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HANDBOOK ON ENERGY CONSCIOUS BUILDINGS Prepared under the interactive R & D project no. 3/4(03)/SEC between Indian Institute. Handbook on Energy Conscious Buildings - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Energy efficient buildings. Notice: The materials in this book are technical in nature and informative for the purpose of helping architects in designing of energy conscious buildings.
Parab and Sanjay Prakash. Winters are dry in this zone. The frames should allow for significant expansion minimum 12mm. Manual of tropical housing and building. That is. A lot of current buildings are operated energy inefficient and offer a great
Mechanical air-conditioning is required from June to August due to high humidity coupled with high temperatures. Pune moderate. The chart Fig.
Nights in October are comfortable. Daytime conditions are comfortable during January. September is a relatively cooler month. November and December. The months from April to June are very hot with temperatures in excess of 37 oC during daytime. New Delhi composite. Nights are cool in these months. Although temperatures are not very high in summer.
November and December are mostly comfortable. In March. At nights. The months of January. Evaporative cooling is indicated in these months during daytime. Ventilation can be adopted to achieve comfort at night. The day temperatures are relatively high during March. Winter months January. April is the hottest month with the monthly average daily maximum temperature of November and December are generally comfortable during the day and cool at night.
April and May. In monsoon months June to October. The conditions during December. From November to March. May and June are particularly harsh.
January and February are extremely cold with night temperatures falling below freezing line. Evaporating cooling is desirable in April and May Fig. New Delhi Latitude: January is the coolest month. In October. April to June is very hot. Mechanical heating is required during these e. It also has distinct cool and humid seasons. September is warm and humid. The months from October to May are uncomfortably cold. The daytime heat can also be trapped for nighttime use by providing adequate thermal mass.
Ventilation should be able to provide comfort during these months. May and October. July and August are just above the comfort limit and some cooling may be required.
Days are comfortable in June and September. In the months of April. In fact. January and February experience sub-zero temperatures almost throughout the day and night. Outside conditions are rarely within the comfort zone except during daytime in the months of July and August.
Leh Latitude: In other months. In May and October. The radiation can therefore be trapped for use in the building both during day and night. October and November are less severe. The global solar radiation available at this place is quite high. January is the coldest month minimum and maximum temperatures being —14oC and — 3oC respectively.
Nights are severely cold with temperatures ranging from —14o C in January to —11o C in December. Tata McGraw-Hill. Graduate School of Architecture and Urban Planning.. New Delhi. Seshadri T. Batsford Ltd. Krishan A. Manual of tropical housing and building. The climatic data handbook.
Solar 2. Santamouris M. Wiley Eastern Ltd. Design with climate. Los Angeles. Agnihotri M. Energy in architecture — the European passive solar handbook. Mayhew A. Mani A. SESI Journal National building code of India — incorporating amendments No..
Lewis J. Gujarat Energy Development Agency. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Handbook of solar radiation data for India. Solar Energy Centre. Climatic zones and rural housing in India. Chand I. Brown G.. Pitman Publishing Limited.
Padmanabhamurty B. Steemers T. DeKay M. Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers. Sarita Prakashan.. Gandhi and S. Markus T.. Climatological and solar data for India. Rao K. Gupta V. James and James Science Publishers Ltd. Sarma G. Manual on solar passive architecture. Microclimates in tropical urban complexes. Nayak J..
Energy efficiency in design of buildings: Andrew Marsh. WeDCo Database version Orient Longman..
Ingersoll T. New York. New Jersey. Indian Society of Heating. Gupta C. Solar radiation over India. Koenigsberger O. Bureau of Indian Standards. Jain K. Energy and climate in the urban built environment. Sharma M. References 1.
Ed Energy and Habitat. Allied Publishers Pvt. School of Planning and Architecture. Bansal N. Zhonglin H. University of California. Olgyay V.. Climate consultant 2. Hazra R. Tewari P. Suntool 1. Energy and Buildings. Princeton University press. Allied Publishers. Appropriate combinations of these parameters lead to savings of energy required for maintaining healthy and comfortable indoor conditions.
The energy consumed by a building depends on its use whether residential. Architects have to ensure that the design of the built form suits the intended use of the building and the specific needs of the client within the framework of the prevailing climatic conditions. One way is to use passive techniques such as wind towers coupled with evaporative cooling to cause further cooling of the interiors.
Such techniques pertain to the building envelope. Building envelopes not only provide the thermal divide between the indoor and outdoor environment. That is. In any building design. In such circumstances. A significant reduction no doubt. Passive systems have no separate devices for collecting and storing energy. Techniques relevant to Indian conditions such as direct gain. An architect may use the methods described as a starting point for generating customised solutions.
When rooms are required to be maintained at a constant temperature and humidity. Common materials can be used in constructions and the systems subsequently maintained by laypersons.
Passive systems offer a number of advantages that afford large savings of energy. This chapter elaborates on both. Once the orientation is decided. This would help save energy and also provide a fairly satisfactory indoor environment throughout the year.
To decide on an optimum orientation. Proper analysis of these conditions can enable one to choose a site and make suitable design plans. It is generally found that a variation of orientation of apertures. The choice depends on the site and the primary objective is.
It can help exclude the undesirable effects of severe weather to a great extent. The best orientation requires that the building as a whole should receive maximum solar radiation in winter and minimum in summer. As mentioned. Site-specific conditions such as land form.
It is also necessary to know the intensity of solar radiation on various external surfaces of the building as well as the duration of sunshine. The artificial is lighting load on a building can be significantly reduced if its design allows for effective daylighting. Such information is available in various handbooks Refer to Chapter 2. This helps one to identify the duration for which the wind may be desirable. The envelope acts as a thermal shell. This chapter also describes daylighting as a passive solar technique.
The environmental conditions experienced on the site are due to the macroclimate as well as the microclimate discussed in chapter 2. Once orientation is fixed. The estimated annual cooling load of such a conditioned building in a few Indian cities is shown in Fig. It is seen that in warm climates. Configuring the geometry of the building appropriate to the climate and usage can control the magnitude of the heat flow.
Let us also consider four orientations such as northwest-southeast. This can be achieved by: The heat flow due to radiation and air movement can be controlled by varying the following aspects of the building configuration: Buffer spaces such as courtyards. Wind when obstructed by a building creates pressure differences. They may be clustered together to reduce exposure to cold.
H-type or L-type as compared to the simple cube. It has been found that in a low-rise residential building in Ahmadabad.
Shading of surfaces can be achieved by the self-shading profiles of buildings e. Openings can be shaded with appropriately sized chajjas. Solid and glazed surfaces need to be suitably arranged and oriented for receiving or rejecting solar radiation. Walls can be shaded by the use of projections. Table 3. In the case of hot and dry regions.
The effectiveness of these shading devices are evaluated in terms of shade factors defined as the ratio of the solar heat gain from the fenestration under consideration. Shading devices such as chajjas block the solar radiation incident on the exposed surfaces of a building.
Translucent materials like heat absorbing or heat reflecting glass. Appropriate openings connecting high and low pressure areas provide effective ventilation. The shading can be further enhanced by providing vertical fins. The results for various shading devices horizontal chajjas and vertical fins on windows of different sizes and in various orientations is given in Appendix III.
The figure shows that providing a horizontal chajja can reduce the incident beam radiation falling on the window in various orientations considerably.
It consists of the following elements: The materials for these components have to be chosen carefully depending on specific requirements. While the product of the first two determines the energy storage capacity of a material. These three parameters together define the time lag or phase shift and decrement factor.
The thermophysical parameters of materials that must be considered are specific heat. The former refers to the time delay of heat flow whereas the latter signifies the reduction in the amplitude of heat waves. In cavity walls. Variations can be achieved by using different insulation materials. The next to highest cooling load is due to conduction through walls It is seen that the maximum cooling load on an annual basis. These are vital for heat flow and light distribution.
It may be noted that water absorption adversely affects the performance of insulation materials. Another mode of insulation is by incorporating an air cavity in the external building envelope. Transparent elements allow direct solar radiation into the living spaces. Heat loss or gain from various building components may be reduced by insulating them appropriately. A brief description of various types of insulation is provided in Appendix III.
The cooling loads through the roof and ground are not significant as compared to walls and windows. Colour and texture define surface characteristics such as emissivity. The heat gain or loss through individual elements depends on whether the building is single storeyed or multi-storeyed. The earth and the air inside the pots provide good insulation for resisting heat gain. Figure 3. The second and fourth recommendations would be fully effective if the surfaces are kept clean.
As per Indian Standard I. The recommended thickness of some insulating materials for roofs is given in Table 3. Loss due to evaporation may be compensated by make-up arrangement. The code recommends that the heat gain through roofs may be reduced by the following methods: In case of external application. A false ceiling of insulation material may be provided below the roofs with air gaps in between.
A massive roof composed of material such as reinforced cement concrete RCC tends to delay the transmission of heat into the interior when compared to lighter roofs such as asbestos cement sheet roofing. It is seen that the ceiling surface temperature can be reduced by about C. Shining and reflecting material e. The heat gain through each element can be varied by: A doubly pitched or curved roof provides a larger surface area for heat loss compared to a flat roof.
For internal application.
The roof can also be used advantageously for effective ventilation and daylighting by incorporating vents and skylights respectively. Non-air-conditioned C: D Fenestration openings Fenestration is provided for the purposes of heat gain.
The percentage changes in wind speed in a room due to various window locations and orientations are presented in Fig. Depending on whether the need is for heating or cooling. The transfer of heat between the building and the ground occurs primarily via the perimeter of the building. Their pattern and configuration form an important aspect of building design.
In warmer climates. The I. Appropriate design of openings and shading devices help to keep out sun and wind or allow them into the building. This protects both during construction and during the life of the building.
In these instances. The effectiveness of insulation under a floor will depend on factors such as the moisture content and temperatures of the ground. If the moisture content is high or the temperature is low. To improve performance. The size. Foundation insulation using foam board on the inside face of the foundation wall may also be provided.
While planning the position of a window. The resistance to heat flow through the exposed walls may be increased in the following ways: B Walls Walls constitute a major part of the building envelope and receive a large amount of direct radiation.
C Ground-based Floors Heat is transferred by conduction from the building to the ground through the floor which is in contact with the ground. Ventilation lets in the fresh air and exhausts hot room air. The performance indicators. In warm and humid regions. In the case of external application. Openings at higher levels would naturally aid in venting the hot air out. This is desirable in winter.
This characteristic can be used to heat a building interior by promoting heat gain. A negative sign indicates that the wind speed has decreased and a positive sign indicates an increase.
For reducing solar gain during summer. This can be achieved by providing openable shutters and movable covers like curtains or venetian blinds section 3. Reflectivity could vary depending on whether the coating is on the outer or inner face of the glass Fig. Standard  recommends that in the hot and arid. Glazing of these types can reduce heat gain without obstructing viewing. They are usually used for windows which cannot be shaded externally.
Reflective glass is usually made by coating the glass with a layer of reflective material or low emittance layer. The thermal transmittance U-values of some doors and windows are given in Fig. For heat insulation of exposed windows and doors. Under the initiatives of the International Energy Agency Task The target is to develop the scientific. Modern research has brought about significant developments in advanced glazing systems.
There are many approaches to advanced glazing system design. They can be used in windows. These systems fully or partially block direct sun and redirect. In case of exterior glass lamellas louvers. It may be noted that these glazings may not provide glare control even if solar gain is reduced. These have high transmittance at low angles of incidence and much lower transmittance at slightly higher angles of incidence compared to normal glazing.
A basic explanation of energy-efficient glazing has recently been reported by Bandyopadhyay . Variations on this theme include between-pane louvers. Commercial systems now exist for a few cases and are being developed for the remaining ones. The glazing admits as much daylight as possible while preventing transmission of as much solar heat as possible.
Spectrally selective glazings can be combined with other absorbing and reflecting glazings to provide a whole range of sun control performance. A few of the advanced glazing systems are discussed briefly. Spectrally selective glazings offer a number of advantages such as: These include smart windows. The spectral selectivity is achieved by a microscopically thin. In response to changes in the ambient temperature. Conventional louvered or venetian blind systems enable users or an automated control system to tailor the adjusted angle of blockage according to solar position.
The glass may be programmed to absorb only part of the light spectrum. It consists of a ceramic coating. This causes the assembly to change color. When a low voltage is applied across the conductors. Frit is the most common angle-selective coating. Visual transparency can also be controlled by applying frit to both sides of the glass to make it appear transparent in some angles and opaque in others. The outer two layers of the assembly are transparent electronic conductors.
Angle-selective materials can be thought of as a series of fins or overhangs within a piece of glass. In addition to automatically changing from clear to diffuse in response to heat. The pattern used controls the light based on its angle of incidence.
As one cannot see through the window once it loses its transparency. Thermochromic windows Thermochromic windows alter their properties due to heat.
The colour of frit controls reflection or absorption. The next one is a counter-electrode layer and an electrochromic layer. When the voltage is reversed. This is achieved by incorporating a chromogenic material in the window. The windows operate on a very low voltage -. As the terms suggest. Among the thermochromic technologies. Electrochromic windows An electrochromic window is a thin. This property can reduce air conditioning costs significantly when the outside is quite hot.
It is seen that in all cities. They offer the next major step in windows that are increasingly sophisticated and energy efficient. They work well to reduce glare. Dark colours absorb more radiation. Nagpur and Pune is given in Table 3. An example of the effect of the colour of external surfaces in the four cities of Ahmadabad.
Photochromic windows are still in the development stage and are yet to be tested successfully on a large-scale and commercial level. Smart windows hold promise for reducing energy demands and cutting air conditioning and heating loads in the future.
Emissivity White painted surface 0. A smooth and light-coloured surface reflects more heat and light. This is because the amount of light that strikes a window does not necessarily correspond to the amount of solar heat a window absorbs. Photochromic windows Photochromic windows respond to changes in light.
H Y25 H Y White or lighter shades have higher solar reflectivity and therefore are ideally used for reducing heat gain in warmer climates.
E External colour and texture The nature of the external surface finish determines the amount of heat absorbed or reflected by it. In this technique. The main requirements of a direct gain system are large glazed windows to receive maximum solar radiation and thermal storage mass. This also prevents overheating of the room. Suitable overhangs for shading and openable windows for ventilation must be provided to avoid overheating in the summer. Clerestories and skylights may also be used to gain heat.
A schematic diagram showing the components of direct gain system is given in Fig. The stored heat is released at night when it is needed most for space heating.
Reflectors may be provided outside windows to increase the efficiency of the direct gain system. During the day. The sunlight heats the walls and floors. It is the simplest approach and is therefore widely used. USA can maintain an indoor temperature of about 15oC as compared to an outside temperature of —1.
Thus a direct gain system has the following components: Carpets and curtains should not be used to cover floors and walls used as storage mass because they impede the heat flow rate. Direct gain is the most common. Glazed windows The principal function of a glazed window in a direct gain approach is to admit and trap solar energy so that it can be absorbed and stored by elements within the space.
It is seen that a significant reduction in heat loss can be achieved by using double glazing. Large expanses of south-facing windows used for heating in direct gain applications can. A slight east-of-south orientation may be desirable to allow the sun to penetrate the living space in the mornings. Triple glazing may be provided in places that experience severe winters. For information about our other product divisions, see www.
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