European architecture / Barry Bergdoll. (Oxford history of on the city, which took a place in European consciousness as never be fore. Determined. Barry Bergdoll - European Architecture New Technology and Architectural Form, I 7 .. Invalid or corrupted PDF file. Editorial Reviews. Review. "A well-presented thematic survey of the subject. Affordable and Barry Bergdoll is Professor of Art History at Columbia University in New York. Author and editor of numerous works on 19th century architecture.
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Read European Architecture PDF - by Barry Bergdoll Oxford University Press | This comprehensive examination of eighteenth and. Barry Bergdoll - European Architecture - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online. arhitecture. Bergdoll, Barrry. European architecture / Barry Bergdoll. (Oxford history of art). Includes bibliographical references and index. 1. Architecture— Europe.
Seen from the opposite end of the broad Avenue de l'Opera.: Aarthi Parivallal. Semper drew up plans for a grand 'Culture Forum'. The perspective is calculated so that the stagehouse and auditorium disappear from view as one enters the broad Place de l'Opera. We have much studied and much perfected.
Juliet Kinchin Text. Barry Bergdoll Contributor ,. Marc Le Coeur Editor. Corinne Belier Editor. Henri Labrouste Illustrations.
Barry Bergdoll Editor ,. Jorge Francisco Liernur Editor. Carlos Comas Editor. Patricio del Real Editor. Jonathan Massey Editor. Gustavo Luis More Editor ,. Guy Nordenson. Teodoro Gonzalez de Leon Contributor.
Barry Bergdoll ,. Erich Lessing Photographer. Janet B. Detlef Jessen-Klingenberg With. Barry Bergdoll Photographs ,. Hillert Ibbeken Photographs. Gerrit Engel Photographer. Detlef Jessen-Klingenberg Contributor.
Louisa Hutton. Matthia Sauerbruch. Philip Ursprung. To add more books, click here. Welcome back. Just a moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account. European Architecture by Barry Bergdoll 3. Rate this book Clear rating 1 of 5 stars 2 of 5 stars 3 of 5 stars 4 of 5 stars 5 of 5 stars. Bauhaus Want to Read saving… Error rating book. Nature Design: Home Delivery: Lina Bo Bardi by Zeuler R. Lima , Barry Bergdoll Foreword 4. Le Corbusier: Partners in Design: Alfred H.
Barr Jr. Henri Labrouste: Latin America in Construction: Marcel Breuer: Gau and completed by Theodore Ballu. Vaudoyerwas supemsing the foundations for a new cathedral which embodied the notion of historical accretion through the chain of continuous progress and the vital lessons to be learned from moments of cultural transition and intermingling.
As in England an important catalyst was to be the use of iron in architecture. Viollet-le-Due not only crafted the fabric and the reputation of France's medieval monuments as embodiments of the national spirit. In the heat of these controversies Viollet-leDuc formulated a challenging theory of contemporary architecture. In large part prefabncated.. In an eclectic but purposeful amalgam Vaudoyer sought to create a building which pictorialized.
In a stunning exploded perspective drawing [ ] for his Dictionnaire he demonstrated that Gothic was an organic system in which every component had a structural role and form that was reasoned in relationship to its place in a perfectly functioning whole.
In this architecture were paralleled the creative potential and laws of nature. Viollet-le-Duc bemoaned that the rational spirit of Gothic should be defamed by a crude notion of imitation that defied the nature of materials. Baltard's central markets .. Both the literal imitation of Gothic forms in new materials and the vision of history as a process of eclectic cultural intermingling were concepts Viollet-le-Duc was determined to combat.
Boileau modelled his cast-iron uprights on the svelte stone columns of the twelfth-century refectory of St-Martin-des-Champs.. Rather than copying. He was at pains to show that universal principles of form. Viollet-le-Due demonstrated in L'Art R usse how a rational framework of structure had been found in the brick architecture of seventeenth-century Moscow which might serve as a point of departure for integrating the new resources of iron.
The capacity of mankind to create. Viollet-le-Duc argued increasingly for the national specificity of architecture. Solicited for advice on a future Russian architecture.
Here his quest for a universal law of form met with his belief in the importance of historical guidance. The day when artists go out looking for style. Here he analyses the complex stereotomy of ribbed vaulting at its key structural joint. Violletle-Duc's exploded perspective technique conveys instantly his theory that in architecture as in nature every part was a uniquely functioning element of a larger organic order.
Although he agreed with Labrouste's generation that architectural forms must change and evolve with society. As he moved on in the os and os to studies ofboth the geology and the vernacular architecture of the Alps. Taken with the racist theories of the Comte Arthur Gobineau.
Universal laws of form and the relativism of culture were. Modern buildings. Semper grappled with what he had witnessed in the hothouse ofPaxton's 'world market'. For nearly a decade he had been developing an organizational schema for a comprehensive theory of architecture. Semper reflected continually on the parallels between the inner dynamics of the social art of architecture and the patterns of change in nature.
Viollet-le-Duc called his invention an 'organism' which took its place as the next link in a long chain of architectures for mass gatherings. Semper travelled in Sicily and Greece withjules Goury. Simonian was his choice of a great hall of secular assembly.
Was the architect to be reduced to a fashionable decorator? Was the modern city to be composed of nothing but. Like many Germans who saw career prospects dimmed by the uprisings ofr Also Saint..
Calling for a mixed system of construction in which cast and wrought iron. The cultural spirit of rational inquiry that was the motor of unprecedented progress in science.
In the r competition for rebuilding St Nicholas. From the polyps to mankind. The hall was a successor to the Roman baths and the Gothic cathedrals.
Viollet-le-Duc's most sustained and influential reflection on the future of architecture came in the wake of student protests which aborted his lecturing career at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. His great work. As a royal architect in Saxony after he grappled with stylistic and social ideals in seminal designs.
I lamburg. Semper submitted a Rrmdbogenstil design. Exiled from Saxony for his part on the barricades of the failed bourgeois revolution of Gottfried Semper and the problem of representation 'Let the discoveries. The Great Exhibition confirmed Semper's belief that the chaos of contemporary architecture resulted from the lack of an integrating 'world view'. In the meantime.
In the second volume of his Discourses on Architecture. But in r he accepted an invitation to London. While the theory derived from long-running debates over the use of colour. Der Slit. Throughout all phases of society the hearth formed the sacred focus centre around which the whole took order and shape. Semper's great originality was the centrality of the symbolic or representational role of architectural forms and the belief that those forms.
Architectural meaning and social meaning evolved in tandem: Nor was he willing to allow any single determinant of architectural form. Finally the whole was hung with textiles to form walls. Lifted off the humid ground by a substructure of masonry and shielded from the elements by a roof. To Botticher's theory. A history of becoming was fundamental to his unwavering aim to formulate 'an architectural theory of invention. Semper coined two terms to underscore the fact that an ongoing process of transformation.
At the Great Exhibition Semper found a building that gave powerful visual form to his theory. Architecture had its origins in the choice of a site to erect a hearth. Laugier's notion of a template of truth is replaced by a dynamic model of historical process and a vivid demonstration of the interaction of social belief and form-making.
Both a symbol and a tool.
Unlike the novelties of the Crystal Palace produced by an emerging consumer market in anticipation of demand.
The concept of Bekleidung. O n numerous occasions he derided any literal materialist view. I n lectures at Cole's D epartment of Practical Art he went so far as to proffer a mathematical equation to symbolize the way in which materials. Semper added a key operative concept. Department stores were among the rare spaces where smgle women could stroll acceptably in public. Au Bon Marche on Paris's left bank [a. The Bon Marc he encouraged them to linger by opening a reading room and a buffet with free cakes and refreshments.
By the shop had grown to fill a city block.
The first department stores While Ruskin. For this Semper proposed museums as schools of public taste. Aristide Boucicaut opened what histo. Once these spatial dividers-and in this he referred also to the tents of the ancient near east-were replaced by more permanent materials.
T he hut again confirmed this notion. Boileau's iron stair was likewise as much for seeing the latest in goods. Just a year after the Crystal Palace was dismantled.
The iron frame behind allowed a proliferation of display windows. In the exhibits of the British Museum and the Louvre Semper found confirmation. The marketplace was a school for the astute eye. H e collaborated with the young engineering firm ofGustave Eiffel. A swooping metal stairway seemed literally suspended in the space. A rival department store. The interiorized world of the department store was developed by the next generation of retailers to create ever more fantastic interiors.
The entrances advanced subtly onto the pavement. In place of the open courtyards required to permit daylight into earlier interiors. Between r and r the interior was remodelled by Louis-Charles Boileau. Whereas Classical and Gothic design alike were based on adjusting solids to sculpt forms in light.
Emile Zola's quip that the department store 'was the cathedral of commerce. Gamier argued that the Opera's stairhall was complete only when 1! John Stuart Mill. His nephew Napoleon m. The arcaded rue de Rivoli would be subsumed in a great east. Determined to craft a showcase imperial capital. Paris itself was being refashioned by new technologies of machinery and capital .
The scale of ch ange introduced by the railway in the countryside in the r84os was now unleashed on the city. The new Boulevard de Strasbourg today's Boulevard de Sebastapol would link the railway on the city's northern fringe via the Ile de la Cite to the Porte d'Orleans on the south.
Napoleon 1's show street. The City Transformed. One of the effects ofcivilization not to say one of the ingredients in it. Unfinished when the Second Empire fell. H aussmann and Napoleon m offered tax exemptions for zo years to speculators in a bid to complete in time for the r fair the great cross-axis that was to be the backbone for remodelling the city under the banners of circulation..
T hese projects fell short of their deadline. Under powerful gas lights. Garnier stands in the centre of the landing. The transformation of the old line of fortifications into a broad annular boulevard. Returning for the second Parisian 'Universal Exposition' in r Ildefonso Cerda coined the term 'urbanism' and authored the two-volume General Theory of Urbanization r86J.
When the Universal Exhibition moved the spectacle of progress to Vienna. By the prestige of French urbanity was international. The city. The working classes had been largely chased from the centre. By the time the Second Empire fell in r87o. The hotel. The city that reformers dreamed of a century earlier  now breathed an air of progress so complete that even the municipal sewers were open for tours in specially designed wagons.
Increasing ten-fold the land area of Barcelona with a planned extension of gridded blocks. With a six-fold increase in private construction.
It is estimated that over 35o. Radial axes were devoted to different classes of manufactures.
Cerda's book had little influence outside his native Spain. France's determination to remain a model ofrefinement-announced in the juxtaposition of fine arts and industry at the r fair--succeeded so well that the image of the Parisian street and its architecture. Like Napoleon m they were steeped in the Saint-Simonian ideology that remapping national territory and freeing up capital would not only modernize the country but promote the general good.
Over r65 kilometres of new streets-broad. Alongside these invisible inventions. The juxta position of open lawns for recreation with artfully composed horticulture was a starting-point for the picturesque style systematized by Alphand in Paris for green spaces on every scale from the vast peripheral parks to the design of planted city squares.
What was new was the sense that an urban whole. In laws were passed allowing compulsory expropriation of unhealthy dwellings in the name of the greater public good. The monumental scale of the lunette was intended to dominate a major axial boulevard connecting the station to the heart of the city. London had shown the way. Parks as urban lungs and places for the moral improvement and distraction of the working classes from potential social unrest were lessons imbibed during Louis Napoleon's exile in London in the os and imported to France in the wake of the Revolution.
Paris was to be transformed by a network of streets. Beaux-Arts welcomed an ever greater flood of foreign students into its architectural ateliers. Harmoniously ordered frontages of private dwellings forming geometrically aligned streets focused on a free-standing monument had been an ideal since the mid-eighteenth century [ In the wake of the declaration of that the French rail system should rapidly connect Paris to all French borders.
In France the opening wedge for large-scale intervention in shaping cities was expropriation laws passed to facilitate laying out the railway. Duquesny Gare de I' Est.
Urban reform before Haussmann Like the eclectic architectural imagery of Paris's new skyline. Both reports declared a correlation between the health. Two years later the municipality of Liverpool charged Paxton with laying out a spacious park in the working-class suburb of Birkenhead. Legislation mandated minimum standards for dwellings in terms of sanitation. On the site of a drained swamp.
Chadwick campaigned for public parks. In Marseille a whole hill was levelled to create a broad and swift link between new steamship ports and the commercial centre of the city. Rambuteau launched a policy of using street improvements as an instrument of the state's remodelling of urban space and its self-conscious channelling of private development. M arseille.
During the short-lived Second Republic. I n the r84os the prefect Rambuteau responded to a debate over whether or not the government should intervene to arrest the westward migration of Paris's commercial and financial centre.
After the declaration of the Empire in D ecember r and the dismissal months later of Berger. O n the model of the Pereire brothers' company. Louis Napoleon pursued a two-pronged policy of government-built workers' dwellings and legal and financial incentives to jump-start luxury real estate. But like the contemporary 'Model H ouse for Families' in London. Critics of the regime claimed it put the workers in barracks.
T he street that today bears his name was the forerunner of Haussmann's work a decade later. The C ite N apoleon .
Now the question was posed in larger political terms. Napoleon m and his advisers put their energies fully into crafting an alliance between the state and specially formed private land-holding and development companies. H aussmann's predecessor.
Not only did the rue Rambuteau markedly improve access to Les Halles. Its use of glass and iron skylights to create an interior street was innovative. Until the twentieth century 'improved slum dwellings'.
Since the mid-eighteenth century the quagmire of narrow streets in the central market district. Les H alles. Should the state or the speculative market. In place of the labyrinth of outdoor markets in twisting streets little changed since the Middle Ages.
Eight rectangular pavilions ofglass and iron. Even before the curtain was raised on the first of the boulevards that made movement a part of the urban aesthetic for the first time. In the r86os. Launched under the banner of creating jobs-by the late r8sos one in five Parisians were working in the building trades-the system of floating loans against future increases in the value of improved land made Haussmann's works a veritable self-financing system of public works.
Nearly all the major monuments commissioned by the state would be shaped by such scenographic imperatives. Zola even celebrated the newly ordered spectacle of abundance in his novel Le Ventre de Paris.
The simplest legal guidelines governed the relation of fapde height to the broad new street. Napoleon m's advisers replied that the 'movement of capital. T hese ensured that the work of numerous independent builders would yield those grand sweeping perspectives that endow even the least accomplished of the Second Empire's public buildings with a dramatic monumental presence.
Three years after Les Halles was completed.. When one looks north on the Boulevard de Sebastopol. The 'Louvre of the People'.
But critics had begun to link mushrooming shanty towns on the city's edge with the transformation of the centre of Paris into an elegant backdrop for the very moneyed classes who profited dramatically from urban transformation.
Their frank industrial vocabulary provided a new model for ut ilitarian building in cities throughout Europe and for countless provincial markets in smaller French cities. Remodelling Paris: H aussmann ordered the architect A. Unable to align the boulevard with a bridge across the Seine. Victor Baltard created a rationalized city within the city. The Second E mpire created not only a new alliance between the state and the market in crafting urban space and fostering an understanding ofland itself as a commodity.
The whole was marvelled at by contemporaries. Charles G amier r8zs.
The iron framework of the church of StAugustin r86o-7r is draped with a thin masonry envelope and supports a monumental dome scaled to the urban vista rather than to this parish church for the luxury quarters developing in the city's northwest.
With the finishing touches of Alphand's carefully calibrated system of urban 'promenades'-a linked system of greenery on every scale. It was a model of urbanity imitated as much for its forms as its finances. The Boulevard St-M ichel in turn was traced to align with a view of the newly recreated fleche of the Sainte-Chapelle. T here is a fascinating counterpoint between the Opera and the urban fabric. It was the only text that set down something approaching a theory ofH aussmannization.
Baltard exploited iron to maximize interior space on one of the awkward polygonal building sites traced by Haussmann's street network. A quip made a century earlier by Voltaire.
The ground floor was let to shops. T he Paris of postcards was emerging even as photography for the first time became inexpensive enough to compete on the souvenir market. Although Napoleon m would never appear in this building.
Alphand's publication The P romenades of Paris r"73 detailed the inventions that made this possible. Boulevard de M agenta.
Gamier's notion of architecture was grounded in a theory of representation. Gamier was adamant that iron should be exploited to create an architecture that allows free rein to the artist's imagination and his skill in making his architecture a vehicle for a society's dreams and fantasies. Within its staid perimeter. The opera house. Gamier presented his design as the embodiment of an empirical and sensual approach to architecture in The Theatre.
The perspective is calculated so that the stagehouse and auditorium disappear from view as one enters the broad Place de l'Opera. Gamier's building is not simply a setting for opera. But this polemical refusal of the rationalist call for material and structural expression of his one-time employer Viollet-le-Due was anything but arbitrary.
This beacon on the skyline-Apollo is also a lightning rod! If the avant-garde of the early twentieth century vilified the Opera-Le Corbusier chief among them-it was because Gamier had catered to the status quo rather than using his art as an opening wedge for a better world. The identical pilastered fac. Even as this space suggests a moment's repose. Despite the period's enormous progress in stage machinery.
Others gather around. The Opera is a luxuriant island in an urban archipelago mapped as much by architects as by the interaction of state building regulations and a dynamic real-estate market.
At the same time the plasticity of its handling. The square is no longer an enclosed space in the city. Gamier was none the less a perceptive student of human behaviour.
Seen from the opposite end of the broad Avenue de l'Opera.: Like Semper's. Arguing for the suprem-acy of the artist's eye and judgement. In this floor plan everything seems to have been sacrificed to introductions. But Garnier was unapologetic: The test was not only the eye but also the body.
For seasonticket subscribers and for those holding but an evening's ticket. The lower steps swell gently outward to communicate subliminally the grandeur of the space and of the occasion. The eighteenth-century art of sublimity is here on the threshold of the modern psychology of form. Subscribers could alight from their carriages at their own pavilion-pendant to the Imperial entranceand make their way into an opulently ornamented circular space at the heart of the building--directly below the auditorium-reserved for their social exchanges.
An elaborate pavilion was provided for the emperor. Garnier provided separate spatial sequences. Mirrors on each of the columns not only exploited the flicker of the gas light as the first of the dazzling effects the art of architecture could contribute to the festivities.
Garnier worked ceaselessly on site. There everyone would meet in the grand spectacle of arrival and during the promenades between acts. Gamier calculated separate paths for each class of users.. Midway up. Underneath its dazzling surface effects the opera house made skilful use of the latest technologies of iron construction-as the campaign of construction photography by Delamaet and D urandelle makes clear-but Gamier placed himself in bitter opposition to exposed iron. Gamier imagined the building as both a functional and ritualistic accommodation of three classes of users [ a.
The design of the stairs themselves is characteristic of this approach. Garnier demonstrated full mastery of the new technology to stage a sequence of spaces that would subtly guide theatregoers from the entrance to their seats with a choreography of unfailing ease and charm that echoed their own codes of social comportment.
Land not set aside for new public institutions long needed by the city. A generation was trained at the Opera.
Oblique views up from lower level Like a choreographer. Emperor FranzJoseph's order to layout a new city on the site of the fortifications ringing Vienna was carried out during decades of political and social transformation in the Habsburg Empire [ ].
Heinrich von Ferstel's design for a Neo-Gothic church to commemorate the emperor's fortune in escaping a Hungarian nationalist's bullet would be raised by public subscription as. By the time the building was completed 2o years later the Ringstrasse had become one of the last grand landscapes of stylistic eclecticism.
Throughout he composed with a rich palette of colours and materials. He helped to organize the petition against Gustave Eiffel's great iron tower for the Universal Exposition and fought. The vast majority of theatres designed in the second half of the nineteenth century owe both their vigorous. Paul Nenot. Laying the cornerstone of the first monument in Even before an urban design competition focused international architectural attention on the Austrian capital in Theophilus Hansen's Greek Parliament By the time of the Universal Exposition in the Ringstrasse was a marvel of civic engineering.
The other public buildings were set as free-standing monuments in the chain of parks developed at the new quarter's broadest points. On display at the Exposition were colossal renderings of a project of neo-imperial splendour that ran counter to the new model of urbanism emerging on the Ring [ ]. One of the most innovative features of the road design was the provision of service roads for moving goods separately from the broad central roadway.
The Renaissance for him coinctded with the emergence of free city-states and bcurgeois culture and he proposed it be further developed for modern times. Together with a young Viennese architect. It was as if in 'those long trains. The objective should be public welfare.