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English grammar PDF. Download the English grammar book on PDF for free. Download free pdf english books from English grammar pdf and word doc at EasyPaceLearning. Espresso English has over fun, fast online English lessons English lessons every week by e-mail, as well as the Free English Grammar E-Book Level 1.


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English Grammar Lessons. Feel free to download, re-use, or share the following English grammar lessons with your friends, colleagues, or students. To view the. The latter chapters then address specific aspects of the English language . This book attempts to describe some of the basic grammatical. 4 Questions and answers. 5 Leaving out and replacing words. 6 Information and emphasis. 7 Spoken English and written English. Verb forms.

Elicit or state reasons for article choice as issues come up. Check that students know the word lion maybe showr a photo of one. Have you got any money on you? The man I met at the cafe is going to phone me tonight. In the sentence She gives the man some cash the direct object is some cash - the thing immediately affected by the action of giving.

Although widely taught at lower levels, they may be classified under other headings eg time expressions. A word or words that help us understand the relationships between things in terms of place, movement, time or ideas. For example, many nouns, verbs and adjectives have a strong link to a specific preposition. This category includes: Conjunctions can work as part of a pair neither red nor white wine, both Jurgen and me.

She gave him a karate chop to the neck. She is the subject because she did the action. A karate chop is the direct object because it is the thing given.

Him is the indirect object because he was affected by the karate chop. Diphthongs A diphthong is the result o f a glide from one vowel sound to another within a single syllable. Consonants In the production o f a consonant sound, the air flow is restricted by closure or partial closure, which may result in friction. Consonants can be voiced or voiceless. Consonant sounds you can recognise from the normal alphabet: Consonant sounds that have special symbols: Voiced consonants are: A voiceless consonant is one made without the voice-box vibration.

Unvoiced consonants are: Contraction A reduced, combined form o f a sequence o f two function words, represented by a spelling with an apostrophe: Uncontracted form A possible contraction wThich is nevertheless pronounced and written as two separate words: Strong form W hen a word we normally pronounce with a weak form is said with its rarer full pronunciation, often for emphasis: Check that students know w7hat your drawing shows!

Add in Federico, the farmer and a visitor, Isabella. Write a year from the past at the top of the board. Explain that Federico has been very successful. Practice If you are teaching at very low levels, you will need to adjust your classroom language to suit the level. Many of these ideas can be introduced by gesturing rather than giving instructions. Counting Bring a number of different toys, objects and pictures into the room - including more than one of many items.

Now7tell me about some numbers in your home. O n four large pieces o f paper w rite the follow ing in big, clear letters: Place the four signs at different places on the walls of the room around the open space. The signs should not be too close to each other - but they should all be easily accessible for all students no chairs or tables in the way.

Choose some singular nouns. When you say a noun, every student must decide individually how the plural is made - and move to stand in front of the correct sign. Students are allowed to change their minds wThen they see w7here other students are going! When everyone has made their final decision and stopped moving, announce the real answer - and award one point a token to each student in the right place.

Gather everyone back in the middle again - and go on to the next noun. How many people are in the room? One Is there one person in the room? More than one Is there one person in the room? X womens X peoples Of course, students will have heard words such as women's and people's and may have wrongly assumed them to be plurals rather than possessives.

X The children was. Help them by pointing out that words like cooks and walks are one syllable but they are using two. Teaching tip: However, while communicative practice is essential, there are some things that are probably best learnt by fairly traditional techniques involving simple input, memorisation, reminders and recall.

Plurals is one area where some memory practice helping students to know what the plural of child is can be helpful - alongside chances to actually use language with lots of singulars and plurals in realistic tasks, dialogues and situations. These include space, food, glass, cake, sauce, sugar, light, Coke, bread, curry, class, yoghurt, lamb, wine, business, perfume, football, glue, cheese, deodorant, juice, paint, salad, whisky.

Sometimes, the countable and uncountable nouns have very different meanings. Explain that she is going to the supermarket. Point at the two boxes on the board and ask students wrhat wrord they think should go in the space. When they agree, draw an icon representing rice into the some column. She needs to get some petrol.

In the shop she asks for some information about special offers. Explain briefly about countable and uncountables. In English it is possible to count some nouns. Others cannot be counted. Uncountable nouns have no plural form. You always use a singular verb with uncountable nouns There is some snow on the upper slopes. Check if students can correctly recall the sentences about Anna.

Practice Countable and uncountable nouns are often introduced alongside a focus on some and any. What do they need to think about example uncountable nouns: T ired h ou seh u sb an d A man at home struggles to do the housework example uncountable nouns: Countable or uncountable? Invite students to work in groups to decide which words go into which box.

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After some time, invite students to come up one by one and write words into boxes. Other students can agree or disagree with their decisions. Can you count. An even simpler teaching and checking activity is to ask questions to see if students can distinguish between nouns that can be counted and those which can't.

Ask them cCan you count rain? Picture differences On one sheet of paper sheet A draw sketches of about fifteen countable and uncountable food items apples, loose rice, milk in a bottle, potatoes. On another sheet of paper sheet B draw many of the same items - but with a few variations flour instead of apples. Make photocopies of sheet A and B. In class, make pairs, A and B. Give sheet A to As and sheet B to Bs.

So have I etc. I went to the market If your students need a reminder, start by writing the alphabet on the board. Say 'I went to the market and I bought an apple.

Continue with other students trying to remember the list so far and then correctly adding their own item. As the list gets longer it will get harder and students will make more errors which results in more laughter.

Make sure you encourage students to use a mix of both countable and uncountable nouns. What does Hiro w7ant to buy? Some books Do we know7how7many? Yes, three Can w7e count books? What does Sara want to buy?

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Some rice Do we know7how much? No Watch out for these problems. Countability is a separate issue from whether a word has a different plural or not. For example, sheep is the same word for singular and plural - but sheep are countable. Be careful. Some uncountable nouns have an 5 ending and may look as if they are a plural countable noun eg tennis, news, politics, chess, physics, snakes and ladders, linguistics, athletics, measles, billiards, aerobics, economics, diabetes.

Here are some words that often cause problems: We can count suitcases but not luggage or baggage, rooms but not accommodation, cars but not traffic. X I saw an interesting news tonight. X You have beautiful hairs. X Have you got any informations about the concert? X I forgot my homeworks.

X Can you give me some advices? Make a second set of cards of uncountable foodstuffs toothpaste, wine, cheese, rice, tea, shampoo, ketchup, chocolate. Stick up the container cards on the left in a list going down the board.

Stick up the food cards in the middle column to make a separate list. When someone makes a suggestion, move the cards together in the right-hand column. Elicit the phrase a bottle of cheese and ask the class if they think it is a good combination or not. If you and the class agree that it is wrong, replace the cards to their original lists. If you agree that it is good a box of matches , leave them there. This task might be a useful preparation for the Shopping lists activity.

Practice In my cupboard Make pairs, A and B. Students start sentences for their partner to complete. Partners continue to challenge each other in this w7ay. Shopping lists Shopping lists are always good for this language point.

Students can prepare for a party, first discussing and agreeing what they w7ill need We must get eight bottles of lemonade , then writing a shopping list, then role-playing going to the shop Two kilos offlour, please. Shopping phonecalls Prepare a set of flashcards showing foods and other shopping items.

Give five or six to each student. What do I need? Ask students to wrrite a list of ingredients for a dish they know pizza but leave out the quantities. They then meet up with other students and orally explain how to make the dish, adding in quantities Take half a kilo of flour.

You need ten slices of pepperoni. A dd a pinch of salt. What did Fernando drink? Some apple juice Do we know how much?

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What did Faisal eat? Bread Do we know how7much? Yes - two slices Did he eat the wThole loaf? No Teaching tip: They have learnt that milk is uncountable and believe that this must be wTrong. Like many foodstuffs, milk can be both countable and uncountable. The same is true of many other nouns although food and drink are probably the most common. When it is countable we are usually counting the container or quantity two glasses of milk, or two packets of milk or two litres of milk - but we are not actually saying the container or quantity.

The container is implied rather than stated. I bought two teas means I bought two cups of tea. Ordering two teas is only possible if the listener will unambiguously understand what container is referred to.

C o u n tab le U n co u n tab le Two coffees, please. We need some more coffee. Your hair feels so soft. Would you like apiece of chocolate? We use them to avoid repetition. The machine's broken. It isn't working properly. S ubject p ron ou n s The subject of a sentence is the person or thing that does the action of a verb.

I woke up at about 3 am. You need a dictionary. It isn't working. We lived in the room above the shop. They offered her a job. O bject pron ou n s D irect o b jects The direct object of a sentence is the person or thing that the action of a verb is done to. It often comes directly after the verb. I called h im I her. We bought it. They saw us. Let's ask them. In d irect o b jects T he indirect object of a sentence is a person or thing that the action of the verb is done for or given to - but not the person or thing.

Bring m e the towel. I gave yo u the book. She bought him an M P3 player. I showed her the rules. We threw it a biscuit. They sang us a new song. Give them a chance. For example, Bring me a towel. W hat did he bring? A towel - this is the direct object. Who did he bring it to for? Me - this is the indirect object. Give an instruction using a direct object drop it, throw it, hide it,punch it. Do a little mime to help the student follow the instruction if they have a problem. In d irect objects In the same lesson.

Indicate student B and give an instruction to student A using an indirect object Give her the pen. Student A must follow the instruction and hand the pen on to Student B. B then throws the pen to C. When possible, encourage students to use the instructions themselves without prompts. Jobs and roles Subject p ronouns 1 Hand flashcards showing various locations a hospital, Moscow to different students.

Explain that the pictures show their lives. They live in Moscow. Get students to repeat sentences. They live in Vienna.

Pm Anna. Reference At higher levels, the biggest problems tend to come with recognising wiiat a particular pronoun especially it refers to in a complex sentence or text. To tackle this, get students to go through a text, drawing boxes around all instances of a pronoun every it - and then drawing lines back to the word or words that the pronoun refers to. Concept questions Subject pronouns Write these notes on the board. Object pronouns Write these notes on the board. They are cooking a meal.

Meaning and use Backward reference Pronouns generally refer backwards to things that have already been mentioned. The word him refers back to Jack. Forward reference Pronouns can also more rarely refer forwards to things that have not yet been mentioned. He refers forward to Tony, which has not been given before this point. Pronouns are only useful if it is absolutely clear what they refer to.

In the following short text, the referent ie the person or thing that is referred to of the pronoun is not entirely clear. Is it the snake, the bedcover or the arm? The snake slid over the bedcover and curled round his arm. I carefully lifted it up. Other uses Apart from the standard meanings, pronouns have some other important uses. It's raining Isn't it a pity? I really like it in this cafe. It would be hard to say precisely what the it referred to in these sentences.

You never see men at these conferences any more. They knocked it down in When the interviewee comes in, give them a copy of the test. This may be to avoid saying things that might seem personally embarrassing but this use of one is a little old-fashioned. This use is unlikely to be encountered by beginners. Watch out for these problems. X I saw Eva and he told me.

Place two silhouette images on the classroom wall - a male and a female figure. When students use the wrong pronoun, simply point at the wrong image, look worried and w7ait for them to correct themselves! X M r Salmon he gave it to me. X The picture it is very nice. In the sentence She gives the man some cash the direct object is some cash - the thing immediately affected by the action of giving. I rewired the house myself. Make yo u rself comfortable!

He repaired the window himself. M y brother does all the paperwork h im self She locked herself in. The door opens by itself. WeyUdo it ourselves. I hope the children behave them selves. The tw ins are only three, but they can aheady dress them selves. These refer back to the subject of the verb.

Reflexive pronouns can be used when the subject and the object of a sentence are the same I cried myself to sleep or to emphasise the subject We ate all the cake ourselves. We use each other or one another to say that each person does something to the other or others. They talk to each other on the phone every night. Our youngest boy can already dress himself. Model each sentence yourself first, get students to repeat and then try saying it in pairs as question and answ7er. Did Georgi do your homework?

I did it myself! Did the other class arrange the chairs like this? We did it ourselves! Practice This item is quite hard to practise communicatively. It may be best to focus on traditional pen and paper exercises, finding the correct pronoun to fill in the gap in a sentence. Planning decisions Ask students to imagine that they are wrorking on a big project changing to a different classroom. Brainstorm a list of about ten tasks that need to be done move all the books.

The teachers can move their stationery themselves. M ary will design the floor plan by herself You can do that yourself! Who did the homework? Sharzia Did she do it with someone else? No Did she have any help? Who repaired the car? Darina Did Miguel repair the car? No Did Darina repair the car? Yes Did she do it with someone else? No Meaning and use We use reflexive pronouns when the subject and the object are the same. I cleaned myself up and got ready for dinner.

In this sentence I and myself are the same person. He tried to kill him describes an attempted murder. He tried to kill himself describes an attempted suicide. In imperatives, the subject you is understood but not said. Phone him yourself We can use many verbs that take an object with a reflexive pronoun.

He cut himself shaving. If wre want to emphasise that someone does something without help, wre use a reflexive pronoun at the end of a clause. I decorated the whole room myself! We use reciprocal pronouns to say that each person did the same action to another or others.

Jacques and Frida painted pictures of each other means that Jacques painted a picture of Frida and Frida painted a picture of Jacques. Jacques and Frida painted pictures of themselves means that Jacques painted a picture of Jacques and Frida painted a picture of Frida or they both pointed pictures of both of them. X I was starting to enjoy myself. X The two men introduced themselves and shook hands. X I feel myself very comfortable at the moment.

X They felt themselves quite ill. X People were hugging and kissing themselves. My, your, his, her, its, our, their come before a noun phrase. Add a picture of a shop with some desirable items an iPod, a camera, a book, a watch.

As you tell the story, keep pausing and interrupting yourself as if you are forgetting the story to ask lots of little questions Is it his? Is it hers now? Whose is it? Get students to ask questions like yours. Practice Circle practice Ask everyone to stand in one large circle or, if your class is too large, keep them at their desks.

Give each student a flashcard or small object a pen. Continue adding more items. More complex circle practice You can fairly easily vary or extend the simple drills in the idea above to make use of more complex sentences and possessive pronouns as well as adjectives Is this your pen? Give it to him. Is this your pen? Yes, it's mine. Don't give it to her;give it to me. For maximum confusion, you could also have different objects being passed simultaneously!

V ariation Teach a number of different verbs pass, throw, give and some adverbs slowly, angrily, secretly and get students using them to pass on the items in this manner passing secretly, throwing quickly.

Cut the pictures up so that possessions are separated from the people. Students work to match pictures and describe the relationships This is hers. That's theirs. Students should not see what others contribute.

Make a museum on a large table at the front of the room by displaying the items in an interesting way. Is that his? Is that your pen? Invite pairs of students to visit the museum. They can wralk around and look at objects and discuss the objects. Encourage them to guess wThich items belong to which students. When students have had some discussion in pairs, lead a whole class discussion still using the pronouns to agree which objects belong to which students. V ariation: Is that yours?

Story building Bring in lots of small real objects or pictures of them and pictures of some people. If they find it tough, suggest that they include dialogue in their story. Is this my book? No Is this your book? No Is this his book? No Is this her book? Yes Who does the book belong to? This is hers Adapt this model for This is mine, This is ours etc. Meaning and use Belonging Possessives often tell us who things belong to. Ours is the third house on the left. Isn't that your Uncle Gunter?

That friend of yours - what's her name again? I do my own cooking and food shopping. This letter is in her own handwriting. Connection Sometimes they indicate other types of connection or association knowing something, having responsibility, doing an action, special occasions etc.

Does he know his ABC? His birthday is two days after mine. Our guide was a quiet man in his forties. The couple who booked into the hotel were both in their twenties. Body parts We use possessives to talk about parts of the body. Her lips met mine. Comparisons We can use possessives to compare possessions, qualities, attributes etc between different people. There was barely a scratch on his car, but mine was wrecked. Your system is completely different from ours.

X This great country of us ours. X Ts this Mary's book? We use this and that with singular countable nouns and uncountable nouns this evidence that cup We use these and those with plural nouns. For most of this month. We can also use this, that, these and those on their own, as pronouns substituting for a noun or noun phrase. Not this again! That was a real surprise.

Place these visibly in different locations around the room. Some things should be close to individuals or groups of students and some further away. This student should recap what the previous student said changing the demonstrative if necessary and then adding to it That's Dmitri's calculator and that's my scarf. Practice Open spot the difference Find two pictures of the kind that are commonly used for pair information gap exercises ie two similar but slightly different pictures.

Place picture A on the board blow7it up much larger if possible - or project it on a computer, interactive whiteboard or O H P. Give a copy of picture B to each pair of students. Their aim is to discuss the differences, then write down them in a list, using this, that, these, those This table has five apples on it but that one only has four. These people are wearing hats but those aren't. Students will need to use this and these for the picture closest to them and that and those are for the more distant board picture.

Am I holding my pen when I say this? No Is my pen very near me? No Is my pen in another town? No Is my pen in another room? No Can I see my pen? Yes Can I point at my pen? Do I have one friend or more than one friend? More than one Are my friends in another building?

No Are my friends in the same room? Yes Are my friends on the other side of the room? Probably not Are my friends standing or sitting near me? Yes Do I move my hand when I say the sentence? These and those We use these and those to refer to plural items. They usually identify things visible to the speaker which could be pointed at or indicated.

We often do this when showing pictures or objects or when introducing people to each other. We choose which word to use depending on how near to us we think an item is. We use this and these when something is considered close. We use that and those when something is further away. This is a subjective choice rather than a factual measurement and either form can often be used without substantially changing the meaning.

This is the total price of your holiday. These are my friends Claudia and Jack. Those must be our seats over there. Reference within text conversation We can use demonstratives to refer backwards or forwards to things that are mentioned in other parts of a conversation or text. X This my friend. X Those books mine. TUeve ave always lots of people tUeve.

Construct the text carefully so that the article usage exemplifies the points you wish to teach. Discuss and confirm answers. Elicit or state reasons for article choice as issues come up. A nsw ers Every day I walk to the town centre.

There are always lots of 0 people there. I usually buy an ice cream, a packet of 0 sweets and a newspaper. Then I go to the beach and sit on a bench reading the newspaper. Sometimes I look up at the clouds in the sky and w7atch the seagulls flying over the sea. Practice The classic practice activity for articles has always been the humble gap-fill text made either on a computer or with correction fluid. Students then work individually or in pairs to fill in the missing articles.

Text reordering Many teachers will be familiar with tasks in which students are asked to reorder a text that has had its sentences mixed up - but may have been unsure as to exactly what the point of such tasks might be. Well, one really sound purpose is to help students focus on the use of articles to shape a conversation or text. Write up the following sentences on the board or photocopy them and ask students wrorking in pairs to find the best order.

Tell them that sentence a is in the correct position at the beginning of the story. When they have got the correct answer a , d , b , e , c ask them to reflect a little on how they worked it out. Check that students know the word lion maybe showr a photo of one. Write the following frame on the board and tell students that it is a conversation in a zoo.

Ask pairs to fill every gap with either lions, a lion or the lion. Hey, look. Where d id. When you check answers at the end, discuss why each form is used. Get students to practise acting the dialogue, encouraging them to use lively intonation. Afterwards, challenge students to write a new short dialogue set in a new location that uses all the nouns in one of these sets of words: What does the baby want?

A toy Does it matter which one I give it? The toy Does it matter which one I give it? Yes, it wants a specific one - possibly one that it can see now Meaning and use There are two key reasons why a speaker or writer may choose indefinite or definite articles. General or specific? The indefinite articles a and an show that we are talking about things in a general way - without saying precisely which people or items we are referring to to a whole type, class, species or variety of something.

It stands out in a crowd ie any crowd - not a specific crowd. You need a dictionary ie any dictionary, not a specific one. Children must be accompanied by an adult ie any adult, not a specific one. The definite article the shows that we are talking about something specific - when we know precisely who or what is being referred to an individual person or thing. New focus or known focus? The second means that I want a specific biscuit, and both listener and speaker know7exactly which one is referred to.

But, what about this short text? Round the corner was a ruined barn - and, next to the building, a tall oak. The tree had lost all its leaves. The brown and orange litter covered the flowerbeds. Would your students know. In many conversations and text, there will be different articles used at different points in the text. You will find that there is often a movement as shown in this diagram: Here are further guidelines: A dog needs regular exercise.

Did you have a shave this morning? Her husband seemed a very pleasant man. Easton became an American citizen. We can use the with. Suddenly all the lights went out. I looked up at the ceiling. I like 0 chocolate. Chinua loves 0 fast cars. How do 0 whales communicate?

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He switched off the television and went to 0 bed ie to sleep. This In contemporary UK English the word this is sometimes used as a sort of indefinite article in personal stories and jokes. The meaning is slightly different from a. The word this seems to have the effect of identifying the person as an important character in the story.

Friday starts with an f ' Stress Articles are usually unstressed and pronounced with weak forms. You would normally only use strong forms when you want to emphasise something. No, he's not a boss.

He's the boss. X Give me pen. X Have you done homework? X Peter is businessman. X I want to be history teacher. X What a beautiful photos! The main problem with creating your own exercises is that you can unwittingly put in questions that are very problematic to answer or explain yourself. Articles, while being necessary right down to beginner level, also have some truly advanced-level complexities. When teaching lowrer levels, if you are unsure of your linguistic ground, this is one language area where you may do best to stick to published sources for exercises.

If you do decide to make your owTn, watch out for the complexities! We can use some or any for questions. Have you got any money on you? Did she give you some money? I need to get some eggs. I need to get some rice. Have we got any lemonade? I think there's some in the cupboard. Get students to repeat sentences and practise the conversation. There's some on that shelf. Practice Shopping trip Photocopy pictures of about different shopping items cheese, beer, matches, carrots, tea.

Write a list of all items on the board. Divide the class in half. Give each student in this half a random selection of four or five of the pictures. If the shop has the item, they give the picture to the shopper. After a while, swap groups and repeat the activity. Tell them that they are the production team for a TV food programme. The cook will tell the TV audience the recipe for an unusual dish.

Do you need any flour? A ny eggs? You need some white flour - about two kilos. Allow time for writing - and then get the students to perform their TV show for others to enjoy. Spot the difference Find a set of two spot the difference pictures that include a large number of separate countable and uncountable items the contents of a fridge, some shop shelves or a table with things on it.

Students work in pairs A and B. You might want to require that students keep to Have you got any. Meaning and use Some in affirmative sentences Some refers to a part which is less than the whole or a quantity which is less than all. We typically use some when we are not sure of a quantity, when we are asking to find out a quantity or when we are being vague, maybe because we do not consider the quantity important.

Some in questions You can use some in questions, especially. Did you get some nice Christmas presents this year? Would you like some dessert? Can we have some quiet please? I can see a tree. Some fool drove into the back of my car. Sentences can often be rewrritten as an affirmative sentence with no. It is typically used to ask if either a small amount or nothing exists. Are there any biscuits left? There may be more uncertainty than when asking a question with some - and there may be an expectation that the response will state that there are few or none.

Any in affirmative sentences We can use any with countable nouns singular or plural in affirmative sentences to say that it is not important which specific individual item is referred to. Pick any design you want - they're all the same price. Press any key. She can talk on any subject. I f there is any delay. There would be no difference in meaning if you changed the word any for some.

I f you need any help, just ask. Some and any as pronouns Some and any can behave as pronouns, substituting for a noun. Won't you have some? There wasn't any. Pronunciation Compare: I'll bring you some. Can I be of any use?

Did you have any? Vd like cheese, please. Have you got ideas? X I want some the paper. X Could you pass me any salt, please? Students make this error because they think cuse any in questions. For example, students may not see a difference between the sentences Any student can go there and No student can go there. Unfortunately, in quite a few exercises, many supposedly wrong answers are actually possible.

English grammar

As a teacher, you need to decide what you would do with a question like this. If a student filled in the gap with some, would you mark it wrong? What explanation would you give?

At lower levels, is it better to give students some handy, simple guidelines use any for questions - rather than tell them everything? Would it confuse students to tell them all the exceptions? This tricky balance between only-partly true simplicity and potentially mind-bogglingly complex truth is a tightrope that the practical language teacher is walking all the time. How many brothers have you got?

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I haven't got many CDs. M any families come back to our hotel year after year. How much money do you have in your purse? You haven yt got much coffee in your cup. There was so much food.

A lot of their money is in property. A lot of cars are parked on the pavement. Explain that both women have just met new7boyfriends. How many houses has he got? How much money does he have? How many cars has he got?

How many friends has he got? Get students to repeat the questions. Has he got a small quantity or a large quantity?

A large quantity Has he got lots of maize? Yes Has he got a great deal of maize? Yes Has he got more than enough maize? No Why not? Added Adverbs of certainty in the Adverbs section. Added Compound Nouns with examples in the Nouns section. Using of 'the' superlative in the Adjectives section. Use of "Had Better" 5. Usage of ''Used to'. Read More from the app View details.

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