ivory Black full strength 5 on the value scale to create the cast shadow over the dark gray. Use the same no. Switch to the no. This should match 3 on the value scale. Be sure to completely fill in the sphere so that there is no canvas showing through. The filbert will blend the tones together.

Make sure the shadow is parallel to the edge of the sphere, allowing the two colors to blend. Allow the dark gray to show along the edge of the sphere, creating the reflected light. While the paint is still wet, add some of the medium gray mixture above the dark gray. Blend the two using long rounded strokes that follow the contours of the sphere to create the halftone area.

Continue blending until the tonal transitions are smooth. To make the light areas stand out, apply some of the medium gray behind the sphere to create the background.

The light edge of the sphere contrasts against it.

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This is not as easy as it looks, so please do not get frustrated. Remember, you can go over things as many times as you want. I often add some paint, softly reblending it into the paint that is already there. I can spend a lot of time trying to get it just right. This is all part of the challenge.

For spheres in color, the main color of your sphere is a 3 on the value scale. Mix the lighter values 1 and 2 by adding Titanium White. Mix the darker values 4 and 5 by adding the complement of the main color. As you learned on page 21, complements produce a pleasing grayed-down color, perfect for painting shadows. Using complementary colors can help intensify other colors in your painting. For more on complements, see page Look at the line drawing below; notice how the body of the cat is made up of many spheres.

The process for painting this cat is similar to painting a sphere. It just takes a lot more time and layers to paint an animal, due to the more complex shapes.

Practice is essential to learning a new skill. Try to match the colors at right as closely as possible. Try various colors by altering the amount of pigment you use. Color experimentation is an important part of the painting process. With a no. Fill in the pupils with Ivory Black. Outline the eyes with Burnt Umber. Add more of the Burnt Umber to this mixture, and outline the nose.

This will help make the reflected light stand out. Use a no. If it becomes too pink, add more of the Cadmium Yellow Medium. This final process is not quick.

Add light and dark colors until you have built the form. This chinchilla is one of my favorite examples. The overall shape is easy to draw freehand. It is similar to building a snowman, stacking one sphere on top of another.

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The painting process is a bit more complex in this project. The textures in the fur are more visible, and the pose is more complicated due to the hands and feet. Once you complete this project you will be ready to move on to more complicated subject matter. How do you go from drawing simple shapes such as these to more complex subjects with more detail?

The following pages will explain my personal approach to drawing accurately. Add a touch of Burnt Umber. Use the no. Fill in the white area of the chinchilla with the no. Vary your colors by adding more Ivory Black and Titanium White for contrast. Fill the hands in with the no. With the no.

I take my own reference photos to use in creating artwork. To accurately depict what I want to paint, I use the grid method to transfer shapes accurately from the photo to the canvas. If you have many small details to capture, you can place smaller squares over your photo. The squares can be the same size, larger or smaller, but the grid on your canvas must have the same number of rows and columns as the one on the reference photo.

This makes it easy to get the shapes right. The Grid Method of Drawing Have a copy shop make acetate overlays of your grid in various sizes. Then it is easy to take whatever size grid you need and tape it over any photo you want to paint. You can even number the individual boxes to help you keep track as you draw.

Puzzle Pieces When using the grid method, remember this important idea: Everything you draw or paint should be viewed as a puzzle. All the pieces of the puzzle are nothing more than patterns of interlocking shapes of light and dark. When you are happy with the outline, use an eraser to remove the grid lines.

For now, practice the drawing part, then put it aside. Look only at the shapes in one box at a time.