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Pressure Vessel Handbook 12th edition [Eugene F. Megyesy].pdf. Danny Ferdiansyah. Loading Preview. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. You can. Welcome to the CD-ROM edition of the Pressure Vessel Handbook. Click on the arrow buttons on the tool bar above to page through the book. Pages which. Pressure Vessel caite.info - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or view presentation slides online. Pressure Vessel Handbook.
The additional area is 2dtp, where we have provided an extra thickness tp on the shell for reinforcement purposes. Petroconsultants, Inc. Caution should be exercised in the use of materials in this classification unless specific information is available on the corroding medium and previous experience justifies their use for the service intended. Class 3 Components Subsection NE: General primary membrane stress induced by combination of earthquake or wind pressure with other loadings See definitions pages beginn-ing The pressurized water is heated and the pump circulates the water through a heat exchanger steam generator where the steam for the turbine is generated.
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Published By: View contents of this set. Additional Comments: SAC n S The vessel is spot radiographed t No allowancefor corrosion Nozzle material: Smallerof following: Wall thicknessrequired: Largerof the following: Since the strength of the nozzle is lower than that of the shell. Fillet weld size inside: Fillet weld size outside: Since the strength of the nozzle material is lower than that of the vessel material. Ratio of stress values: Nozzle material: Inside radius of shell: Reinforcement pad to nozde neck.
Usingreinforcing pad. The vesselfidlyradiographed. Shell t. The nozzledoes not pass throughthe main seams. Nozzie material: Theoutsidediameterof reinforcing pad: Outsidediameterof pipe: SAplate forreinforcing padthe widthofthe pad 1.
Through a. Through and The strengthof thejoints shallbe consideredfor its entire d 3. Fillet-weldshear 0. The allowablestressvalueof the weldsis the stressvalue of the weakermaterialconnectedby the weldsmultiplied by the followingfactors: The strength of the welds and the nozzle neck in those combinations shall be at least equal to the smaller of: Thestrength intensionofthecross-sectionalareaofthe a b P c P 1.
Both pathsarestronger thantherequired strengthlb. T h r a o u ng h lengthon each side of the plane of reinforcementarea. Groove-weldtension 0. Through and 2. Throughb andd Filetweldshear Z 2Xweld1egx 8. ThOU c and d The Required Pipe for Nozzle: The thickness computed for the applicable load plus corrosion allowance there is no other requirement.
Opening Diam: Corrosion Allowance: The thickness required for the vessel for internal pressure assuming joint efficiency. The minimum thickness of standard wall pipe plus corrosion allowance. For selection of required pipe under internal pressure. The smallerof 2. The thicknessrequiredfor the shell under 15psi.
To withstand25 psi externalpressureapproximately0. The thicknessof head or shell required for internalp r u e s t s sexternal u i r hen designpressureas an equivalentinternalpressure.
Shell thickness: The requiredthicknessfor a 14 in. The requiredticknessfor 14 O. The minimumthicknessof standardwall pipe plus corrosionallowance. MaterialSA Material SA To withstand15psi externalpressureapproximately0. Thethicknessforthe applicableload t s m o t ah f l o ll l h eo e w r i nf e g: The minimumthicknessof standard wall pipe: The minimumthicknessof standardwall pipe: UG a 2.
For highertemperature see notes at the end of the tables. The figuresunderlinedare the maximumallowablepressurein corrodedcondition for the pipe of which wall thicknessis minimumthe standard wall plus corrosion allowance.
From Tables The StressValue psi. Example to find max. The Max. For ThisPipeThe Max. With interpolation the required thickness can be determined with satisfactory accuracy. For the determination of the required pipe wall thickness in piping systems the various piping codes shall be applied.
The thicknesses given in the tables do not include aIlowance for corrosion. For the inside diameter of the pipe round figures are shown. Selecting pipe. To avoid excessiveloading in the vessel. The allowable nozzle loads are bounded by the area O. Then determine CL2. The vesselsare not intendedto serveas anchorpoints for the piping. Standardsfor ClosedFeedwaterHeaters. Mershon — Welding Research Council. Hopper and J.
Heat Exchange Institute. I ] Determine factor y. EI 30 Use minimum 1. O for butt welds. For reinforcing ring on shell. Design size and location of reinforcing ring see next page. Seechartsbeginningonpage43 for modulusof elasticity. C and D due to bending and shear.. K The distance from the junction within which the centroid of the reinforcement shall be situated.
D The distancefromthejunction withinwhichthe centroidof the reinforcementshallbe situated. E1 Area of excess metal available for reinforcement A. C Area of excess metal for reinforcement. Required area of reinforcement. Location of compression ring: The required cross-sectional area of compression ring: To eliminate the necessity of additional reinforcement by using thicker plate for the cylinders at the junction in some cases maybe more advantageous than the application of compression rings.
C continuea C —A t. Insulation ring may be utilized as compression ring provided it is continuous and the ends of it are joined together. Maximum distance of centroid from the junction: Therequired cross-sectionalarea of compressionring: Using lfi thick bar. Location of the compression ring: Maximum distance from the junction: The area of excess in shell available for reinforcement: Since the-moment of intertia of the ring is not factor.
From the applicable chart pages 43 thru 47 read the value of A entering at the value of B. Determine the equivalent area of cylinder. ZA Compute the value of the required moment of inertia For the stiffening ring only: Select the type of stiffening ring and determine the available moment of inertia see page 87 of the ring only 1. L w I I 3 Reinforcement shall be provided at the junction of cone e o c to cylinder. For values of 1? Division 1. The required moment of inertia and cross-sectional area of reinforcing stiffening ring shall be determined by the following formulas and procedure.
Determine theequivalentareaofcylinder. Determine the required cross-sectional area of reinforcement. The distance from thejunction within which the additional reinforcement shall be situated. Determine the required cross-sectional area ofreinforcement.
QLis in compression. Whenthereducers madeoutoftwoormoreconicalsections ofdifferent apexangles withoutknuckle. Compute the value of the required moment of inertia: For the ring-shell-cone section: Code d and e. G The distance from thejunction within which the centroid of the reinforcement shall be situated. E — with subscriptsc. P external design pressure.
Thewidthoftheshell whichistaken as contributing to the moment of inertia of the combined section: The value offi shall be taken as positivein all calculations.
The stiffening is satisfactory. The reinforcing shall be situated within a distance from the junction: It is larger than the area required. The conical section having no flare. The cross-sectional area of the stiffening ring is 2. Required moment ofinertiaofthe combined ring-shell-cone cross section: The centroid of the ring shall be within a distance from the junction: Asuming A.
The available moment of inertia: The required area of reinforcing: It is Iargerthan the required area for reinforcement. The available moment of inertia 1.? Regarding the type of joint the Code establishes requirements based on service. Some considerations concerning the economy of weldings: V-edge preparation.
The welding processes that may be used in the construction of vesselsare also restricted by the Code as described in paragraphUW E x a m io nW a t e iJ o l n o e nf d t The efficiency of joints depends only on the type of joint and on the degree of examination and does not depend on the degree of examination of any other joint.
In a small diameter vessel under The requirements of the Code 3. The aspect of economy 1. Using backing strip it must remain in place. If the two preceding factors allow free choice. The type of welding may be determined also by the equipment of the manufacturer. In larger diameter vessels if a manway is not used. Table UW b. UW-3 c. DaEesunder a. Except as required by UW-ll a 5 This rule of the edition of the Code eliminates the concept of collective qualification of butt joints.
The circumstances of welding 2. In many cases the accessibility of the joint determines the type of welding. This must be decidedin eachparticularcase. Whether using stronger welding and thinner plate or the opposite is more economical. P nC 1p 0e. Design of Welding Joints. If spot radiographyspeciiled for the entire vessel. Code UW communicating chambersofunjired 1. Category A buttweldsinvessel sections including nozzlesand communicating chambers above10 in.
No radiographicexaminationofweldedjoints is required when the vessel or vessel part is designed for external pressure only. All butt welds in shells. No Radiography. UCS graphed. Post weld heat treatment of P-1 materialsis not mandatory provialedthat material is pre-heated.
Pull radiographic examination of butt welded joints of P-1 Grade 1. Post weld heat treatment of P-1 materials is mandatory for all welded Table connections and attachments. UCS Double welded butt joint or single welded butt joint with backing Table strip shall be used for circumferential or longitudinaljoints.
July 1. Part Definitionof combustibleand flammableliquids 2. Installationof tanks. American Petroleum Institute Standards No. Low-Pressure tanks shallbe built in accordancewith acceptablestandardsof design. Standards American Petroleum Institute Standard No. Stora e tank or vessel which i? In addition to the regulationsof the above mentioned standards and code. Emergency reliefventing 6. Ventingfor tanks 5. Section VIII. Materialof storagetanks 3. Atmospherictanks may be built in accordance with: Low-Pressuretanks may be built in accordancewith 1.
Locationof tanks 4. Drainage 7. For pressurevessel maybeusea withlimitationsseenote: The vessels arenotusedto contain lethal substances. Withtheexception of flanges. The material shall not be used in thicknesses above 2 in. For welded pipe maximum allowable stress values are 15Y0less. No increase in these stress values shall be allowed for the performance of radiography.
IOOA residual silicon be used. Bar Pp. Cast Pp. C SE Forg. P Plate. S6 S8 S2 S4 —2. X Stg. Street En. WI 1 sq.. For this purpose it is recommendedthe use of the widelyacceptedabbreviationsin the sequences exemplified below. For ordering material the requirements of manufacturers should be observed. To determine the magnitudeof wind pressure. The location of all vesselcomponentsopenings.
If the vesselis post-weldheat-treated. Removable internalsshallbe installedafter stressrelieving. The referencel s 6 T. The completedvesselshall be providedwith a nameplate securelyattachedto the vesselby welding.
Out of level in any direction. Deviation from verticality for vessels of up to 30 ft overall length. Out of level. Distance to seal pan. The deckshall be conical. E through K. A C or D. Roof Plates Single-weldedfull-fillet lap joint. The sizeof each weld shall be the thickness of the thinner plate. Shell to Bottom Plate Joint Continuous fillet weld laid on each side of the shell plate. Fillet Welds Inspection of fillet welds shall be made by visual inspection.
A The plate materials shall be limited to! Vertical Joints in Shell Butt joints with complete penetration and complete fusion as attained by double welding or by other means which will obtain the same quality of joint.
Bottom Plates Single-weldedfull-fillet lap joint or single-weldedbutt joint with backing strip. By agreement between purchaser and manufacturer. The bottom plates shall project at least 1inch width beyond the outside edge of the weld attaching the bottom to shell plate.
Roof plates shall be welded to the top angle of the tank with continuous fillet weld on the top side only.
Horizontal Joints in Shell Complete penetration and complete fusion butt weld. Eighth Edition. Tank Shell 1. The tank shall be filled with water. Standard After attachment of at least the lowest shell course water shall be pumped. Air pressure or vacuum shall be appliedusing soapsuds.. Painting all joints on the inside with highly penetrating oil.
Plate Mean diameter of thickness. Over L L. Joints in bottom plates shall be full penetration butt welded. Flat bottoms shall be attached to the shell by continuous fillet weld laid on each side of the shell plate.
Lap-welded joints in bottoms are not permissible All shell joints shall be full penetration butt-welded without the use of backup bars.
Bottoms may be flat or flat-flanged. Flat bottoms shall project at least 1 inch beyond the outside diameter of the weld attaching the bottom to shell. Storage tanks designed on this basis are not to exceed 20 feet in diameter within the scope of API Standard A C. See Appendix A for design formulas.
Top angles shall not be required for flanged roof tanks. M 0 d e 00 0 tures of these gases. Code B Ihe valueof y fur ferritic andaustcnilicsteelsdesigned for temperatures failure. The minus tolerance fur seamlesssteel pipe is For cast iron pipe the following valuesof A shallapply: Centrifugally cast.. Piping systemsinstalledin open easements.
Statically cast. Jnd tu providefor mechanical strength. For intermediate temperatures thevalues maybeintcr.. Wheresteelpipe is threadedand used for steam service at pressureabove psi. Where the minimum wall thickness is in excessof 0. The minimum thicknessfw the pipe sclcctcd. When not specifically required by SI gas using processor equipment. Fornonferrous materials andcast iron. Code ANS1 B Preferred proportion of sides: The side ofacube-shaped tank forthe designed capacity: In vesselswherecorrosionoccurs.
ApendixF and Par. The corrosionallowanceneed not be the samethicknessfor all parts of the vessel if differentrates of attack are expectedfor the variousparts Code UGc. Code UCS Thereare severaldifferentmethodsfor measuringcorrosion. Forothervesselswhenthe rateof corrosionis predictable.
The desired life time of a vessel is an economicalquestion. C Vesselsor parts of vesselssubject to thinningby corrosion. All pressurevessels subject to iintemal corrosion. Vesselssubjectto corrosionshall be suppliedwith drain-opening Code UG f. The simplestwayis the use of teltaleholes Code UG e or corrosiongauges. To eliminatecorrosion. The vessel can be protected against mechanicalabrasion by plate pads which are welded or fastenedby other meansto the exposedarea of the vessel.
Internalheads may be subjectto corrosion. The tie does not prescribethe magnitudeof corrosionallowanceexceptfor vessels with a requiredminimumthicknessof less than 0. Majorvesselsare usually designedfor longer years operating life time. This requirementdoes not apply to vessel parts designed with no x-ray examinationor seamlessvessel parts designedwith0. In rating materials. Information on metals has been obtained from the International Nickel Company.
Caution should be exercised in the use of materials in this classification unless specific information is available on the corroding medium and previous experience justifies their use for the service intended. It is most important that these notes be carefully read when using the table. Hasleiloy h f All Perrentj Sqo — A n Good I SVO This support may be in the form of a filling material.
As a generalrule. To prevent such distortion. The minimum radius for standard weight pipe should. Industrial Press. The safe minimum radius for a given diameter. New York. It will be understood. Extra heavy pipe may be bent to radii varyingfrom two and one-halftimes the diameterfor smallersizesto three and one-halfto four times the diameterfor largersizes. The minimum permissible inside radius of cold bending of metals when bend lines are transverse to direction of the final rolling.
When bend lines are parallel to the direction of the final rolling the above values may have to be approximately doubled. Carbon steel bar bent at two places. Sizes 18in. Gasket thickness for raised face. Sizes 20 in. For ring type joint see table page and take half of the dimensions shown. Length of the stud bolts do not include the heights of the point. ANSI B Plus tolerance offlg. Dimensioning on the elevation drawing. Show right-end view if necessary only for clarity because of numerous connections.
Show on the elevation and end view a simple lcture F etc. Locate davit. Locate seams. On elevatlon show only a simple icture of saddle and!
All locatlons shall be. In this case lt is not necessary to show on both views the connections etc. The distance from ref.. The seams have to clear nozzles. Locate name plate. Select the scale so t a openings. If the vessel diameter i unproportionally small to na s e the length.
It is not necessary to show internals on vessel orientation if their position is clear from detail drawings or otherwise. For vessels with conical sections. If there is a sloping tray. Draw separate orientations for showing different internals.
Do not locate long seams behind downcomers. Skirt access openings above base minimum to clear anchor lugs. Skirt vent holes as high as possible. Seams shall be located so that visual inspection can be made with all internals in place.
Anchor bolts straddle principal centerlines of vessel. The height of first rung above base varies. Ladderand platformrelation. Insulation ring spacing 8. Insulation ring must clear girth seam and shall be cut out to clear nozzles. Lifting lugs. Ladder rung level with top of platform floor plate. Long seams to clear nozzles. If there is no manway. Longitudinal seams to be staggered 1 i p 8o s s0 i b 0 l ef. Name plate above manway or liquid level control.
Girth seams shall clear trays. Davit and hinge to be located as the manway i most accessible. Certain changes are necessary on the drawing which are earned out on the elevation. Interferences Openings. The reinforcing pads of two nozzles overlap each other. Overlooking the requirementof specialmaterial E. This can be overlooked especially if. Reinforcing pad covers seam. Thusit can take place that: Ladder luginterferes with nozzles..
Billof material The changeof materialaffects: Scheduleof openings Generalspecification Legend Orientation The changeof locationaffects: Elevation Locationof internals Locationof other components. Dimensions shownerroneously: This can occur: The practiceof not showingopeningsetc. Vessel-davit interferes with nozzles.
Making changes. Particular care should be taken when ladder. When the location on the elevation and orientation is not checked. The tail dimensionsor the distances between openingson the orientation do not show interference. There is no room 3. Detailingopenings as shownon the oppositepage with data exemplifiedin the scheduleof openings below. Truck shipments over 12 ft. The maximum size of loads which maybe carried without special permits a..
It increases considerably the costs of transportation. With special routing. Maximum dimensions of load which may be carried without special routing.
Z rich coating. Urethane coatings. Oleoresinouspaints may develop m greaterresistanceby incorporationof sand reinforcement. If the content of solids by volume is. Losses due to overspray. The dry thickness is determined by the solid non volatile content of the paint. I subject to chemical exposure such as acid and alkali.
The surface shall be free of unreacted or harmfulacid. Very light shadows. Type II-yellow. Ready Mixed. Gray No. Types I. IV No. Zinc Yellow-Iron Oxide Base. Iron Oxide. Vinyl Type Paints. Alkyd Type Primer. Red-Lead Base. Zinc Chromate. Nitric acid. N ai 4tc. Revisionsor metal substitutionshownand approved. Bill ofMaterial: RequirementsofUCS 79 d specifiedwere applicable Approvalby fabricator on drawing. Specialflangeorstructural loadingcalculationsavailable.
Requiredreinforcementcalculationsavailablefor all openings. All materialidentifiedas SAor SB Codes and Addenda.. All metalcorrectlyidentified Requiredmaterialtest reports VIII and V? Do all radiographscomplywith identification Appendix6 or 8 available? Circumferences and Areas of Circles Solutionof Right Triangles GeometricalProblemsand Constmction Drop at the Intersection of Vessel and Nozzle Flat RingsMade of Sectors OptimumVessel Size Table for Locating pointS0n2: Fustrumof ConcentricCone Length of Arcs Side Area Find: Radius of circumscribed circle.
Y L I Volume. O Volume 3: Determine the length of Chord and Dimension M.
Measure on this line Dimension M. C are known. O of the two arcs is the center of the circular arc. Draw at the center of the Chord a perpendicular line. The intersecting point.
S67 in. Cl C2 etc. Cl C2. UUU k. This area is expressed as a percentage of the square that is needed to cut out the ring in one piece. D z Outsidediameterof riu.. The cost of the weMing must be balanced against the savingin plate cost. Determinethe requiredarea of plate 4. The figures at the left of this page show the width of the required plate using different number of sectors.
Add allowance for flame cut. Area required Divide this area by the required width of plate facing page. Reauired Plate. Divide into equal parts the base and the top circle. S3 S3 circle divided into 12 equal spaces. Draw the side view and half of the bottom view of the cone. Rh denoted e the mean r radius of e the base See example. Project distances c1. The intersecting points of the elements of the large and small cylinder determine the curve of intersection. Draw an element at each division point.
C2 etc. The horizontal planes through the division points cut elements from the cylinder and circles from the sphere. The intersections of the elements with the corresponding circles are points on the curvature of intersection. Strike an arc with 1 as center and the chord of divisions as radius.
With A as center and A-2 as radius draw arc at 2. The intersection of these arcs give the point 2. The points 3, 4 etc. In the above described manner can be found the development for transition pieces when: I 25a O. These tables are for locating points on pipes and shells by measuring the length of arcs.
The length of arcs for any diameters and any degrees. All dimensions are in inches. The length of arcs are computed for the most commonly used pipesizes and vessel diameters. M6 I Circurn. S 3 S7 Oi TYPE S.
MAWP psiat temperature. Pressurevessels stamped with the Code-symbolshall bemarkedwith the following: The projection of sleeves shall be increased when necessary for reinunder k certain i load. The projection of t thickness of h sleeve equals fireproofing minimum 2 inches.
Sleeves should be provided a for a copenings. Circular openings are used most frequently with pipe o bent plate sleeves. Decimalsofa FooCMetricSystem.. Degreesto Radius.. Table ofProperties ofPipes. Square Feetto Square Meters..
Welding Fittings. Area ofSurfaces ofShells and Heads Square Meters to Square Feet Pipes and Fittings Gallon to Liters. Pounds to Kilograms Liters to U. PoundsperSquareInches to KilogramperCentimeter. Millimetersto Inches. Long Welding Necks.
KilogramperCentimetertoPounds perSquareInch.. Inches to Millimeters. Packingand Insulation.. Kilograms to Pounds.. Minutesand Secondsto Decimalsofa Degree.. Wall t Weight t per foot lb. Fn E u Inside t Trans-s rsurfac f verse a e t per ft. F n E Inside surface er ft. Weight designa tion utsid liam! Nom iniil pipe size. F n E Inside surface per ft Per Ft. On the following pages the data of the most commonlyused heads are listed.
The roughness is repetitive deviationfrom the nominal surfacehavirigspecifieddepth and width.